The War of 1812 – Crash Course US History #11

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course US History and today we’re going to talk about what America’s best at: War. [Patriotic Rock Music] Uh, Mr. Green, the United States has actually only declared war 5 times in the last 230 years. Oh me from the the past, you sniveling literalist. Well today we’re going to talk about America’s first declared war, The War of 1812, so called because historians are terrible at naming things. I mean the could have called it The Revolutionary War: Part Deux, or The Canadian Cataclysm, or The War to Facilitate Future Wars. But no, they just named it after
the year it started. [Theme Music] I know this disappoints the military historians among you, but as usual, we’re gonna spend more time talking about the causes and effects of the war than the actual, like, killing parts, because ultimately it’s the ambiguity
of The War of 1812 that makes it so interesting. The reason most often given for The War of 1812 was the British impressment of American sailors, whereby American sailors would be kidnapped and basically forced into British servitude. This disrupted American shipping and also seems like a reasonably obvious violation of American sovereignty, but it’s a little more complicated than that. First of all, there were many thousands of British sailors working aboard American ships so many of the sailors that the British captured were in fact British. Which gets to the large point that citizenship at the time was a pretty slippery concept especially on the high seas. Like, papers were often forged, and many sailors identified supposed American-ness through tattoos of like eagles and flags. And there were several reasons why a British sailor might like to become, or pretend to be, an American, including that the Brits at the time were fighting Napoleon in what historians, in their infinite creativity, called The Napoleonic Wars. And on that topic, Britain’s impressment policy allowed them both to disrupt American shipping to France and get new British sailors to strengthen their war effort, which was annoying to the Americans on a couple
levels especially the French-loving Republicans, which is a phrase that you don’t hear very
often anymore. Another reason often given for the war, was
America’s crazy conspiratorial Anglophobia. There was even a widespread rumor that British agents were buying up Connecticut sheep in order to sabotage the textile industry, lest you worry that America’s fascination with conspiracy theories is new. So those pushing for war were known as war hawks, and the most famous among them was Kentucky’s Henry Clay. They took the impressment of sailors as an affront to American national honor, but they also complained that Britain’s actions were an affront to free trade, by which they meant America’s ability to trade with Europeans other than Great Britain. And to be fair, the British were trying to
regulate American trade. They even passed The Orders in Counsel which required American ships to dock in Britain and pay tax before trading with other European nations. Britain, we were an independent nation!
You can’t do that kind of stuff! We have a special relationship but it’s not
that special! But the problem with saying that this caused the war was that The Orders had been in effect for five years before the war started. AND they were rescinded in 1812 before the
US declared war. Although, admittedly, we didn’t know about it
because it didn’t reach us until after we declared. There was no Twitter. Another reason for the war was Canada. That’s right Canada, American’s wanted you and who can blame them we your excellent healthcare and your hockey and your first rate national anthem. Stan this is fun but enough with the #1812problems. According to the Virginia Congressman John Randolph, “Agrarian cupidity not maritime rights urges the war. We have heard but one word: Canada, Canada,
Canada.” I’m not here to criticize you John Randolph
but that’s actually three words. Now some historians disagree with this but the relentless pursuit of new land certainly fits in with the Jeffersonian model of an agrarian republic. And there’s another factor that figured into
America’s decision to go to war: expansion into territory controlled by Native
Americans. Oh, it’s time for the mystery document? The rules here are simple: I try to guess the author of the mystery document. Usually I’m wrong and I get shocked. All right, let’s see what we got here. “You want, by your distinctions of Indian tribes, in allotting to each a particular tract of land, to make them to war with each other. You never see an Indian come and endeavor
to make the white people do so.” It’s Tecumseh.
Drop the mic… [dinging noise] is something that I would do except that the mic is actually attached to my shirt so there’s n– there’s no drama in this. Clearly a Native American criticism of white people, and I happen to know that that particular one comes from Tecumseh and I don’t get shocked today. So it shouldn’t come as a surprise that Americans were continuing to push westward into territories where Indians were living. I mean, this was a big reason for the Louisiana
