What is Scientific Racism? | The History of Hate


Oh yeah, this one is gonna make me popular. So yeah, there was a time where racism was
not only mainstream but scientifically approved. We had top scientists in their fields writing
long diatribes about “race science” all of which turned out to be… well, racist
conjecture. And while we put it in the realm of goofy
Victorian ideas, it still affects today, and we still have best selling authors spouting
the same thoughts. Not to mention, the facts aside, self-described
sceptics and rationals on the internet and the comments of this video dig up these long-dead
ideas. I’ve rambled long enough, this is the scientific
racism video. Hi, I’m Tristan Johnson, and this is Step
Back History. Be sure to click the subscribe button as well
as the bell notification to never miss a new Step Back video or live stream. Scientific racism is pretty much what it says
on the tin. It was and is the use of various forms of
pseudoscience to “prove” race is a biological fact of humanity. For a long time, scientists made the argument
different races were literally different species. This concept of race was the prevailing scientific
consensus for centuries. It began to decline when conjecture was no
longer form of evidence. By the way, there’s going to be a lot of
preposterously racist theories described in this video. They have zero merits, but they most definitely
can be distressing to hear about as these ideas, while ridiculous and wrong are still
popular in some circles. The origins of scientific racism go all the
way back to some classical age thinkers. In the Greco-Roman tradition, you had Hippocrates
writing about dark people being cowards and light people being courageous fighters. Roman writers like Posidonius used to refer
to “those races nearest to the southern half of the axis” as not having enough blood,
making them have features different from them. This was pretty much the extent of it before
the age of enlightenment. Remember how you used to like JK Rowling before
you found out she has a twitter? Well, if your JK Rowling is Enlightenment
philosophers, you might wanna turn off now. Voltaire, like THE Voltaire, believed different
races developed independently of each other. Apparently being the enlightenment version
of an edgy atheist because this broke with church doctrine about Adam and Eve and such. In his book Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus,
the founder of modern-day taxonomy outlined five “varieties of humanity” as a sort
of sub-species list. Immanuel Kant waxed lyrical about his ideas
about what races were good and bad based on stereotypes while claiming it to be reasoned
philosophy. And Benjamin Rush, the founding father thought
being non-white was a disease. However, scientific racism hit its zenith
in the Victorian era. Developing scientific theories meshed with
presupposed conclusions about race, to result in some of the weirdest concepts ever called
legitimate, accepted scientific fact. Especially if they could use it to defend
slavery or colonisation. The first big debate in the old-timey race
science circles that thankfully doesn’t exist today (until someone links me to someone
who really does believe it of course) is whether or not different races are the same species. Yes, until recently, some even in the 20th
century, people denied all Humans are of the same lineage. They called it Polygenism and many enlightenment
thinkers debated over this. It was really just debates using conjecture
and assumed stereotypes so you can imagine how productive it went. These were debates which came more down to
whether not being white was because they were a different species, or because they had a
skin condition where a mole covered their entire body. We’re working with this kinda stuff. Another theory had to do with skull shape. You can find this in various scientific journals
of the period. Long descriptions about how every person’s
skull from this region has these features and that features which somehow made them
less than white people. They even used this to try and claim southern
European or Irish people were somehow not white. This developed into a prominent scientific
Victorian science called phrenology which… Oh… well, then please go on
Well, I guess you should click on the thingy and go see Xander’s video all about it then
on ARTExplains. He can have the fun, kooky Victorian science
and I can keep covering the grim discussion of people with horrible worldviews. The analytics say you folks love that stuff…
sigh… Another prominent word from these long-discredited
race scientists and modern day comment sections is the term degeneracy. Go look at the comments, I’m sure you’ll
find it. A French naturalist named Georges-Louis Leclerc,
Comte de Buffon and German anatomist Johann Blumbach showed off their Buffonery with their
own racial theories. They believed humans were of a single stock,
which is at least one small relief, but from the Caucasian Adam and Eve…sigh… they
“degenerated” from different environmental factors such as too much sun or bad food. They believed if you changed your diet and
went to a new climate you could turn back into a proper white person… this is genuinely
distressing stuff to read my dudes. And now we must get to Darwin. Charles Darwin was undoubtedly a massive shaker
in the field of biology, spearheading the theory of evolution via natural selection. He’s often quote-mined by creationists because
he used the word race and species rather fluidly, as was a concept at the time. So he referred to the preservation of favoured
races in the struggle for life. He was referencing different types of broccoli,
but people either attributed human races to this, to attack Darwin or promote racist ideas. In his book The Descent of Man, he does talk
about the savage races as being exterminated by the “civilised ones” but not as an
aspirational statement. It was simply something he was observing as
those “civilised” Europeans were brutally conquering and subjugating people around the
world. Once Darwinism became more of a standard scientific
theory they began to claim different races as more or less evolved from our primate ancestors. You can probably guess where this is going. Some doctors like Franz Ignaz Pruner claimed
through looking at skulls and thinking about it, that black people were naturally closer
to apes… sigh… They also used this to make the Irish into
a non-white race. Independent of Darwin, the idea began to pick
up of using the concept of the struggle of life and natural selection to develop it to
refer to groups of people. We call this Social Darwinism, and coupled
with the concept of nations, builds an ideology around different for survival. You know, the ideology behind the Nazis. So why was this so prevalent? If race science and scientific racism had
no basis in reality, why was it so popular? Well, it had to do with the cultures which
developed it. See Europe had been through this centuries-long
