The Roaring 20’s: Crash Course US History #32

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course US History, and today we’re gonna learn about one of the best eras ever: the 1920s. The 20s gave us jazz, movies, radio, making out in cars, illegal liquor, and the 20s also gave us prosperity–although not for everybody– and gangsters, and a consumer culture based on credit, and lots of prejudice against immigrants, and eventually the worst economic crisis the US has ever seen. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, but what about Gatsby? Yeah, me from the past, it’s true that Gastby turned out all right in the end, but what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust trailed in the wake of his dreams, did temporarily close out my interest in the aborted sorrows and short-winded elations of men. *theme music* So there’s a stereotypical view of the 1920s as “The Roaring 20s,” a decade of exciting change and new cultural touchstones, as well as increased personal freedom and dancing. And it really was a time of increased wealth– for some people. The quote of the decade has to go to our famously taciturn president from Massachusetts,
Calvin Coolidge, who said, Jay-Z would later update this
for the 21st century noting, But anyway, during the 1920s, the
government helped business grow like gangbusters, largely by not regulating it much at all. This is known as
“laissez-faire” capitalism. Or “laissez-faire” capitalism if you’re good at speaking French. The Republican Party
dominated politics in the 1920s, with all the presidents elected in the decade being staunch conservative
Republicans. The federal government hewed to the policies favored by business lobbyists, including lower taxes on
personal income and business profits, and efforts to weaken the power of unions. Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and
Hoover stocked the boards of the Federal Reserve and the Federal Trade Commission with men who shared their
pro-business views, shifting the country away from the economic regulation that had been favored by Progressives. And that was very good for the American economy, at least in the short run. The 1920s were also marked by quite a bit of government corruption, most of which can be pinned to the administration of Warren G. Harding. Now, Harding himself wasn’t terribly corrupt, but he picked terrible friends. They included Attorney General Harry Daugherty who accepted money to not prosecute criminals, and Interior Secretary Albert fall, who took half a million dollars from private business in exchange for leases to government oil reserves at Teapot Dome. Fall later became the first cabinet member ever to be convicted of a felony, but on the other hand, business, man! Productivity rose dramatically largely because older industry’s adopted Henry Ford’s assembly line techniques and newer industries like aviation, chemicals, and electronics grew up to provide Americans with new products and new jobs. During the 1920s annual production of cars tripled to 4.8 million, and automobile companies were gradually consolidated into the big three that we know today: Ford, Chrysler, and Harley-Davidson. What? General Motors. By 1929 half of all American families owned a car and thus began the American love affair with the automobile, which is also where love affairs were often consummated, which is why in the 1920s cars came to be known as Scootaloo pooping chariots. What’s that? They were called brothels on wheels? And the economy also grew because American corporations were extending their reach overseas, and American foreign investment was greater than that of any other country. The dollar replaced the pound as the most important currency for trade and by the end of the decade America was producing eighty-five percent of the world’s cars and forty percent of its overall manufactured goods. Stan can I get a Libertage? And companies turned out all kinds of labor-saving devices like vacuum cleaners, toasters, refrigerators, and not having to spend all day washing your clothes, or turning over your own toast like some kind of common or meant that Americans had more time for leisure. And this was provided by radios and baseball games boxing matches vacations dance crazes. I mean before Gangnam style there was the windy and the Charleston but probably the most significant leisure product was movies and I’m not just saying that because I’m staring into a camera. The American film industry moved out to Hollywood before World War one because land was cheap and plentiful all that sunshine meant that you could shoot outside all year round and it was close to everything: desert, mountains, ocean, plastic surgeons. And by 1925 the American film industry had eclipsed all of its competitors and become the greatest in the world, especially if you count by volume and not quality, and more and more people had money to go see those movies thanks to consumer debt. The widespread use of credit and lay away buying plans meant