The Largest Volcanoes in History – Mantle Plumes explained


In the first video about Flood Basalts we
have learnt what Flood Basalt Eruptions are and what scope they had. We explored using
the example of the Siberian Traps, which are the remnants of one of the largest of these
eruptions in history, what impact this kind of volcanism can have on our planet and its
inhabitants and we have learned where and when else these so called large igneous provinces
arose. One question, however, remains to be answered.
Where did they come from? Or more specifically, what causes these cataclysmic eruptions. That’s
what we will explore today. The exact processes are of course still subjecte
to heated debate – but the principal model for their origin which is widely accepted
today, is the so called Mantle Plume Model. Before we can discuss what exactly this is,
however, we first have to understand how volcanoes are typically formed. Almost all volcanoes
on Earth are the result of tectonic processes and are formed either by two colliding plates
or two plates drifting apart. Subduction zones are convergent boundaries
where the edge of one plate (usually a denser oceanic one) is forced under the edge of a
less dense plate and then pushed into the mantle. During the subduction the down-going
plate experiences increasing pressure and temperature. At depths of around 100 km or
60 mi the pressure is great enough that water inclusions trapped in the rock are freed and
released into the overlying mantel which lowers the melting point of the already hot mantle
rocks resulting in partial melting. This process is called Flux melting and the magma it produces
then slowly rises into the crust above and finally to the surface forming a chain of
volcanoes alongside to the Subduction zone In contrast divergent boundaries are zones
where two plates move apart. Here a spreading ridge – either in form of a rift valley
or a mid ocean ridge is created – through which hot mantle material can rise to the
surface. This also reduces the melting point of the rocks, this time as a result of decompression
melting caused by the reduction in pressure during the ascent. The resulting magma then
leaks onto the surface, cools and creates new ocean floor in form of giant undersea
mountain ranges. But how do mantle plumes fit into this picture?
– Surprisingly little. The volcanic processes we just covered are all the result of mechanisms
inside the uppermost layers of the earth – roughly the first 100-200 kilometres. Mantles Plumes
on the other hand have a much deeper origin. They are columns of enormous quantities of
hot rock, upwellings that rise to the surface from the depth of earth’s mantle – 2900
kilometres or 1800 mi below our feet. As such they are part of the on-going convection processes
that take place in the mantle in which hot material from inside the earth continuously
rises up below the tectonic plates, cools and moves back down again: Similar to what
happens inside a lava lamp, just way more complex. Because the mantle consists for the
most part out of solid rock that only behaves like a fluid over a geologic timeframe these
processes are of course very slow and take millions and hundreds of millions of years.
The formation of a mantle plume starts at the core-mantle-boundary. Here, in the thermal
and chemical boundary layer at the base of the mantle which separates the liquid outer
core from the solid lower mantle temperatures rise rapidly, faster than in any other layer.
The temperature of the outer core is already approximately 1,000 degrees Celsius higher
than that of the overlying mantle just a few kilometres above. This causes large amounts
of heat to be transferred into the mantle through conduction where it heats up the rock
causing it to start rising: A Mantle Plume forms.
As it ascends through the mantle it slowly start to take on a mushroom shape because
the hot material rises faster through the plume than the plume itself rises through
its surroundings – not unlike during the explosion of a nuclear bomb. Most plumes never
make it to the surface before they cool down again and lose their momentum but some of
the largest can rise all the way through the mantle and below the lithosphere. When such
a plume hits the tectonic plates, which act like a barrier it flattens out and deforms
into a thinner and wider disk. As we have discussed before the reducing pressure will
eventually reduce the melting point of the hot solid rock so much that it begins to melt.
This produces enormous quantities of liquid basaltic rock, basically a giant bubble of
magma with a diameter of multiple hundred kilometres directly beneath earth’s plates.
From here it will start to rise into the crust, build up in countless magma chambers and ultimately
produce large scale flood basalt volcanism on the surface.
This can go on for a few hundred thousand to a couple million years but eventually the
plume head will cool down so much that the large scale volcanisms stops. What remains
is the much more narrow tail of the plume which will periodically continue to transport
magma to surface for 100 million years or more until it dries up too.
This model is of course a very simplified view of the process. The reality is much more
complex and chaotic. But it gives us at least a basic understanding for why and how these