project of looking at other people’s lands, saying it’s their’s and either subjugating,
enslaving, or eradicating the people who lived there. You know, as civilised people do. Humans don’t typically think its ok to do
such horrible acts of violence to their fellow humans, so they constructed elaborate justifications
for it. Early on, it was about civilising them or
bringing Christianity, but as it turned more into straight up murder and conquest, they
needed a better justification. Science was a way to do it. And do it they did. Scientific racism justified the genocide of
the first nations of the Americas and apartheid in South Africa. When they weren’t conquering, a lot of Europeans
were busy keeping people in slavery based on racial categories. If race isn’t biological and you believe
in equality and liberty, and all those ideals enlightenment people believed in, you needed
a way to justify keeping an entire group of people in chains. So, wrapping up a nonsensical science to do
so was the easy answer. Race science became prominent in the United
States primarily for justifying why black people just weren’t capable of handling
freedom, and their skin colour made them docile and happy to work as slaves. One such book in 1851 by Samuel Cartwright
was called “Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro race” which was popular among
slave owners. It argued black people were mentally unfit
for self-determination and the only black people seeking freedom suffered from a disease
he pulled out of his ass called drapetomania. He believed it was a mental illness that made
black people want to escape from slavery. And this might sound like crazy Victorian
stuff, but this is the root why assertiveness in black people is considered crazy and dangerous,
while the same behaviour in white people makes them commanding and leaders. He also argued black people don’t experience
much pain compared to white people, legitimising their rough treatment. This still comes to haunt us in how black
people experience pain and pain management in hospitals to this day. It wasn’t until the mid-20th century this
race science was formally dismissed on the world stage, so there was still plenty of
more brutality based on pseudoscience to come. One person you might have heard about is Francis
Galton and the concept of eugenics. He argued we needed to prevent race mixing,
and sterilise people undesirable to strengthen the species. This is the same Francis Galton who invented
regression towards the mean. Eugenics was another pillar of the Nazi project
of extermination, but eugenics societies were all over the west, and popular. Doctors sterilised untold amounts of people
under the justification of improving the gene stock. Sometimes they called this… ugh… racial
hygiene. But this is the subject of a future patreon
stretch goal video. These concepts of race were essential to nationalists,
who wanted to make sure anyone different from them couldn’t live close by. They used eugenics and racial theories to
justify shutting down immigration from non-European countries. Maybe even calling them shithole countries
sometimes. The decline of this phase of our scientific
history was in the wake of the Second World War. Seeing the atrocities the Nazis conducted
in the name of nationalism, racial hygiene, and eugenics made everyone do a bit of a double
take. Groups like UNESCO tried to interrogate what
the real science was behind race and came up quite empty. After the Second World War, scientists became
slowly more sceptical of their assumptions. We tested the human genome and found out a
lot about human genetic diversity, or precisely how it’s quite lacking. Compared to other animals, we are very genetically
similar to each other, so much so we theorise the human race almost went extinct at some
point in our distant past. We only differ by about .3% of our genetic
code on average compared to .7% of chimpanzees. Most of the genetic diversity in humans is
between different groups living in Africa. Judging how long we’ve lived in Africa,
this is not surprising. So, race is really not much of anything biologically. It’s a few small morphological adaptations
based on climate. That’s really it. Skin pigment is really just a matter of how
big a particular type of skin cell is. But race is real. It’s like the sex and gender thing. Race is the social categories we have built
around these small morphological differences, and the expectations and performances we make
in those categories. Just like how gender is the set of expectations,
and performances we build around our sex. This is what is meant by social construct
by the way. It doesn’t make it fake, it just means it’s
something we built. If we created it, then we can change it, or
destroy it if we want to and with enough effort. Race is in many ways the wounds of colonialism
our species still bears, and we can work to mend them. And scientific racism isn’t dead. Authors like Nathan Wade, Richard Herrnstein,
Charles Murray, and Amy Chua still preach racism using the trappings of scientific language. They take correlations based on socioeconomic
class and go to race as the causation. It’s been disproven time and time and time
again, but still, these books come out. Because it’s not about accuracy, it’s
about a worldview. It’s working backwards from an assumption. It’s trying to justify why different racial
groups have things so different from each other without doing introspection. This was not a fringe part of science for
a long time. It was mainstream accepted science. It was not until we interrogated our own assumptions,
and examined not only the world, but how we look at the world, and what blinders we were
wearing that we began to fix it. That interrogation is the crucial driving
force behind the postmodernist movement. Maybe that explains why the founders of postmodernism
like Michel Foucault started by trying to figure out what happened to cause the Nazi
regime. It’s why we need to examine our own assumptions
every day and listen to people whose experiences of the same material world are different from
ours. Because we’re all wearing blinders, and
the only way to make the most accurate model of how the world works is through something
scholar Elsa Barkley Brown called Gumbo Ya-ya, which is Creole for when many voices are spoken
at once. And in my mind, it’s why the humanities
aren’t just an interesting pastime. It’s crucial to understanding ourselves
and others. Ok, so my plug for this week is about the
Step Back subreddit. I’m trying to find out what to do with it,
so if you have a thought about what a good Step Back subreddit would have, leave a comment,
or better yet go to reddit.com/r/stepback and let’s build something there! This video was made possible by these great
humans, as well as the rest of my Patrons over at Patreon. I’d especially like to thank Don and Kerry
Johnson as well as Kolbeinn Mani and Garrick Kwan for their generosity. The theme song is by 12Tone and come back
next time for more Step Back.

