Time Dilation – Einstein’s Theory Of Relativity Explained!


One evening in the spring of 1905 Albert Einstein, then a patent clerk in Bern, after trudging through his day’s work decided to board a tram car on his way home Einstein would often wrap up his work as soon as possible to contemplate the truths of the universe in his free time It was one of these thought experiments he devised on that tram car that revolutionized modern physics forever While receding away from the Zytglogge clock tower Einstein imagined, what would happen if the tram car were receding at the speed of light He realized that if he were to travel at 186,000 miles per second the clocks hands would appear to completely freeze At the same time Einstein knew that back at the clock tower the hands would tick along at their normal pace For Einstein time had slowed down. This thought blew his mind. Einstein concluded that the faster you move through space the slower you move through time. How is this possible? Einstein’s work was heavily influenced by two of the most iconic physicists of all time First there were the laws of motion discovered by his idol Isaac Newton and second were the laws of electromagnetism laid down by James Clerk Maxwell Newton’s laws insisted that velocities are never absolute But always relative, so that their magnitudes must be appended by the phrase “with respect to” For instance a train travels at 40 km/h with respect to someone at rest However, it only travels 20 km/h with respect to a train traveling 20 km/h in the same direction Or it travels 60 km/h with respect to another train traveling in the opposite direction at 20 km/h This is also true for the velocities of Earth, the Sun and the entire Milky Way galaxy On the other hand Maxwell found that the speed of an electromagnetic wave such as light is fixed at an exorbitant 299,792,458 m/s regardless of who observes it however Maxwell’s notion seems incompatible with Newton’s notion of relative velocities If Newton’s laws are truly universal. Why should the speed of life be an exception? This presented Einstein with a daunting dilemma This conflict between the ideas of Newton and Maxwell can be demonstrated with another of Einstein’s brilliant thought experiments Einstein imagined himself on a train platform witnessing two lightning bolts strike on either side of him Now because Einstein stands precisely in the middle of the two strikes He receives the resulting beams of light from both sides at the same time However things get more complicated when someone on a passing train views this event while whizzing past Einstein at the speed of light If the speed of light conforms to the rules of relativity, then the person on the train wouldn’t witness the lightning strike simultaneously Logically the light closer to the man on the train would reach him first A measurement of the speed of light made by both men would differ in magnitude, this would contradict an apparently fundamental truth of the universe Einstein had to make a difficult choice. Either Newton’s laws were incomplete or the speed of light was not a universal constant Einstein realized that the two notions could coexist with a small tweak in Newton’s laws To get rid of the discrepancy in the measurements Einstein suggested the time itself for the man on the train Must slow down to compensate for the decrease in speed such that the magnitude remains a constant Einstein called this absurdity “Time Dilation” and his newfound theory “Special Relativity” Newton believed the time moved unflinchingly in a single direction forward Einstein however had just realized the time stretches and contracts varying with velocity Due to its malleability time like space Deserved its own dimension in fact Einstein claimed that the two were one and the same together they formed a four-dimensional fabric or continuum called space-time upon which the mundane events of the universe would unfold Einstein Suggested that massive objects like the Sun didn’t pull bodies like earth with a mysterious Inexplicable tug, but rather curved the fabric of space-time around them Forcing earth to fall down into this steep valley A highly simplified analogy is the dip in a trampoline made by a falling bowling ball If a marble were placed on that trampoline the marble would immediately roll towards the bowling ball in the center This is also true for Earth’s gravity We are pinned to the ground because space so distorted by the Earth’s mass pushes us down from above however the slump in the fabric around Earth is not uniform and Earth’s gravity grows more intense as we move towards its center where the curvature is at a maximum Therefore like the marble on the trampoline an object that falls towards the earth accelerates as it races towards the center of the planet It falls faster when just above the surface than it does say when it is slightly above the atmosphere But hey according to special relativity the faster you move through space the slower you move through time This means that time runs slower on Earth’s surface than it does above the atmosphere Now Because different planets have different masses and thus different gravitational strengths They also accelerate objects at different rates as we have learned this means a variable passage of time This is what happens in the movie interstellar when the protagonists land on a planet in the proximity of a black hole The gravity on the planet is so severe that one hour on the surface is equivalent to seven years on earth To understand how motion affects time let’s consider the simplest timekeeping mechanism A second passes each time the photon is reflected Let’s imagine two people one in a spaceship slightly above Earth’s atmosphere and the second on top of a small hill Just above the Earth’s surface Both are watching a man fall from space towards the ground Let’s say that the falling man is carrying the photon clock explained a moment ago What do each of the two men observe as the man falls past them? What they observe is eerily similar to what a stationary person would observe when watching a ball bounce in a moving train. As the man falls from space, the light in his clock would appear to move in triangles to the two observers This would mean that the light travels a longer distance consequently stretching the duration of a second It is obvious that the length of triangles the light traces and therefore the duration of a second is proportional to the velocity of the falling man When we recall that objects closer to the center of the planet fall faster We can determine the time would appear to pass slower to the man on the hill Than it does to the man in the spaceship above. Of course the difference is infinitesimal The difference between the time measured by clocks at the tops of mountains and at the surface of Earth is a matter of nanoseconds time dilation affects every clock whether it relies on basic electromagnetism or a complex combination of Electromagnetism and Newton’s laws of motion. In fact even biological processes are slowed down Yes, that’s right your head is slightly older than your feet