that it was acceptable to go into debt to maintain what came to be seen as the American standard of living and this was a huge change in attitude. These days we don’t even think of credit cards as debt, really. But they are. And that was a relatively new idea as was another feature of American life in the 20s that is still with us: celebrity. Opera singer Enrico Caruso has often been called the first modern celebrity but now he’s a lot less famous than Charlie Chaplin or Rudolph Valentino or Babe Ruth but probably the biggest celebrity of the decade was Charles Lindbergh whose claim to fame was flying across the Atlantic Ocean by himself without stopping although he did use an airplane which makes it slightly less impressive. Now Lindbergh wasn’t a truly contemporary celebrity in the sense of being famous for being famous, but he was a business more than a businessman. High culture also flourished. This was the age of the lost generation of American writers, many of whom lived and worked in Europe but America had its own version of Paris in New York. The decade of the 1920s saw continued migration of African American people from the South to cities in the nNorth, and Harlem became the capital of Black America. And speaking of migration, let us now migrated to the chair for the Mystery Document. The rules here are simple: I guess the author of the mystery document, I’m either right or I get shocked with the shock pen. Alright let’s see we got here. “If we must die would it not be like hogs hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, while round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, making their market are a curse a lot… Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack, pressed to the wall, dying but fight back.” Stan thank you for the poetry I appreciate that it’s not some obscure document from 18th century blah blah blah It’s Claude McKay Harlem Renaissance poet, the poem is called “If We Must Die.” Ah, it’s the only thing in the world I’m actually good at. Now I know this from the imagery alone, especially the line about “mad and hungry dogs” that would figuratively and literally make up the mobs at the lynchings, but the giveaway here is the ultimate sentiment that we will fight back. This was part of the spirit of the Harlem Renaissance which rejected stereotypes and prejudice and sought to celebrate African-American experience. Meanwhile, things for changing for women as well, as they found new ways to express autonomy. Flappers kept their hair and skirts short, smoked and drank illegally in public, and availed themselves of birth control. And marketers encouraged them to buy products like cigarettes christened torches of freedom by Edward Bernays. Liberation had its limits though; most women were still expected to marry, have children, and find their freedom at home through the use of washing machines, but the picture of prosperity is as usual more complicated than it at first appears. The fact that so many Americans were going into debt in order to pursue the American dream meant that if the economy faltered, and it did, there was going to be lots of trouble. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Prosperity in the 1920s wasn’t equally distributed through the population. Real industrial wages rose by a quarter between 1922 and 1929 but corporate profits rose at twice that rate. By 1929, one percent of the nation’s banks controlled fifty percent of the nation’s financial resources and the wealthiest five percent of Americans share of national income exceeded that of the bottom sixty percent. An estimated forty percent of Americans lived in poverty. Now many Americans celebrated big business, and Wall Street was often seen as heroic possibly because by 1920 about 1.5 million Americans owned some kind of stock, but big business also meant that smaller businesses disappeared. During the 1920s the number of manufacturing workers declined by 5%, the first time this class of workers had seen its numbers drop, but not the last. Now some of these jobs were made up for by new jobs in retail finance and education, but as early as the 1920s New England was beginning to see unemployment in deindustrialization as textile companies moved their operations to the south where labor was cheaper and working-class people still made up the majority of Americans and they often couldn’t afford these newfangled devices, like in 1930, seventy-five percent of american homes didn’t have a washing machine, and only forty percent of them had a radio. Farmers were even worse off many had prospered during World War One when the government subsidized farm prices in order to keep farms producing for the war effort, but when the subsidies ended, production didn’t subside, largely due to mechanization and increased use of fertilizer. Farmers incomes dropped steadily and many saw banks foreclose upon their property. For the first time in American history the number of farms declined during the 1920s. For farmers the Great Depression began early. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So in general the federal government did little to nothing to help farmers or workers. The Supreme Court was the only segment of the government that kept any progressive ideas alive as they began to craft a system of ideas that we call the jurisprudence of civil liberties. Now the court still voted to uphold convictions of left-wing critics of the government but gradually began to embrace the idea that people had the right to express dissonant views in what Oliver Wendell Holmes called the “Marketplace of ideas.” In Near vs. Minnesota, the Supreme Court struck down censorship of newspapers and by 1927 Justice Brandeis was writing that “Freedom to think as you will and to speak as you think are indispensable to the discovery and spread of political truth.” But despite increased free speech and torches of liberty and flappers and the Harlem Renaissance the 1920s was in many ways a reactionary period in American history. For instance the decade saw the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan in a new and improved form and by improved I mean much more terrible. Spurred on by the hyper patriotism that was fostered during World War One, the Klan denounced immigrants and Jews and Catholics as less than one hundred percent American, and by the mid 20s the Klan claimed more than 3 million members and it was the largest private organization right here in my home state of Indiana. And with more immigrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe who were often Catholic and Jewish, White Protestants became more and more concerned about losing their dominant position in the social order. Spoiler alert: it turns out okay for you, White Protestants The first immigration restriction bill was passed in 1921, limiting the number of immigrants from Europe to 357,000. In 1924, a new immigration law dropped that number to 150,000 and established quotas based on national origin. The numbers of immigrants allowed from Southern and Eastern Europe were drastically reduced and Asians except for Filipinos were totally forbidden. The quota for Filipinos was set at 50 per year although they were still allowed to emigrate to Hawaii because their labor was needed there. There were no restrictions, however, on immigration from the Western Hemisphere because California’s large-scale farms were dependent upon seasonal laborers from Mexico. These immigration restrictions were also influenced by fear of radical anarchists and pseudo scientific ideas about race; whites were seen as scientifically superior to people of color and as President Coolidge himself declared when he signed the 1924 immigration law, “America must be kept American” Tell me Calvin Coolidge about how American you are. Are you Cherokee, or Cree, or Lakota? The 1920s also saw increased tension between science education in the United States and religious beliefs. The best known example is of course the trial of John Scopes in Tennessee in 1925. Scopes was tried for breaking the law against teaching evolution which he had been encouraged to do by the ACLU as a test case for freedom of speech. Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan whom you will remember as having recently resigned as Secretary of State and who had become a leader of the Fundamentalist Movement. And Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow, that famous defense attorney who contemporary defense attorneys always point to to argue that defense attorneys aren’t all scum. Scopes and Darrow actually lost the trial but the case drew national attention and ultimately led to evolution being taught in more American schools. The Scopes trial is often seen as a victory for free thinking and science and modernism, and I suppose it was, but for me it’s more a symbol of the contradictions of the 1920s. This is the decade that gave us mass consumer culture and celebrity worship, which are important and very complicated legacies. And it also saw the birth of modern conceptions of civil liberties. It was a period when tolerance became an important value, but at the same time it saw a rise in lynchings. Immigrants were necessary for the economic boom of the 1920s, but at the same time their numbers were restricted, as they were seen as a threat to traditional American value, and that raises a question that we’re still struggling with today: What are those values? I don’t mean that rhetorically let me know in comments. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Meredith Danko, the Associate Producer is Danica Johnson to show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer Rosianna Rojas and myself and our graphics team is Thought Cafe. I nailed that. Every week there’s a new caption for the Libertage. You can suggest your own in comments or ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course, If you enjoyed today’s episode make sure you subscribe. And as we say in my hometown: Don’t Forget to be Awesome.