Purchase after all. By the beginning of the war, more than 400,000 settlers had moved into territories west of the original 13 colonies and they outnumbered American Indians by a significant margin. Some native groups responded with a measure
of assimilation. Cherokees like John Ross wanted to become
more “civilized”, that is, more white and farmer-y. And some of them did even adopt such civilized practices as written languages and slavery, the most civilized practice of all. [sigh] People are always like, “Why aren’t
you more celebratory of American History?” Well, why isn’t there more to celebrate? But other Indians wanted to resist. The best known of these were the aforementioned
Tecumseh and his brother Tensk – Stan, can you just put it on the screen? [Tenskwatawa on screen] Yes.
Let’s just enjoy looking at that. Right, that’s just for all you visual learners. So he was also known as The Prophet, because of his religious teachings, and also because of the pronunciation issues. The Prophet encouraged Indians, especially those living in and around the settlement of Prophetstown, to abandon the ways of the whites, primarily in the form of alcohol and manufactured consumer goods. So stop drinking alcohol and eating refined
sugars – this guy sounds like my doctor! Tecumseh was more militant; attempting to revive Neolin’s idea of pan-Indianism and actively resisting white settlement. As he put it, “Sell a country, why not sell
the air, the great sea, as well as the Earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for
the use of his children?” The Americans responded to this reasonable
criticism in the traditional manner – with guns. William Henry Harrison destroyed the native settlement at Prophetstown in what would become known as the Battle of Tippecanoe. He would later ride that fame all the way to the
presidency in 1840 and then – SPOILER ALERT: He would give the longest inauguration address
ever, catch a cold, and die 40 days later. Let that be a lesson to you, American
politicians: Long speeches? Fatal! So I just painted a pretty negative picture of the American treatment of the Indians – because it was awful. But I haven’t mentioned how this relates to
the War of 1812. The Americans were receiving reports that the British were encouraging Tecumseh, which they probably were. And the important thing to remember here is that the War of 1812, like the Seven Years War and the American Revolution was also a war against Indians. And as in those other two wars, the Indians
were the biggest losers. And not in the cool way of biggest loser where, like, Trainer Bob helps you lose weight, but in the really sad way, where your entire civilization gets John C. Calhouned. So the War of 1812 was the first time that
the United States declared war on anybody. It was also the smallest margin of a declaration of war vote: 79 to 49 in the House and 19 to 13 in the Senate. Northern States, which relied on trade a lot, didn’t want to go to war, while southern and western states, which were more agrarian and wanted expansion to get land for farming and slavery, did. The closeness of the vote reflects a profound
ambivalence about the war. As Henry Adams wrote, “Many Nations have gone to war in pure gaiety of the heart, but perhaps the United States were the first to force themselves into a war they dreaded, in the hope that the war itself might create the spirit they lacked.” Don’t worry, Henry Adams! In the future we’re gonna
get pretty gaiety of heart-ish about war. Anyway, as an actual war, the War of 1812
was something of a farce. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The US army numbered 10-12 thousand and its officers were sunk into either sloth, ignorance, or habits of intemperate drinking. The US navy had 17 ships.
Great Britain had 1,000. Also, America had very little money, Britain
collected 40 times more tax revenue than the US. But Britain was busy fighting Napoleon, which is why they didn’t really start kicking America’s butt until 1814, after Napoleon was defeated. Napoleon’s defeat was also the practice of impressment, since Britain didn’t need so many sailors anymore. Initially, much of the war consisted of America’s attempts to take Canada, which any map will show you went smashingly. Americans were confident the Canadians would rush to join the US. When marching from Detroit, General
William Hull informed the Canadians that, “You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of free men.” And the Canadians were like, “Yeah, we’re
okay actually.” And so the British in Canada, with their Indian allies, went ahead and captured Detroit and then forced Hull’s surrender. America’s lack of success in Canada was primarily