Comments 100

  • Social constructs are fake in the sense that they are irrelevant and should not be treated as relevant.

    But they are also "not" fake in the sense that the fact that people wrongly treat them as relevant is relevant to the people thus mistreated.

  • really, had to throw "postmodernism" in there again? (in an otherwise good video)

  • Asking a question, such as whether all modern humans are the same species, wasn't wrong. Just assuming that we're the same species without evidence would've been unscientific. It turns out we are the same species, and that there's little genetic variation within that species to boot, but that would not have been obvious to an 18th century philosopher. They didn't know what DNA was, and had pretty much nothing to go by but their own eyes.

    Also, different species doesn't automatically translate to "one is superior". If Neanderthals were still around today, I'm pretty sure I'd be for them being treated as our equals, given what I know about them. They may have been less intelligent, but we don't deny someone human rights because of a low IQ score.

  • excellent work!👍
    I knew, it was a reason i subbed to this channel.

  • My sister used this shit as proof that scince as a whole, and concept is racist and there for science,a s a whole, is wrong and should be engored.

    So from what I understand the only real tangible thing "race" and ethnic make up has is medical. Such as cancer rates, and mutations, such as northern Europeans ability to process milk fats after adolescences. I also find it amusing to no end that the opposite of eugenics is the best for the human "genome health'. Because we had segregated ourselves for so long that we are mildly inbreed in many populations, and mixing genes with someone wildly genetically diverse from us, will create ridiculously healthy (and pretty) offspring.

  • I'm sighing right along with you. It doesn't go away does it? Anyway, what do you think about the term "race" itself? I heard that they have replaced it with "ethnicity" in official documents in Norway. As, like you say, small morphological differences rather than race. Semantics or relevant and important? Great videos as ever!