massive eruptions have occurred, why they are so rare and why their chemical composition
is so different from regular volcanoes. Beyond the formation of large igneous provinces this
models also allows us to explain the dozen or so volcanic hotspots that you can find
all across the planet. These regions of continuous volcanic activity are unusual because they
are often far away from plate boundaries – in some cases thousands of kilometres – and thus
can’t be explained through tectonic processes. Their chemical composition is also notably
different from other volcanoes and more in line with that of flood basalt eruptions.
The most well-known of these hotspots are probably Hawaii, Yellowstone and Iceland.
Because Mantle Plumes aren’t the result of plate movements they aren’t tied to them.
Quite the contrary: Because each plume is anchored at the core-mantle boundary and is
therefore relatively stationary in relation to the core the hotspot is constantly changing
is position on the plate– not because the hotspot is moving but because the plate is
moving. As the plate moves across the hotspot over the course millions of years it creates
a chain of volcanic structures. This explains for instance the formation of the Hawaii-Emperor
Chain, a chain of around 130 dormant sea-mounts stretching over 5800 kilometres across the
pacific plate like a string of pearls with the Hawaiian Islands at the end.
Other hotspots follow similar patterns. Yellowstone for instance has over the last 15 million
years slowly moved east-ward as the north American plate moved westward over the hotspot.
Follow this trail of breadcrumbs and you can see an image of the volcanic activity through
time. When you reach the point in time 16 million years ago the position of the Yellowstone
hotspot on the North American plate overlaps suspiciously well with the Columbia River
Basalt Group. This suggests that the hotspot was responsible for the enormous flood basalt
province that formed between 16-9 mya when the Plume head hit the lithosphere and that
since then the tail of the plume was responsible for the regular supervolcano eruptions
In Hawaii’s case however you can’t trace the breadcrumbs back a large igneous province
as the subduction zone off the coast of Russia has already destroyed all evidence of its
existence. On first glance you might think: Doesn’t the trail point perfectly to the
Siberian traps? This is true, of course, but only a coincidence. Once you cross plate boundaries
you also have to consider the position of the plates relative to one another over time
and Eurasian Plate was of course at no point in time over todays Hawaii, at least not in
the last 500 million years or so – In fact no continental plate was – The Hawaiian
Hotspot was always surrounded by oceanic plate. When exactly it happened and how destructive
its first eruption was, we will therefore probably never find out.
For other hotspots this is however still possible. The Reuinon Hotspot off the coast of Madagascar
for instance can be linked to the Deccan Traps. When 66 million years ago the Indian Plate
on its way to its current position moved across the hotspot apparently right as the plume
head hit the lithosphere the resulting eruption then formed the massive lava province that
even today covers nearly a third of India. The some 4,300 km long chain of seamounts
produced by the Louisville Hotspot may point towards the Ontong Java Plateau while the
Iceland Hotpot was likely responsible for the formation of the North Atlantic Igneous
Province. But connections like these aren’t always possible – The Siberian Traps for
instance can’t definitely be linked to a present day hotspot. Iceland as well as the
Ural mountains are proposed locations of the plume today but it’s also possible that
its corresponding hotspot already went dormant in the past 250 million years.
But not every large ignous province can be explained through the mantle plume model – there
are exceptions. One such exception is the Central Atlantic
magmatic province whose remnants today stretch across 4 continents. This flood basalt province
lacks some of the key features usually attributed to mantle plumes for instance the characteristic
chemical composition of the rock. Evidence suggests that its formation instead was the
result of the rifting and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This rift which later formed the
Atlantic Ocean could’ve freed enormous quantities of magma trapped inside and beneath the continental
crust produced by the nearly the 360° subduction zone around the supercontinent. Despite this
many researchers also believe that the arrival of a plume must have at least played some
role in the initial breakup of the Continent – which goes to show that there is still a
lot to learn about the geology of our planet. One tool that we are now using more and more
is so called Seismic tomography. This method – which is basically a CT scan of the interior
of our planet – makes use of seismic waves caused by earthquakes. Because these waves
travel at different speeds in various types of rocks and rocks of varying temperatures
we can measure the velocity of the waves at various points on the planet to make conclusions
about the physical properties of the subsurface. While the models these scans produce have
at the moment still a very poor resolution they have at least finally confirmed what