Comments 100

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  • Time dilation is when you have your pupils dilated and you can't tell time. See? ( ^ _ ^ )

  • If he moved at the speed of light, the clock tower would disappear because the photons would never reach his eyes.

  • Einstein travelled home by tram,
    That's all I understood..

  • If time travel possible why we won't meet 👽 still now

  • I actually get this I wanna know moreee

  • The faster you move, the slower the time. So if you wanna appreciate times, act fast and be fast all the time

  • "Your head is slightly older than your feet."
    Unless you're Australian.

    I'll see myself out. I know that that was wrong.

  • Time and space are illusions

  • can anyone help me?? why does the person on the train observes the lightning at two different times? i've been trying to imagine it but i just can't understand it

  • What a bunch of nonsense.

  • Came here to have my mind fucking exploded, I am successful.

  • Wow

  • This video states that if we move at speed if light, time slows down, so according to einstein we are experiencing the fasting time 🕒 and if we move at a negative speed time should be speeded up, but negative speed is deceleration.

  • So it’s all BS. Just because to the eye it looks like time is moving slower doesn’t mean that it does. I’m way smarter than Einstein.

  • Interesting and it appears on the rotating green map of the world that the UK has not only Brexited but Earthxited too…mmm

  • @Science ABC is it Ok if I use your video and make Croatian voice over?

  • Utter nonsense!

  • Not true there's no limit to a light constantly on it can travel fast or faster

  • I tot Time dilation is
    when someone borrow your money and say I'll give it back later. That period of later is indefinable.

  • I never knew Einstein was in Interstellar

  • I’m 14 and I understood everything and I even knew what time dilation is before watching this video

    What’s wrong with me
    I’m such a nerd

  • Einstein misguided us!!!
    I won't tell you how, Untill I write my own paper on it and get it verified for the copyright 👍

  • I cant understand the theory of relativilty… if someone could travel in the speed of light and I told him to go back in forth in the speed of light for 10 seconds it would still be considered 10 seconds of his speed of light time and 10 seconds of my normal time, so how the hell would he be younger than me???? Time is time whether you move freaking fast or not 10 seconds is 10 seconds right?? If light travel from the sun travels 8 minutes to reach earth then someone who travels in the speed of light were asked to go travel around the space for 8 minutes and I timed him on my watch he will not return in 1 seconds right??? He will be returning in 8 minutes!! He just move so fast he was able to cover so much distance in 8 minutes of OUR time(meant him and me) so what the hell is going on with Albert einstein?? Dont show me some freaking physics mathematical solution here, let's talk for real.

  • I don't understand. We are basing time on our measurement of our planets rotation on our axis and revolutions around the sun. If Einstein is moving away from the clocktower at the speed of light and sees the clock stand still, time isn't standing still at all. His body is still ageing at the same rate as normal. It's just the reflection of light off the clock is getting to his eyes slower. Time itself never changed.

  • What if you dont pass trough time but time passes trough u at the speed of light in every direction

  • Nicola Tesla called Einstein "a fuzzy haired crackpot". I totally agree, general relativity never has and never will make any sense, it is based on wrong assumptions and bad maths and has no practical use in the universe. Einstein indeed was just another jewish idiot.

  • Am here after watching Flash on Netflix,I was intrigued

  • If only you could see things move through space and time as light reflects off of it based on how it moves through the plane.

  • It might also be concluded that people who travel a lot r more younger than those who travel less or not at all?

  • Did anyone else have to keep rewinding because they were lost or am I the only idiot here?