Comments 100

  • row them a blunt, cuz they wanna go home.

  • "its the only thing in the world I'm acually good at!" says renowned award winning author and historian who has hundreds of millions of fans and probably knows more than my entire school put together.

  • when will he get shocked ive never seen him get shocked

  • Huh. The film industry moved to Hollywood because it was cheap. Welp, just one more example of how things have drastically changed.

  • My bois Scopes & Darrow


  • The KKK hates immigrants but technically there are immigrants them self

  • Crash Course US History #32 Notes
    – Stereotypical view as the "Roaring 20s"; Decade of exciting change and new cultural ideas
    – Increased personal freedom for many citizens

    Republican Ideas on Economic Policies
    – Use of Laissez-Faire capitalism, which resulted in the government not regulating businesses
    – Republican party dominated politics; Government implementing policies favoring business lobbyist
    – Lower taxes on personal income and business profits + Efforts to weaken the power of unions
    – Fed. Reserve and Fed. Trade Commission had pro-business views (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover)
    – Away from economic regulation favored by the Progressives

    Government Corruption
    – Administration of Warren Harding; Chosen acquaintances in his office was corrupt
    – Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted money to prevent one's criminal prosecution
    – Interior Secretary Albert Fall who took half a million for leases on government oil reserves

    Business in the 1920s
    – Productivity rose dramatically as older industries adopted Henry Ford's assembly line techniques
    – New industries provided Americans with new products and jobs
    – Annual production of automobiles tripled and automobile companies became monopolies
    – American corporations extended overseas; Foreign investment was greater than any country
    – Dollar replaced pound as the most important currency for trade
    – Example: the US producing 40% of worldwide manufactured goods

    "Labor-saving" Devices
    – Vacuum cleaners, toasters, refrigerators helped Americans had more time for leisure
    – Leisure was provided by radios, baseball matches, dancing, vacations, and most importantly, movies
    – More people had money to go see movies with the establishment of credit

    Celebrities and Culture
    – Ex: Opera singer Enrico Caruso, Comedian Charlie Chaplin, Baseball player Babe Ruth
    – Biggest celebrity was Charles Lindbergh, first to fly across the Atlantic Ocean without stopping
    – High culture flourished; Age of "the lost generation of American Writers"

    Migration of African Americans from the South to Northern Cities
    – Harlem became the capital of Black America
    – The Harlem Renaissance rejected stereotypes and prejudice; Sought to celebrate culture.

    Women Expressing their Autonomy
    – "Flappers" kept their hair and skirts short, drank and smoked illegally in public, used birth control
    – Marketers encouraged them to buy products (ex: cigarettes)
    – Most women still expected to marry, have children, and find their freedom at home

    Consumer Debts
    – Acceptable to go into debt to maintain the American "standard of living"
    – If the economy faltered, America was to have great economic problems

    Prosperity in the 1920s
    – Prosperity wasn't equally distributed; Corporate profits rose at twice of real industrial wages
    – 1% of banks controlled 50% of the US' financial resources
    – Wealthiest' income greater than the combined lower half of the population; 40% lived in poverty
    – Americans celebrated big businesses; Importance of Wall Street with many owning stocks
    – Smaller businesses disappeared
    – Unemployment in deindustrialization as textile companies moved their operations South
    – Working class made the majority of Americans; Couldn't afford new technologies
    – Farmers had prospered during WW1 when the government subsidized farm prices
    – Production didn't subside due to mechanization and increased use of fertilizers
    – Farmers' income dropped steadily; Banks foreclose on their property and the number of farms declined

    Supreme Court's Role in the Principles of the US
    – Federal government did ittle or nothing to help farmers or workers
    – Supreme Court kept progressive ideas alive with the creation of "Jurisprudence of Civil Liberties"
    – Still voted to uphold convictions of left-wing critics of the government
    – Gradually accepted that people had the right to express dissonant views; "Marketplace of Ideas"
    – Near vs. Minnesota: Supreme Court shut down censorship of Newspaper

    "Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    – A new and "improved" form, which became the largest private organization in Indiana
    – Spurred by the hyper-patriotism that was fostered in WW1; Denounced immigrants, Jews, Catholics
    – More immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe
    – White protestants concerned about losing their dominant position in the social order

    Immigration Restriction in America
    – First immigration restriction bill (1921) limited the number of immigrants from Europe
    – New immigration law in 1994 dropped the numbers and established quotas based on national origin
    – Number of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was drastically decreased
    – No immigration in Asia, except for Filipinos, were forbidden to immigrate
    – No restriction on America's Western Hemisphere; California farms was dependent on laborers
    – Immigration restrictions influenced by fear of radical anarchist and pseudoscientific ideas on race
    – Whites were seen as scientifically superior to people of color

    Increased Tensions on Education and Religious Beliefs
    – The trial of John Scopes (1925 in Tennessee): Tried for breaking the laws against teaching evolution
    – Scopes was encouraged by the ACLU as a test case for freedom of Speech
    – Prosecuted by William J. Bryan; Resigned as secretary of state + Leader of Fundamentalist movement
    – Lost the trial but gained national attention; Led to evolution being thought in more American schools