  • that scene in django unchained

  • “invented” “pseudoscience” “completely fake” ok bud if you want to say these things at least try to use statistics to back it up

  • Did you imply Jordan Peterson is racist? You are crazy.

  • Hey Step Back. Good vid. I think you should cut down on the groaning and sighing, however. I know the subject matter can be repugnant, but I don't really see the need to broadcast your distaste (if that was the intention) in this way. Isn't it enough just to say so? I feel like you'd gain a level in your oration skill. Just my two cents.

  • Racism is bad and these old timey illustrations are bad.

  • Did anyone else see the photo of the ayatollah in there? I swear I saw it flash about half way into the video

  • Random thing to take out of this video, but I thought I was tough voltair went back and forth on the issue of race throughout his life? Can anyone who knows more confirm this?

  • @:30 why is Sargon there? As far as I'm aware he doesn't believe this. So can someone send a link of why he might have put this face there. Thank you

  • Great content and an interesting topic, but PLEASE! Please change the expression on your animated self. You're staring at me, smiling, while your voice is clearly frustrated by act of historical figures. It's distracting dissonance.

  • Very unfair to use Pinker and Harris.

    You can't deny that there are IQ differences between groups. To deny that is anti science. The normative claims are what you should look out for and worry about.

  • 4:10 That diagram isn't what you think it is 😂

  • The ironic thing about "race scientists" is that "white peoples" as an average have both African DNA and Neanderthal DNA. DNA of a conquered peoples.

  • Woah woah woah how are Pinker and Harris using science as an accident or racism. Yea they say Islam is regressive and reprehensible but I don't see why saying such a thing is racist. Islam is not race and embraces by whites, blacks, Asians, and Semites.

    I'm not saying all Islam following people are regressive, however, their is a correlation in terrorist attacks and islamic culture. Yes it is the causation as well because many that are willing to kill others with bombs on their torso call out Allah's name. Islamic culture in the Middle East and even Britain is homophobic, transphobic and terrifying if you aren't a straight 'cis' man. As a gay man I would be terrified to even visit Dubai and thanks the most 'progressive' region in the Middle East.

    Look at the polls Harris pulls where even in Turkey the majority see homosexuality as a sin that must be punished. Look at the polls in Britain that say the same. Do you think Harris and Pinker can really be accused of sighting racist studies when there are legitimate risks to women, gays, and trans people in the Middle East? If so I'm very scared of what you believe. If not why show their images when you say scientists still sight these studies to say other races are biologically inferior to whites when they never said the races but rather religions like Islam are so dangerous.

  • Rawr XD

  • This is the most, white beta male guy I've heard all day

  • I think one thing you're missing out is that before the victorian period it wasn't possible to conquer American and African territories (even with the technological superiority), but then the sudden diseases made it so.

  • what about the space race?

  • Plot twist: White people are the degenerates. (I'm white I can say that)

  • what did Steven Pinker say that was racist?

  • Comment section the final frontier. HERE I GO.

  • I don't think it's unreasonable to say "people's ancestry can inform their behaviour", I mean, I laugh and burp like my father and grandfather.

    I do, however, think it's entirely unreasonable to say, "a person's ancestry affects their innate humanity".

    I wouldn't be upset or surprised to discover Greeks and Welsh have some innate differences. I would be tremendously upset to discover Greeks are more/less human than the Welsh.

    I really enjoy your content Tristan, but I really dislike how disgusted you were in this video. These are people raised in a different time and cultural context than you and I. They didn't have the luxury of the Human Genome Project to inform their "science".

    These "scientists" should be judged by the cultural context of their time and place, not our cultural context.

    Can we fairly condemn an eugenicist who was working in good faith based on the best information of their time? I don't think so.

  • Not surprised, but I am disappointed. b

  • i was a part of the early youtube atheism thing and i have no idea what happened. I apologize on behalf of the rest of us.

  • I understand that the enlightenment philosophers has theories on race that are morally reprehensible. But let's keep in mind that we are talking about people who didn't know any better. Unlike the people pushing these racial theories today who should and probably do know better but they're cynical and I guess making good money.