for a long time was only conjecture – namely deep-mantle plume-like structures under most
major hotspots like Yellowstone, Hawaii and Iceland. But these are obviously only still
images of convection processes that take millions of years. To fully understand the formation
of mantle plumes and flood basalt provinces, it therefore still requires a lot more research.
But large ignous provinces are of course not only of geological importance but also of
biological interest. What catastrophic impact the formation of such provinces can have on
the planet we have already discussed in the last part using the example of the Siberian
Traps – But this was by no means an isolated case – quite the opposite.
If you illustrate the formation of the largest flood basalt provinces of the last 500 million
years graphically, you can see a striking temporal correlation with the boundaries of
geologic time periods. These boundaries are defined by abrupt and significant changes
of earth’s biosphere and climate and the planet as a whole and often mark the point
of catastrophic mass extinctions. The formation of the Deccan Traps for instance
falls almost perfectly on the Cretaceous-Paleogene or KT boundary that marks the extinction of
the non-avian dinosaurs, the formation of the central Atlantic magmatic province overlaps
with the Triassic Jurassic boundary and the formation of the Siberian Traps coincides
as we have discussed with the Permian-Triassic Boundary and the End-Permian Extinction.
At the end of the Devonian Period the Earth also experienced this kind of volcanism – in
fact an exceptional amount of it. It is speculated that this was the result of the arrival of
a super plume under the east European platform resulting in the formation of at least 4 flood
basalt provinces over a relatively short 20 million year timeframe. Although the timing
and importance of the individual events is in this case still poorly understand it might
be an explanation for the series of smaller extinction events typically combined into
the Late Devonian extinction. Particularly the formation of the Viluy Traps seems to
correspond well with the so called Kellwasser Event – the first and most severe of the
Late Devonian extinction Events. Together these four boundaries describe 4
of the 5 largest mass extinctions in history, each responsible for the loss of 70% or more
of all species and probably 99% or more of all individuals. Even the fifth and earliest
of these so called “Big 5” can be linked to large-scale volcanism due to elevated mercury
concentrations in the Ordovician rock layers although a corresponding lava province seems
to no longer exist. After the discovery of the Chicxulub crater
in the mid-20th century and the realisation that an asteroid likely was what had wiped
out the dinosaurs the consensus in the scientific community subsequently became that asteroid
impacts must the main driving force behind mass extinctions in general.
Today however, thanks to intensive research on the formation and role of large igneous
provinces over the past few decades we now know that this is likely not the case. Asteroids
certainly had an important impact on this planet but It simply can’t be a coincidence
that all 5 of the largest mass extinctions in history as well as many more – more or
less – dramatic changes of our planet all happened at the same time as some of the most
catastrophic lava eruptions the world has ever seen.
Advancements in high precision dating both of the mass extinction events and the formation
of the corresponding flood basalt provinces during the last 20 years have in almost all
cases only strengthened this temporal link and the examination of the events individually
has in most cases confirmed volcanism as the main cause for the extinctions and not as
previously thought, asteroid impacts. Even for the case example – the extinction
of the non-avian dinosaurs – we now know that large scale volcanism has at least played
a role: Through the formation of the Deccan traps that started erupting about 400,000
years before the Chicxulub impact and continued for another 600,000 years after expelling
a total of over half a million km³ of lava. Although this eruption didn’t nearly have
an as catastrophic effect on the climate as previous ones, probably due to the lack of
large scale sill intrusion, it still caused alternating episodes of warming and cooling
for multiple hundred thousand years. This must have put significant stress on the biosphere
and likely weakened many animal populations as a result which is why many researchers
believe the later impact might have not been enough to drive the dinosaurs to extinction
if it hadn’t been for the contemporary volcanism. If you take all this into consideration it
can no longer be denied what impact flood basalts had and likely will continue to have
on the development and evolution of life on earth. It seems no other natural disaster
has on such a scale decided who lives and who dies.
We owe these catastrophes our existence. Humans, just like every other animal alive today are
the ancestors of the few survivors of these mega eruptions. The ancestors of the species
that managed to survive literal hell on earth for sometimes hundreds of thousand years only
to then rise of the ashes to bring new life to the planet that we call home.