  • John’s bias and ignorance shows up in this one more than most. I like these and use many in class. However his very disingenuous attack on Coolidge is either out of a blind spot or bias, either way makes the rest of the information suspect. To attack Calvin Coolidge’s asserting that his statement that “America need to be American” had to do with his ethnicity or race, and that since Coolidge was not an Indian, he was in the wrong is so stupid that I had to write. First, unlike Woodrow Wilson before him and FDR after him, Coolidge never segregated the country on racial/ ethnic lines. Secondly, the native Indians were NOT American, so the argument is ridiculous, they were whatever tribe they belonged to, America came later, and third, Coolidge’s statement was absolutely NOT about race it was about the ideas and culture that created America, that is what he said needed to be protected, in context Coolidge was very concerned about the rise of Fascism and influences from immigrants destroying the idea and the Constitutional values that Woodrow Wilson had started to erode. He wanted to preserve the dream, the ideal and ideas that these immigrants were coming to find and why so many millions came here. In fact Coolidge’s statement is so the exact opposite of what Mr. Green tries to make it, you have to wonder about the truth if anything he is saying.

  • One of our national values is privacy. This is why we have constitutional rights against unreasonable search and seizure and self incrimination. It's funny when you consider how many of our founding fathers actually participated in criminal behavior (not just treason against Britain).

  • How we like "America" now 🤣

  • Best video ever!!

  • This is the most amazing thing since butter

  • What is that end?

  • “Gatsby turned out alright in the end” but like. Did he tho

  • 10:00 crazy to think that was actually a legitimate concern for them lol

  • 11:09 best part

  • my favorite figure of american history, jerry

  • When are we going to see Stan!!

  • I don’t understand how John can say that the economy flourished and benefited a select few. When the economy flourishes it raises the living standards for all. His hypocrisy can be seen when he says the by the mid 20s over 50% of the population owned a automobile. If a flourishing economy only benefited a few you would not see a rise in the standard of living like this.

  • I got this for homework, he always shows us these videos man speaks so fast.

  • Anyone else see the Pink Floyd references?

  • thank god every single one of them from 1920 is died now

  • End the FED & stock market. Replace silver & crypto.

  • 5:12 and a firm believer in eugenics

  • Gatsby turned out okay?

  • Give me answers to Ed puzzle

  • thank you mr. green for keeping the reality of america real with every single one of these videos

  • Mi amigo no sabe chasquear los dedos o puede ser thanos

  • Coolidge is from Vermont!

  • Hello, me like history.

  • crashcourse is fantastic

  • It's that time… APUSH exam this Friday. Anybody else here grinding?

  • Who’s ready for this AP Exam on Friday

  • Who's watching in 2019?!

  • So we deregulated business and the economy to see a huge boom in business and growth that eventually lead to the great depression. Does anyone else see the irony here?

  • 1929 CRASH !

  • It’s sad watching him in his new videos he’s just not as happy ):

  • Crash course, thank you so much for helping us! This is awesome!

  • Our American values are laid out in the constitution and Declaration of Independence. Those that believe in those values and support our nation, are American. An American can come from anywhere, but they’re values are singular

  • CApitalism and greed those are the american values oh and religion because these go hand in hand, gotta keep the sheeple poor and enslaved…

  • I'm related to Enrico Caruso! Honestly I don't know anything about him other than he was an opera singer

  • cramming this with a conflict+tension and usa history paper on monday. the only way to revise

  • opa gangnam style

  • anyone else here for the gcse on monday?

  • AQA GCSE history anyone??

  • Studying for my social studies praxis. Any educators out there with some tips to hopefully pass the 5081 exam?