  • Nice mic quality, and I'm glad the animation is back. Good video.

  • 5:37 why is there a random pic of what looks like the ayatollah?

  • As an anthropologist I have to point out that showing Murray's book and showing Harris' face is in line with cultural Darwinism is intellectually dishonest. Murray actually showed there was an mean IQ differential between culture and "racial" groups. Harris went on to state emphatically, that just because Murray showed this in data, it isn't appropriate to use as any sort of application, since variance among same culture groups is larger than the variance between different groups.

    I may be misunderstanding why you lead with them, but I felt it necessary to point it out.

  • The contemporary scientific definition of a species (which, incidentally, the person who made the video *NEGLECTED TO DEFINE*) is:
    "a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding"

    So no, races are not species, but the creator of the video could have been more helpful in pointing out what a species IS to demonstrate why that claim can be considered wrong, instead of engaging in a passive aggressive "yeah i know, right?" tone of voice

    There's a big difference between "race is a biological fact of humanity" and "different races are different species". Different species aren't capable of interbreeding; that's what makes the definition of a species, so no; different races *are not different species*, but traits associated with certain large populations are heritable (including illnesses, skin colour, bone structure etc), so "race" can potentially be a useful term for defining these biological differences, even in this day and age. We don't live in the 1800s any more by the way.

  • LOBSTERS

  • So, obviously there are no different species of humans. But what's the deal with ethnicities? Will you make a video about that someday?

  • There are people who aren't aware that most 18th century intellectuals were monstrously racist?

  • It's good to see the animations back again! 😀

  • Good grief, some of these people couldn't get the facial structure of an orangutan even half right …

  • "oh yeah, this one is gonna make me popular" haha! If it isn't controversial, it's not worth the trouble….. Another great video Tristan!

  • Dude why do you have a picture of Pinker in a video on scientific racism? Unless there's something new I'm not aware of this is very dishonest and I've lost respect for you.

  • Gotta love good ol' Hamitic theory. If you find civilization in Africa, it was built by darkened caucasoids!!!

  • 2:37 SWTOR ! instantly subbed haha

  • Every time I think, 'man, when I start my history channel I'd love to do a topic on this' up pops a Step Back video.

  • Yeah rafe hustler idiots like steve molanfool and jar head taylor still peddle that shit.dude if you haven't seen it yet , check out the debate between frances cress welsing and William shocklee. She was said to debate tr e Charles Murray but he chickened out

  • I can't remember how far back but supposedly we had a massive die off were they theorize that only 5,000 humans were left and all in Africa

  • To those talking about BIGGER brains and Europeans having bigger brains and skulls…… Tell that to the Neanderthal, he had the BIGGEST brain and skull, but guess what, that didn't help him that much cuz guess what……… he's extinct.

    Having high technology and such is awesome but if you have no connection or are disconnected from nature then what good is your technology??? This type of mindset will be here today but gone and forgotten tomorrow and those who are better connected to nature, the planet, and spirituality(spiritual technology)will survive in the end.

  • "IQ"….
    Jerry V.S. Lee V.S. Mike Jason comes from an upper middle class family from the burbs. His family has done ok in society, his parents worked hard to get where they are. Jason does ok in school he's fairly smart but is not brilliant or anything near genius. Jason always talks to his uncle Ted when he gets a slump because Ted is scholastically and financial successful, more than Jason's dad. Jason does well in school and scores descent to high on tests. Jason becomes successful and becomes a mentor for his nephew Hunter. Jason represents many people of his category, a certain class of people.

    Lee comes from a family that is HIGHLY "disciplined" but had POOR beginnings. His family works hard and pushes him VERY hard to study and succeed. Lee is above average because his grandparents were highly disciplined and studied a lot, which has parents now implement. Because of the pressure of "discipline" and priority of scholastic education, Lee scores high on his tests and so does his children due to him passing on this disciplined mindset. Lee does the same to his children making them very disciplined and they follow in his footsteps. Lee represents a certain mindset and class of people.

    Mike comes from a very poor and impoverished family and neighborhood. Neither of Mike's parents have a formal education passed High School. As much as they try to encourage Mike to go to school, they can't concentrate on Mike enough because they work too much, can't dedicate time and live survival 1St situation. Mike grows up doesn't do well on SAT's or tests but Mike is able to disassemble and rebuild a car engine, guns, as well as fix computers, neither of which he had a formal education about them. Mike has no successful uncle or mentor nor disciplinary parents, no support system. Mike represents a class of people.