Comments 100

  • It’s finally done … Had to rewrite some parts a few time that’s why it took longer than usual.

    Technically I even have enough material for a third part but given that I’ve now done everything I originally wanted to do with this topic I think I’m going to leave it at that – for now.

  • An excellent video!

  • Makes me wonder if the Shiva crater somehow worsened the Deccan traps, causing the K-T extinction, and the Chicxulub impact is an irrelevant side effect, if Shiva is indeed a real crater.

  • Many of these plume based eruptions seem to be of the low gas emission type, such as eruptions of Kilauea in Hawaii. Looking back thru geological evidence regarding the Yellowstone caldera shows that these events from this location produce considerable ash from the large amount of gas released out of solution. It's interesting to consider the question , why this is. There's past evidence that the Yellowstone hot spot produced, low viscosity, low gas discharge in the Columbia river flood in its history. Why the sudden gaseous eruptions now at this time from the same source?

  • Yes VERY good graphics and animation to explain this process.

  • Man this guys narration is super dull. Like put some emotion in

  • anyone here know what the sad music is at 2:30 ish, as ive heard it a few times now.

  • The climate change propaganda being pushed by media and academia, funded by the tax free foundations of globalist oligarchs, who wish to control all aspects of human activity through a technocratic system based on carbon tax credits to dominate every living human on the planet through their use of energy.

  • is there a theory that the earth is shrinking or getting compress every year or so??

  • your missing THE GSM your missing so much ! What happened first ? your missing the Grand Solar Mim wow half the Facts

  • This channel is criminally underrated

  • It’s one thing to state that mass extinctions are caused by massive upward lava flow at hotspots rather than by asteroids impacts, it’s another to show it.

    For example, why could these massive hotspot creation events not be caused by massive asteroid impacts which extend into the core causing both surface level ejecta and surface/air poisoning and climate impacts and at the same time hotspot creation through downward penetration and melting of magma layers?

    I first wondered about the possibility of tectonic plate development while looking at a globe in kindergarten in 1964 just based on the odd “coincidence” of continental shapes which seemed a bit too coincidental to not be connected somehow. My kindergarten teacher thought I was being silly at the time but years later…

    So, I’m not just being argumentative, I’m very curious as to your answer. I’m aware that only some hotspots might have been created by asteroid impacts or even just one 65M years ago, but I find it unlikely for there to be just one connection without others.

    Several questions could relate to this:

    The condition of the solar system at the times of hotspot creation. Could the size/temperature of asteroids passing through the solar system and their velocity have changed over time (slowing or speeding up) from the formation of the earth through the time of hotspot development through the present?

    If so, has the era of super plumes ended?

    What does this mean in terms of the “danger” presented by the Yellowstone Caldera in terms of a super eruption that could destroy life between California and the Mississippi or further East. This is relevant to me living in Chicago which seems outside the worst of the caldera except lesion area.

    So, are we still at imminent risk at almost any time of a caldera super eruption or has there been cooling or other changes that make this less likely than thought even a year or two below.

    Finally, is it just temperature effects from the surface, or are there chemical properties of the mantle that cause plume progression to halt below the mantle and, how, in general are the chemical composition of the various types of volcanoes different.

    Thank you for a very, very thought provoking video.

  • Greta Thundberg must be really pissed at mega volcanoes….how dare they….bloody Nazi natùral processes.

  • Is that how mt kilimanjaro was formed?

  • A very enjoyable high quality video. Too bad it perpetuates the ridiculous pangea-continental drift theory.

  • As far as I know we have only been 8 miles down. We really have no idea how volcanoes form. We havent even been to the mantle

  • "The exact processes are of course still subject to HEATED debate"
    No kidding 😀

  • The thumbnail looks like my large acne on my forehead.

  • Underground nuclear testing helps greatly

  • It's better we're move to moon or mars for stay out from dangerous pimple earth's (it's possible mass extinction of humanity in earth)

  • Volcanism and asteroid impact aren't mutually exclusive explanations for mass extinctions. Indeed the sort of pan-global seismic stress resulting from really big asteroid impacts could easily trigger flood-basalt eruptions, it seems to me.