  • I do believe this but something beyond my limited understanding of this bothers me, if 2 lightning bolts both strike at the same time, and i wiz past at the speed of light, nothing stopped the lightning from happening at the same time i just see it differently due to the speed, but why would me seeing something mean that time itself is effected? surely it just means what i observed was altered due to speed, but only what i observed not an actually physical change, like the 7 years per 1 day theory from interstellar? If i traveled to the edge of the solar system at the speed of light, then back to earth, why would time for me slow down just because what im observing changes?

  • I thought it was well explained and I understood it perfectly. My IQ is 95.

  • Would the hands on the clock appear fixed simply because you are keeping pace with the light that reflects of them.
    And would you even be able to see the hands. If you're travelling at the same speed as the light then it won't be hitting the back of your eye.

  • 0:50 it would APPEAR to not move, reality is objective, your experiences are subjective, just because it APPEARS to not move, doesnt mean that it really ISNT moving, and vice versa.

  • 2:45 thats not the VELOCITY of light, thats the SPEED of light, speed does not require direction and also doesnt require relativity

  • 4:30 this would mean us conscious beings exist in different moments in time, which means that there are an infinite amount of us thinkers that experience consciousness in the universe, which would mean that i am not an individual

  • 4:50 this would mean that reality is not objective, but subjective, it happens and unfolds in certain ways depending on how the viewer views is / experiences it, which is absurd

  • 5:10 you are using gravity in your own definition of gravity, which is illegal

  • 1:07 is the speed of space consumption implying increased density in that space. Meaning theres increased activity at a speed that requires intervention if hidden from the eye. The clock measures durations of values with respect to those values realities. The clock itself is physically on a duration of either how long it will last there being subject to realities/values of fixed movements and a placed object or it being removed. So as long as it is there it will measure durations of realities/values that are appreciated but temporary because those physical realities/values will wear out, damage or get removed like the buildings in the background. A fixed reality/value is when the clock has no choice but to tick clockwise at the efficiency it was built at and can not tick backwards unless something happens to whoever made a temporary reality for us to live in and believe that we have fixed durations of life in these conditioned realities/values that we're believing is normal life.

  • still don't get it

  • I watched this video to figure out what relativity is and well… I knew that my head is older then my feet before this

  • อีเทอร์ คือเส้นแรงแม่เหล็ก มีทั้งของ โลก และ อะไรไม่รู้ อาจจะเป็น ของทุกตัวรวมกัน
    ดาวศุกร์ + ดาวอังคาร เป็นเส้นแรงแม่เหล็กที่เป็นพื้น ให้ สนามแม่เหล็กของโลก มาผลักกันให้โลกหมุน

  • Very nice video i understood all about this theory…..thanks for making such kinds of videos…

  • Well I Thing That It Is Relate-able With The Point That Once When I Fell While Playing Football I Was Moving Through Space And I Felt As If The Time Had Slow Down. Either It Could Have Been Because When I Was Falling My Brain Worked Faster So The Time Slowed Down Or IT Is Related To The Theory.

    Let Me Know If Something Like This Ever Happened To You.

  • In theory we can time travel right?

  • 1 hour on the surface of the planet near black hole is equivalent to 7 years on earth, but, does the experience feels the same? Like does everything u do go in slow motion? Because I was thinking if it comes out to be true, then u r literally slowing down aging process, and the aging process is not determined by time, instead, it’s the dividing of cells, and all I can think is there must be something we don’t understand yet in the process. Or maybe only works theoretically but in reality it’s impossible to really experience it maybe due to the fact that under such an immense gravity force, we would get crushed instantly. If it comes out to be true that we can experience it and survives from it, then it’s like finding a “bug in the game” or a “glitch in the matrix”.

  • time dilation is weird and not possible. travelling in lighspeed to a place far away and comeback does not make your time slow, it just mean you are able to go to places faster. if you and your friend put on a stopwatch on earth, and then you are leaving for millions of km from earthh and return, you and your friends will still ticking the same amount of time on the stopwatch.

  • now explain it to me as if i was a four year old. – Micheal Scott

  • Listen einstein was a genius dont get me wrong. But how does his imagining someone on a train moving at the speed of light? As two lightning bolts strike at his side have anything to do with this? I dont get how its relevant the person on the train wouldnt see anything during travel at light speed…

  • The theory is correct it practice it doesn't work that way, it's not as in a real of film or a analogue clock, it's registered or stored? More digitally….so in practice one could jump or go directly to a time or event rather the travel progressively to it.

  • "Your head is slightly older than your feet!"