    Jerry and Lee score much higher on IQ tests than Mike but would need to get a formal education to do what Mike is able to do.

    Who is more intelligent?

  • You can't acknowledge Darwin's role in this and still try to white wash it.

    Francis Galton, the father of Eugenics was his first cousin, a fellow grandson of Erasmus Darwin (who Charles plagiarized) and the Darwin-Galton clan engaged in Incest out of a belief that would help them evolve faster.

  • Lol, you are an actual pleb. If you had any shred of honesty I might actually watch this. You want to be ignorant to truth, good luck…

  • so do ginger people have a soul ?

  • So yeah, fuck Sam Harris and Charles Murray. I know they always add a disclaimer that it isn't right to discriminate based on their IQ Bell Curve bullshit, they know damn well most employers or HR people who buy into this pseudo-science bullshit ARE gonna discriminate based on their theories. They just know to be quiet about it. Who knows how much damage to real lives they've caused promoting this shit.

  • How does the low genetic variations and yhe different levels of Neanderthal and Denisovan genes in people? Where does lactose tolerance fit in?

  • Why does that Globe at 7:40 look like it has a submerged Australia linking Europe and North America?

  • confirmation bias

  • nice video, but come on with the audible sighs every thirty seconds. just give the info. if it's that painful for you that you can't get through it without groaning then why are you making the vid?

  • Where my fellow "Mediterranids" at? lol This shit is basically fan-fic for pasty people.

  • Suggesting Pinker and ??? are scientific racists (without naming them!!!) discredits an otherwise very interesting presentation. I suggest you cut your "rambling" and stick to your very interesting presentation.

    My other suggestion is to include a caveat suggesting that racism (sometimes "scientific") is not ONLY white vs other races. It is also white vs white (Irish, Italians, Germans, Slavs, Arabs…Jews), black vs black (in Africa, Melanesia….), yellow vs yellow (Chinese and within, Koreans, Indians, Indonesians…). Very unfortunately, all humans appear – like many animals – racist. Culture and science sometimes fuels our innate vices but most often they help us improve civilizations and overcome the many biases the human specie.

    Racism is not only the product of white European capitalists imperialists. You do not say this but comfort those who believe this tale.

  • ???lobsters???
    profit

  • I'm purposely eating something sour while watching this so I can scowl at the subject matter… Because it sucks. Let clarify your coverage of it is great just the subject matter is upsetting yet interesting.

  • Thanks for this. It is needed. How about a history of the Empire of Mali to get the bad taste out of your mouth?

  • What is Scientific Racism? Basically white middle class people creating a spurious pseudo science to justify their racism towards Africans and Irish people and many others, and their class discrimination towards poor English. It was used as an excuse to carve up Africa, allow the Irish to starve and to ruthlessly exploit poor English people. The same things and ideas are rearing their ugly heads again, amongst some right and 'left liberal' middle class people.

  • Someone call Jared Taylor

  • Caucasians have neanderthal DNA so….

  • Dang yo…

  • Scientific racism reached extreme levels to the point I am being asked by atheists who consider themselves to be scientific racists – not to have any children. They are then advertising this scientific racism and have used vaccination programs to do that. What people should do is if they see youtubers who pose as atheists who use eugenics as an excuse to violate youtube´s comment section is to take them to court. If enough atheists become taken to court for asking people who refuse to vaccinate not to have children or to commit suicide – then the rest will keep quiet. The scariest part about scientific racism is that any religion can be used to justify it – not just that of the new atheists who hate it when people do not vaccinate – even ideas that sound totally bizarre and alien to us today like Islam – can be used to justify this kind of attitude.The reason these atheists are doing this is because they know that scientific racism is atheist. No one is talking creationism or in favor of a flat or a globe earth here. And if people know that there is a guy who is doing this to people who is living in their neighborhoods they should kick him out.Amazing video and thank you for uploading!!

  • And here come the butthurt comments….

  • Darwin was kinda sexist, but I doubt he was racist.