attributable to terrible strategy. They might have succeeded if they’d taken Montreal, but they didn’t want to march through northern New York because it was full of Federalists who were opposed to the war. Instead they concentrated on the West, that is, the area around Detroit, where fighting went back and forth. The British found much more success, even seizing Washington DC and burning the white house. In the course of the battle, British admiral George Cockburn, overseeing the destruction of a newspaper printing house, told the forces that took the city, “Be sure that all the Cs are destroyed, so that
the rascals cannot any longer abuse my name. It’s hard out there for a Cockburn. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Given these problems it’s amazing there were
any American successes, but there were. The battleship USS Constitution broke the myth of British naval invincibility when cannonballs bounced off it and earned it the nickname “Old Ironsides”. Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a British fleet,
in, of all places, Lake Erie. At the battle of the Thames, William Harry
Harrison defeated Tecumseh. And the battle of Horseshoe Ben showed one of the reasons why Indians were defeated when Andrew Jackson played one group of Creeks against another group of Creeks and Cherokees. 800 Indians were killed in that battle. And speaking of Jackson, the most notable American victory of the war was the Battle of New Orleans, which catapulted him to prominence. He lost only 71 men while inflicting 2,036
British casualties. Of course, the most memorable thing about the battle is that it took place two weeks after the peace treaty ending the war had been signed. But hey, that’s not Jackson’s fault. Again – no twitter, #1815problems. The treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, proved just how necessary the war had been: not at all. No territory changed hands when
negotiations started. And in August 1814, the British asked for Northern Maine, demilitarization of The Great Lakes, and some territory to create an independent nation for the Indians, and the Northwest. But none of that happened, not because the U.S.
was in a particularly good negotiating position, but it would have been awkward for Great Britain to carve out pieces of the US, and then tell Russia and Prussia that they couldn’t take pieces of Europe for themselves to celebrate their victory in the Napoleonic Wars. There were no provisions in the treaty about impressment or free trade and basically the treaty returned everything to the status quo. So, neither the US or Great Britain actually
won. But the Indians suffered significant casualties
and gave up even more territory, definitely lost. So with a treaty like that, the war must have had a negligible impact on American history, right? Except, no; the war of 1812 confirmed that
the US would exist. Britain would never invade American again
(until 1961). I mean the US were good customers, and Great Britain was happy to let them trade, as long as that trade wasn’t helping a French dictator. The War launched Andrew Jackson’s career and solidified the settlement and conquest of land east of the Mississippi River. And our lack of success in Canada reinforced Canadian nationalism while also ensuring that instead of becoming one great nation, we would forever be Canada’s pants. The war also spelled the end of the Federalist Party, which tried in 1815 with the Hartford Convention to change the constitution. In retrospect, the Hartford Convention proposals
actually look pretty reasonable. They wanted to eliminate the clause wherein
black people were counted as 3/5 of a human, and require a 2/3 congressional majority
to declare war. But Because they had their convention right before Jackson’s victory at New Orleans, they only came off looking unpatriotic and out of touch, as the elite so often do. It’s hard to argue that the Americans really
won The War of 1812, but we felt like we won, and nothing unleashes national pride like
war winning. The nationalistic fervor that emerged in the early 19th century, was, like most things, good news for some and bad news for others. But what’s important to remember, regardless of whether you’re an American, is that after 1812, the United States saw itself not just as an independent nation but as a big player on the world stage. For better and for worse, that’s a gig we’ve
held onto. And no matter how you feel about America’s
international interventions, you need to remember, it didn’t begin in Afghanistan or even Europe;
it started with freakin’ Canada. Thanks for watching, I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Our show is written by my high school history
teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. Our Associate Producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Cafe. If you have questions about today’s video, you can ask them in comments, where they will be answered by our team of historians. We also accept suggestions for Libertage captions. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we
say in my hometown: Don’t Forget To Be Awesome. Goodbye! Don’t forget to subscribe!