  • And I thought time is something that makes the hands of my clock move……or something that just passes by but now they made me realize that it is a blanket😝😜

  • But a marble does not rotate around the mass in any situation….?

  • Mind blown

  • Huh????????
    ……. I think I understand LESS now, then I did before watching this video

  • The faster you move through space, the slower you move through time from a point of reference!

  • Albert Enistine

  • why would the clock hands appear to stop moving if he was moving at the speed of light?

  • Light has a speed limit? What is limiting light from travelling faster then that limit?

  • 5:00 not possible that's putting the Earth and space in two dimensions.

  • Soo stupid question… I get that if you move away from a clock tower closer to the speed of light, time would seem to slow down. Imagine there was another clock on the other end of the direction he’s traveling. That clock would seem to move faster which would suggest time is speeding up. What’s really happening? I’m sure I’m not the first to ask this question…

  • Hmmm… I just smelled my feet and I’m pretty sure they’re older than my head.

  • This comment section is Pure Gold.

  • So short people are slightly younger than people who are born at the same time but taller?

  • Channel is called science ABC, doesn't use the international standard system of units 🤷🏻‍♂️

  • Theory is illogical, I hope scientists will soon realise their mistake.

  • My mind tries to tell my I'm old, but I am also young at heart.

  • this fools just mind fucking yal

  • Time travel is possible!..

    See.. now you are in the future!

    Your even further in the future!!

    Wow! You might as well be at least 5 seconds in the future from when you started reading this comment!!

  • Legend says the man is still fallong

  • I watched this video is 2x speed.
    I understand what is time dilation

  • the explanation at the very end it very poor in my opinion, other then that great video

  • this will only happen if you watch a clock tower, what if a watch on your wrest??? when you come come back to tower time will be the same

  • wait are you actually supposed to understand most of this? jesus christ

  • So I traveled twice the speed limit to slow down time to get to work on time. It did not work the ticket I got from the police pulling me over made me late and wasted 6 hours in court. I call BS.

  • I am ashamed of the things i ponder when i find out there was guys who used to think this deep on a public train.

  • wait, if the faster you move through space… the slower you move through time.. which i get. Why is it that when you are in outer space you allegedly age less rapidly? Wouldn't it be the inverse…? or is it that you are closer to the sun… so you actually are whipping around the earth even faster than you would if you were in the atmosphere.?

  • "Your head is slightly older than your feet"
    Isn't the opposite true? The head travels around the center of earth at a higher speed than the feet,
    because of the slightly bigger orbit. Higher speed = more time dilation relative to the feet.

  • Makes no sense to me, there is no time dilation. There is zero proof. Those nano second differences could come from many factors.

  • See but theres one thing that scientists have learned is that light technically doesnt move its stays in one place we see it move due to its reflections. From now on we will refer to light as event. if the event goes into let's say a black hole we can see it move but when but when the event goes into the black hole it's time slowly comes to a stop and if we were to watch this event get pulled into the black hole the closer it gets to the event horizon the slower it's time gets and once it passes the event horizon we can't see it anymore becuase pass the event horizon there is no time

  • awe EINSTEIN WAS AWESOME PERSON RIP

  • YES TIME AND RELATIVITY E=MC2

  • TIME TRAVELING

  • I LIKE TO LEARN

  • GOD LORD CREATOR MADE EVERY THING SO PERFECT

  • TIME WE ALL GETTING OLDER EVERY SECOND

  • i lost it when he said my head is older than my feet.

  • Olinto De Pretto was a great genius. Einstain was a great eagle eye writer.

  • If you were traveling faster than the speed of light away from the clock tower you wouldn't be able to see it because the light carrying the image would never reach your eye. You would see nothing. In fact if you were traveling faster than light you would not see anything at all because the light would never reach your eyes.

  • Has brexit got anything to do with this ?

  • Motion affects time!👏👏👏👏

  • The speed of light is so much that when we imagine these types of experiments , we don't observe the difference.

  • The tram one doesn't make sense. Nothing's slowing down. It's just that the light can't reach his eyes so he can't see the time.

  • time doesn't exist its an illusion we made it up to better manage our lives, the only known constant is causality cause and effect.. we are born to live and live to die.. like this idea of time travel is fundamentally flawed time doesn't exist lol but if their are infinite universes and realities with every point in our lives happening over and over how do we begin to even comprehend that with our lizard brains.. we cant not yet we see it as a blurry painting in a sea of fog, their is something their for sure but i doubt were going to clearly see the painting any "time" soon lol

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