  • At 10:34 this guy threw shade at Donald Trump 😂😂

  • I’m scared to read the comments section 😖

  • Nice video. John Maynard Keynes was an advocate of Eugenics as well. Some reason why you didn't include him?

  • Scientific Racism is making it's rounds again thanks to Charles Murray, Sam Harris, Jordan Peterson and Stefan Molyneaux. A bunch of half-wits.

  • IQ is the 21st-century version of Phrenology. It's only a matter of time until that misguided idea is left in the ash heap of history.

  • How are we defining racism? These people have in group preference/bias I'm sure if we look at all the books that the African scientist and philosophers wrote about white people they would describe them as strange and inferior.

  • It is the skin pigmentation that changes between humans not the actual size of the skin cells

  • Well said! Solidarity Forever!

  • Racism is just another disease turning people into low IQ individuals

  • All of this is terrible it makes me feel bad 😔 about being black I know it's not real but what if people believed it

  • Pseudoscientific racism*

    FTFY

  • race is only social construct that is part of colonialism.
    sense you say that then my hold family three would prove race is a joke forced on people.
    I think ethnicity is a more logical term.
    Race like being called black, white. what does that make me?
    That is completely illogical.

  • How does it relate to a good use in 2019?

  • Darwin was a racist.

  • 00:5 FYC and how did you do this vid without mentioning The War Of The Worlds?

  • I suspect that Christianity's uncomfortableness with slavery in the post Roman era may have been part of the root of racism. St. Patrick and other early Christian thinkers wrote sermons condemning Christians enslaving Christians. This pressure lead to the modifying slavery into serfdom over most of Europe. Most Christian nations outlawed slavery by the end of the first millennium. England was late and outlawed it only in 1204. Portugal was one of the few Christian nation to retain the widespread institution of true slavery.

    When the Portuguese started the age of exploration, they discovered they could make a great deal of money from sugar. The labor involved was vicious. The Portuguese were growing their sugar on islands off the coast of Africa near the great Muslim civilizations of Mali and Ghana. Islam still allowed slavery as did most of the world. Slaves bought from these empires provided an expendable labor force for the sugar plantations. Once the Americas were discovered by Europeans, the Spanish, French, and English soon copied this business and were soon making oodles of money from slavery and sugar. From early on in this period there were moralists, mainly Christian religious teachers, trying to remind these Europeans that as Christians they really weren't supposed to enslave human, especially if they might be a chance they have converted or could be converted to Christianity. Moreover, during the whole time of the slave trade, the issue of human slavery not being technically legal in most European countries was occasionally raised. But since it was legal to enslave animals like horses and dogs if you could argue that Africans and Native Americans were more like animals than humans then you could hope to silence these protests. So it an awful way it was the truly moral stand of Christianity that it was unchristian to enslave humans that lead to some of Christianity greatest sins, the abysmal Atlantic slave trade and verilant European racism.

  • great work !

  • I can’t find the word degeneracy in the comments.

  • Keep in mind y'all, as far as biology/genetics is concerned, race does not exist. It exists as a social construct, not a genetic or biological phenomenon.

    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2018/04/race-genetics-science-africa/

  • "science justifies evil stuff"
    This is the plot of FMA, bro 😮

  • 💯💯💯

  • As an Israeli of Chinese heritage myself, I completely concur with your analysis and thoughtful unbiased explaination of this dark segment in Modern history , which Facult associated with what he called "Bio-Power".
    I am glade that more and more people of my second home in the PRC are beginning to see through cultural identification the question who can be called Chinese and who is not necessarily a person of Chinese ancestry:
    中国人被定性为“黄种人”,是种族歧视的结果

    2017-01-06第585期

    评论

    大多数中国人至今还以黄种人自居,唱着《龙的传人》中“黑眼睛黑头发黄皮肤”的歌词,只是这种认同其实完全是建立在想象的基础之上。

    在“黄祸”之说流行时,英国作家萨克斯·罗默创作了以傅满洲为主角的系列小说,将之作为“中国人奸诈取巧的绝佳象征”。图为电影中的傅满洲形象。

    在人种划分上,包括中国人在内的亚洲人属于“黄种人”或“蒙古人种”,是一个我们从小耳熟能详的“常识”。然而,很少有人知道,以上划分所依据的不是科学成果,而是政治观念。此种饱含种族歧视意味的划分方法,在19世纪末欧洲衍生出流行一时的“黄祸论”,并对东方的中、日两国产生重大影响。