Comments 100

  • 3:17 John RUDOLPH

  • Cute , but twaddle . Mr. Green is making secondary causes out to be the primary cause . The primary cause was the Bank of England wanted to continue to control the American Banking system , and the issuance of currency . Congress had not renewed the First Bank of the United States charter in 1811 . The Second Bank of the United States was charted in 1816 . It was about THAT . He reduces substantive documents like the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and all references to control of money to " conspiracy theory " , and tries to divert attention to make the War into a racial issue , Europeans against Native Americans . Nice " politically correct " try… but politically incorrect twaddle .

  • Canada won obviously

  • This is not history…it is someone trying to be entertaining. Not enjoyed

  • The Americans can't beat Britain while they losing to Napoleon… bruh moment

  • 7:50

  • … Where is Alaska on your globe???

  • Hearing about the Native Americans losing so badly reminds me of other natives of other lands who are losing their national pride and ways of life. Makes me feel like they should be allowed to defend their heritage and culture by any means necessary.

    I look at the statistics of the Native population in my state go from about 4.8% ten years ago to about 2.6% in my most recent memory. It isn’t ok, they don’t have to accept that kind of treatment. No one should.

  • Conflift.

  • Natives or aboriginals not Indians that doesn’t make sense

  • 1812: The War This Year

  • This tube is pure leftist propaganda. It is worse in the classroom.

  • the US lost the war with the British and we lost our constitution for a couple years!!! The proof is right there in the title of the constitution the original constitution read " The Constitution of the UNITED STATES FOR AMERICA the new one reads The Constitution of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


  • How dare you not meantion it was Jean Lafitte the Pirate who won the battle of New Orleans

  • Of it wasn't for the hickup (train your dragon) mannerisms.. this would be interesting.

  • This is lie. How was a war in process when the 1812 comet hit the earth that year….it caused so much calamity and damage….it even caused the Mississippi River to run backwards.

    History has been rewritten. That’s why the 1812 war is vague. That’s why there was no change or outcome. That’s why the dates conflict.

  • Please get to the point,where not 4 years old

  • Maybe someday America will re-invade Canada with its health insurance corporations.

  • "I should take over Canada" – US

  • There still a British puppet at the time

  • And there probably weak rn cuz lack of British support

  • If someone is getting their information from this guy, I feel sorry for you

  • How many Native American reservations have you visited?

  • Wow these YouTube clips are so informative. And also so wrong. So easy to digest from 25yo’s that learned enough from 2 weeks of Googling and put their own understanding of human nature to make a 2M viewable version of history. Life and history is not so simplistic and these people are far from accurate. 70% facts, 90% misinterpretation and falsity

  • I never learned about this war until now. I’m through high school and college

  • No Americans are OK with it because they know they won The Canadians are OK with it because they think they’ve won and the British they lost because they burn down our White House.

  • Beaver vs eagle

  • Canada does not have excellent healthcare lol They have absolutely no medical innovation. Private sector healthcare completely subsidizes there innovation. And their healthcare is not better than the United States it’s just mandated that you have it through high taxes and not everyone even gets it. .

  • The reason you only landed not water or air is because one the air up one doesn’t make any sense that’s why people don’t own it and own and water doesn’t make any sense that’s why people don’t own it and owning land make sense that’s why people on it. Reality is the argument to that moronic criticism.

  • You're so worng on this history
    That I'm rooting for the Mongols

  • It's annoying how hard you try to be funny

  • I just subscribed. Good video. I believe that one of the reasons we burned the White House was because the US burned much of York (now Toronto). Many naval battles were fought on Lake Huron and there are many wrecks on Georgian Bay. Laura Secord, is now a renowned Chocolate company who was a nurse in the war.

  • 'Murica!!!!!

  • 8:02 the US trying to bring "freedom" via a rifle to a country that doesn't want their "freedom", I feel like I've heard that story before… 😛

  • This history makes me really grateful to the British that Canada never got annexed by the US… To think that Trump would be my president right now….

  • Kids, find someone else to learn from. You will learn nothing from this self loathing clown.

  • I used to think this channel was unbiased and thennnnnn I saw the quite frankly outrageous sticker on your computer.

  • Please research Fort Mims Massacre. This crash course is lacking.

  • not the 1st declared war, but the 1st as an independent nation.
    they revolutionary war was the first (and also the first time the U.S. tried to invade Canada and was sent packin back home (1812 obviously being the second time, albeit they didn't give up as easily as the 1st time, so it took a few years longer)

    Also, you don't win a war by failing to achieve your objective.
    Canada did not fall to the invaders.
    If anything, Canada won, by repelling those same invaders.

    (maybe this is where he U.S.A. developed it's xenophobia of other cultures and peoples??)

  • the only impact the war had on U.S. history, is their refusal to teach about it in their history classes….lol

  • you look like tom brady, you are the nerd tom brady lol

  • Raoul is the only name my dog can pronounce.

  • If America knew where the oil was… they woulda attacked Alberta.