  • Tommorow any1

  • The 20's kinda sound like today

  • Sorry to be a smart arse but its Edward Doheny, not Harry Doheny. Harding had another friend invloved in the teapot dome scandal called Harry Sinclair but Doheny's first name is Edward, not Harry

  • Gonna be doing my exam in an hour, thanks 👍

  • dam I think you just help me pass my final thank you 🙂

  • Everyone in the comments is using the for exams and I'm just here trying to research for Call of Cthulhu 😂

  • History repeats itself?! Different immigrants! The reverse kkk! More Democrats!

  • Have a diploma exam later lmao, anyone feel me??

  • This is useful for my class will use it for my students next year, you pronounce leisure strangely

  • eyyyyyy filipinos is LIFE AHHHHHH

  • It's incredible that, until the 1920's, the United States still used the British Pound. It shows that the U.S. used to be a childish, teenge-like version of Great Britain, while it is now a fully fledged adult. It's strange how different our culture is, despite how little time there was between us. History is incredibly fascinating.

  • just know Ford .never hear the rest

  • That Jay Z reference… 👏👏

  • I wonder how many lives he saved

  • Thank youuuuu!!! Lmao ive been dumb and subconsciously pricrastinated revision for my mocks today😂😂

  • The part where he asks if Calvin Coolidge is a native American was really cringy. I get what you're saying but its really dumb.

  • (Leading up to the Great Depression): Staunch conservative Republicans hewed to the policies favored by business lobbyists including lower taxes on business profits and efforts to weaken the power of unions, the presidents stocked the boards of the federal reserve and federal trade commission with men who shared their pro business views shifting the country away from economic regulations, the presidencies were marked by government corruption (re appointed government positions). Big business meant that smaller businesses disappeared, and the number of manufacturing workers declined. Oh, and virtually everyone considered living in debt normal…
    sounding familiar?
    What we don't have today is the industrial and business boom that the 20s had, putting us in an even worse position than we were back then.

  • British, grounded in the 18th century enlightenment values, but with a twist and a different accent. Mostly "Aspirational".

  • All of humanity is immigrants


  • I saw the narrator of Gatsby's sister, dont remember her name

  • That moment when you realize native Americans arent actually native to America at all. And that they in fact have no more claim to being American than any of us.

  • Reject modernism! Embrace traditionalism!

  • Best era…

    Until we got depressed

  • " . . . it's true that Gatsby turned out alright in the end."? Really? I don't remember it that way.

  • Jazz came before the 20s, pls do your research

  • My neck felt weird at @9:46 😮😵

  • FYI, the REAL Native Americans were ancient CAUCASIANS from the region of ancient France thousands of years before the asiatic ancestors of those who call themselves "native Americans" today. They were called Solutreans, and they were here first. Their ancient DNA is still present in some eastern tribes today. So if you want to try and act intelligent, at least get your facts straight.

  • Celebrity Worship is just like religious worship; ill-contrived and unneeded.

  • The Democrat Party and their KKK

  • Liberals

  • You forgot about the stirrings of that wacky Ancient One, Cthulhu!
    Maybe that's why there were so many contradictions runnin' around…

  • In my humble (and very late) opinion, American ideals are freedom, democracy, and acceptance of immigrants and refugees. So the statue of liberty, basically

  • to equate white protestants with the KKK… is evil

  • Nations are allowed to remain places for their nationality. That isn’t a racist viewpoint John.

  • Sounds too familiar

  • plastic surgeons jajajajajajaj

  • Is the guy from scishow your brother?

  • I feel bad for the farmers who lost their farms but the government wasn’t created to subsidize farms. Subsidies take money from one group of people and give it to another. It’s

  • Looking forward to experiencing the '20s again.

  • It would be cool if we had 20s culture (other than debt, economic depression, segregation and KKK)

  • can you really explain it in this modern day of cellphones? you'd would have to of been there to really understand it.

  • the guy off camera knows all the details, put him on………

  • You got almost 10 million subscribers for History. That's crazy.

  • "Immigrants"? White people are the immigrants

  • Is anyone watching this and finding parallels to today?

  • The phrase, “it all goes downhill from here”, is so true in the end of the 20s.

  • Sounds a lot like now

  • Ford, Crystler, and HARLEY DAVIDSON!!

    ..whats that?
    General Motors..

  • Lol love that intro

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