    中国人最早被西方旅行家称为“白人”,后来随着种族偏见加重,变成了“黄皮肤”

    欧洲人因在中、日两国传教失败,于是不再将东亚人归为“高贵”的“白人”

    在古代西方人看来,欧洲是“被上帝祝福过的地方,是人类文明的中心”,他们白皙的肤色是同基督教信仰联系在一起的。因此,我们能看到这样一个变化:在早期中西交往中,来过东亚的西方旅行家大都将中国人的肤色记为“白色”。如16世纪初,葡萄牙药剂师多默·多列士写道,中国人“像我们一样白”,日本人“是白人,衣着考究”。进入17世纪,由于传教受阻,欧洲人对中国人、日本人的观感大变,对他们肤色的描述已不再是白色,而是多种多样的“暗色”,有棕色、红色、黄褐色,甚至黑色。

    从18世纪开始,亚洲人(尤其是东亚人)的皮肤逐渐被统一称为“黄色”,其肇始者为瑞典生物学家林奈。他在名著《自然系统》中,将亚洲人的肤色用拉丁语定义为“luridus”,一个有黄色、浅黄色,以及死亡、像幽灵一样意思的贬义词。同时在西方医学中,黄色皮肤还通常被视为黄疸病的症状。不久,德国人类学家布鲁门巴哈率先使用“黄种人”名称,且毫无科学依据地发明出一个新种族——“蒙古人种”,中国人和日本人都被归在其中。

    此后,西方人对“黄种人”或“蒙古人种”的印象趋于定型,即将其视为处于白种人和黑种人间的“中间”种族,特点为“总是处在停滞之中”,“标志着与白种人相比天生低下和能力的有限”。而在所有人种中,只有白种人是“真正勇敢、自由、慈悲和仁慈的”。①

    当“蒙古人种”成为“黄种人”的同义词,欧洲开始流行“黄祸论”

    在“黄种人”和“蒙古人种”被创造出来后,两个概念迅速结合在一起,并同匈奴人、蒙古人西侵欧洲的历史记忆相联系,发展出流行一时的“黄祸论”。近代欧洲人对“黄祸”的恐惧,主要针对日本人和中国人。当时日本通过明治维新走向富强,中国亦由洋务运动开启现代化进程,欧洲在东亚的扩张被阻碍;加之,中、日两国较大规模地向外移民,被认为挤占了白种人的生存空间,让他们感受到人口上的威胁。②

  • Pinche Yurai

  • Oh boy…this is going to be fun!!!!!

  • Didn’t the white race evolve from the Africans

  • 9:11–9:22 that explains the irrational fear whites have of black people and the entire civil rights/black power movement

  • What's up with the Ayatollah picture? At 5:37 it flashes by really quick.

  • Amazing that the so-called intelligent can be so ignorant and to think, Caucasians believe this nonsense.

  • I think races have different variations and some genetic condition such as black people adapt better to warm climates. White people get skin cancer more easier then black people. Asians are more likely to be lactose intolerant while European are more likely to not be. Outside of that though I don't think any of this determine whether any particular races are superior or inferior. There is some variations, but white supremicy and or the idea that any race is more intelligent is stupid and only gives assholes a means of feeling superior to other without having done anything. It's really a form of narcissism if anything. Most people who subscribe to this though are pretty low brow bottom of the barrel trash people themselves that need some form of way to put themselves or their group over others. Some people like to claim black people have lower IQ's on average which I think is bullshit, but even if it were true, there is more that factors into intelligence then IQ and the standardized IQ tests are not accurate at measuring IQ either because even the f someone does bad on the IQ test they can go and practice for it and score higher. The so called intelligence tests are more of a test of knowledge and education then they are intelligence or IQ. Anyway, that's my take on the race.

  • "…Its been proven time and time and time again but still…"
    The research has been mostly defunded because the subject has become taboo but I haven't seen anything disproving it. Indeed, modern equivalents are things like personalised medicine and the controversy around pharmaceuticals being tested primarily on caucasians.

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