  • THE USA is not very good at war. WW2, where US generals were very amateurish resulting in horrendous casualties of their own troops, Korea, Viet Nam and Somalia. You need a reminder.

  • The Beatles into the USA was 1964.

  • Britain won the war. The USA's aims were to seize Canada. The aim of the British were to keep Canada. The British achieved their aims, the USA lost.

  • Battle of New Orleans? The last battle was around Mobile which the British won, as they were heading to wipe out the Americans.

  • Dude, this isn’t history, this is progressive historiography. It is kind of a big deal that we established ourselves as a legitimate country with the War of 1812. The South wanted to go to war to expand slavery? Seriously, dude? There you go blaming the South for everything again. You want to know who’s really culpable for slavery, Jim Crow laws, lynching, and the Ku Klux Klan? You want to know who forced the Native Americans out of their homelands? It wasn’t the South or the racist White Man, and it sure as hell wasn’t America. It was the Democrats. And it’s so sad that you let the same people who did those things teach you to hate your own country and con you into voting for them. Just so you know, the South is the least racist part of the country today. I know, I grew up there. I’d relish the chance to challenge you to a history-off one day.

  • This guy is kinda a kuck huh.

  • Honestly, it would've been nice not having a hard border between our two nations.

  • Canada = US&A lite

  • For those that don't know, the so-called "3/5th Clause" was put into the Constitution in order to LIMIT the political power of the slave owners.

  • I thought I'd give this history channel a try….no thanks. Just anti-American propaganda.

  • The War of 1812 was simply lame. US invasion of Canada was a bust. British sacked Washington but had no interest in holding it.. America's biggest victory happened after peace treaty signed. Impressment ended not because we fought effectively, but because the British no longer cared.

  • What could be worse
    1812 or Vietnam

  • Of course it doesn't have a flashy name. Historians know Americans lost, so why give it a fancy name? Name it something boring and don't let it become such a big part of our culture. It worked.

  • Want a round 3?

  • The moral of this story: No one wants Detroit lol

  • It’s impossible to follow events in a structured manner with all your activism getting in the way. Another history revisionist interpreting past events with a heavy bias based on present day politics.

  • Nothing about Queen Victoria and the 49th parallel EH? LOL

  • John Rudolph?….and then you said correctly John Randolph

  • That thing about war and Twitter: Much funnier and also totally not in 2019…

  • British invasion,was well after 61' thanks thought bubble

  • Correction in your language. The 3/5 clause was not a distinction between whites and blacks but between free and slave. "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons." To modernize that language, "the representatives shall be divided up between the states according to their relative populations. This population shall be determined by adding up the number of free persons, people bound to a term of service, Indians who pay taxes, and three fifths of all other persons."

  • Everyone is talking about how the Canadians won the war (which yeah they did) but Canada was a British colony and Britain was officially at war with the USA, (side note, it was the british that invaded and burned the American capitol Washington) so Britain won the war of 1812 too, they got their revenge from the war of independence.

  • "This machine will kill fascists"?

  • Anyone who says that the USA lost this war are lying to themselves.

  • If the US truly lost, we would of been a british colony again

  • The war of 1812 was about Americans wanting Canada 👀, we didn’t get it… so we LOST THE WAR. End of it !

  • This is the equivalent of having a bar fight then going for drinks after all the Fightings done. Every party walks away with tall tales and prized scars.

    Except the natives they lost their bar in that fight.

  • In en effort to appease angry amarica commenters this war would be vary different if it happens again. USA was not as strong as it is today well Canada had the backing of British rule and all its experience and resources.

    Today I a Canadian know USA would be a terror if turned hostile. So that is why we build our image more then our military. To us it is unnecessary for protection because if we are attacked, the invaders would have to deal with the unethical practices which would ultimately turn the country against itself.

  • Had the British conquered and kept New Orleans they’d have blocked trade out of the entire Mississippi Basin. As in controlling trade from half a continent!

  • The British were backing the natives trying to stop the Americans from taking control of the old Northwest Territory. As in the upper Midwest. Had that succeeded along with British controlling New Orleans the USA could have gone to the west coast.

  • Trump Pence 2020

  • This guys political leanings aren’t obvious at all…..


  • When do we stop calling Native Americans "Indians", because that's just wrong in so many ways. Native Americans and Immigrant Americans. That's more suitable, I figure.

  • this guy is funny

  • Pray away the clay. Lul.

  • And i feel like we're at the very least Canada's shirt. Mexico can be the pants. The hot and spicy pants region…mmmh…pants, yummy.

  • I love your videos but you seem like that kid that told the teacher that they forgot to give us homework.

  • War of independence 2 electric boogaloo

  • Maybe it was just me but I found this specific episode very funny

  • I am surprised he never mentioned Francis Scott Key writing our national anthem in Baltimore Harbor.

  • Canada has "excellent healthcare"? Sorry Mr Green but you should stick with past events not current events. Canadian doctors advise their own patients to either pay for private healthcare or go to a hospital in America, if they want better healthcare because the Canadian government literally can't pay for EVERY single person's medical bill every single time their elbow feels funny. Anyone who thinks that universal healthcare is a good idea is only because they're ignorant on how expensive a single medical bill costs

  • The British were engaged in Europe fighting Napoleon, with the War of 1812 way down the list of priorities.   Once Napoleon was beaten the Royal Navy sent fleets to Washington and New Orleans. When the American marines in Washington saw the British fleet arriving, they fled. The President barely escaped before the Shropshire Light Infantry reached the White House. The British found his dinner had been served being still hot. They ate his meal and burned the White House down. The war effectively ended on that point. The American victory at New Orleans, after peace was declared, with British troops readied for a counter-attack, was inconsequential to the peace treaty that the British awarded the USA.

    The peace treaty was very generous to the USA who could have been taken back into the British Empire. The British proposed a line was drawn between Canada and the US, with the USA given everything south of that line, even territory the British had previously claimed. The Americans agreed with the British not to cross north of the line.

    The USA shows no shame or embarrassment about abandoning the American capital, allowing the White House to be burned down. Leading American officials immediately ran to Europe seeking a peace treaty as soon as the British fleet arrived in Washington. Prior to the arrival of the fleet the USA was only fighting against the Canadian militia. The Americans could not conquer Canada even though the British were preoccupied with Napoleon in Europe.

    The USA should be embarrassed by the war of 181, by siding with Napoleon and attempting to conquer Canada. The Americans hoped that Napoleon would conquer Europe defeating the British Empire. Napoleon assured the USA that he had no desires on controlling the continent of America when he sold the territory in the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon gave all of the territories France claimed in America for near nothing. The USA would have been offered to buy Canada from Napoleon If he had conquered the British.

    America stated that American countries should not be ruled by Europeans overseas being stated in the Monroe doctrine, unable to enforce it. It was the British who enforced the Monroe doctrine for the USA. The British agreed that the USA should govern themselves. The British rewarded the USA for losing the war, not being brought back into the British empire. America has no shame. They did not have to be engaged in the wars between the British and French in Europe by fighting with Canada in America. Both colonial America and the United States fought against Canada simply because France was fighting Britain in Europe.

    Most American historians claim the war was a draw, which is ludicrous.  The USA totally failed to achieve its aims, while the British succeeded is achieving theirs.

  • you should get to the point more during your vids, and make them a bit shorter, about 5 mins shorter, or have time checks.

  • And it burned burned burned while the President ran and cried!

  • I feel like this is a complete bastardization of history. We are all now dumber for having listened to it. I award you no points and may god have mercy on your soul.

  • Do u autulay shock yourself if u guess you wrong?

  • 1812 is also the name of an excellent song. Ends with cannons being fired (only piece of music I know of that uses cannons as an instrument…). By the way, we won. Was not a tie. Don't elect Trump, or we juuuust might storm south (like I suggested last time… uhg). In return, we'll get rid of Trudeau the 2nd.

  • Canada won a war before they were a country

  • Hey Thought Bubble, the British Invasion wasn't in 1961, it was 1964.

  • To be fair, to this day American sailors still prove their citizenship through the immutable documentation media of Tattoos

  • If only he would try to talk faster, and act a little more pleased with himself

  • The battle of "tip a canoe" uhh okay.

  • 1961? The Beatles weren't well known or popular in the U.S. until 1963.

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