  • I just wanted to add my voice as one of those who appreciate the truly excellent quality of the content on this channel. It’s no exaggeration to say I value this channel more than any other on YouTube, maybe Isaac Arthur is close but he is generally considering the absurd places we can go in our future whereas this channel is talking about the realities of now which I value more. Thank you again, you are truly an under appreciated talent. I hope you get all the subscribers you deserve.

  • RE: asteroids and vulcanism. Perhaps a large enough asteroid impact can trigger a massive vulcanic response?

  • Earth Pimples

  • this sounds like anno 1404 (select unit/object)

  • From what I read, the dinosaurs were simply very unlucky at the K-T boundary. The Chixculub impactor hit when the biosphere was already likely quite weakened by the Deccan Traps, but also where exactly it hit.
    From what I read, the asteroid hit a large sulphur deposit, resulting in much more sulphur dioxide in high atmosphere, which further increased global cooling (that followed after the shock warming from the impact itself). Had the asteroid hit in the middle of the Panthalassa, the impact would have been much less severe.
    That being said, they were around for at least 150 million years. A massive stroke of bad luck was nearly a given over that long a period of time.

  • And people still think that humanity is the greatest threat to the world's biosphere… Yet it was merely bacteria that was responsible for the largest extinction event in the history of the world and then there's natural processes like these and the Pleistocene and Holocene. Humanity has a long way to go before it could even begin to scratch the surface of terraforming any planet, let alone this one.

  • Commecials suck!

  • Excellent video. The time and effort that you put into this, along with the rest of your videos, is obvious. Thank you for making such interesting and informative videos.

  • Absolutely outstanding stuff, just like always. I love the way these videos are presented.

  • They found a massive impact crater much larger than the dino killer astroid unded the ice of antarctica from around 250 million ago

  • Why would they choose the plate boundary to blow off nukes on the ocean floor just above them off enewektak?

  • I stand stunned and in awe. This video is not simply the best one I have seen about this topic. On top of it, it ia done by one person! Dude, whatever you do in "real life" to earn your living – THIS is worth a bundle! Watching this video, for the first time I was not annoyed by commercials, because I think it is worth every cent you gain through them.

  • I suspect you have a correlation causation fallacy with respect to the vulcanism, and that the giant plumes were caused by substantial events such as a meteor strike.

    Consider: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The amount of energy a meteor the size theorized by, say, the one that caused the K-T boundary… is enormous. It is not inconceivable that such an impact, enough to crack the crust itself, caused a ripple within the mantle, causing the plume which spawned the vulcanism associated with each of these extinction events.

    After all, if we consider the mantle to be a solution in equilibrium, then it requires an outside force to disrupt that equilibrium to cause atypical events, such as these mantle plumes.

  • Do you think there's anything to the hypothesis that the Chixilub impact caused the Deccan traps, by focusing seismic energy at the antipode of the impact?

  • As a geology degree holder, absolutely fucking phenomenal.

  • I really enjoyed this pair of videos. Super interesting! I think you should connect the two videos using the title though. Something like "The Largest Volcanoes in History – Mantle Plumes explained (Flood Basalts part 2)"

  • Excellent presentation. Very easy to follow, but full of facts and details I did not know.

  • The Deccan Traps was approximately on the opposite side of the world from the Chicxulub Crater. Is it possible that large asteroid impacts can force such plumes to develop as a sort of absorption effect? I had always wondered this. It's much like how a ball deforms upon impact of hitting a wall.

  • Amazing video.

  • What's the music used at 15:00?

  • While you present some compelling information here you can not conclude how ever that the extinction were caused by the volcanic activity that you state in your video. Since a million years is a blink of an eye in geological terms you can only conclude that the event's discussed here were possibly part of and extinction event.. Because there is no exact way of understanding when or how long it took for these events to happen (I.E. the volcanic activity, the extinction of life, nor any other condition which may have been involved) I think you have done an excellent job of describing flood basalt eruptions here.. I was impressed.. But we must refrain from making definitive statements.. They made the same statement when we found that asteroid strikes.. Who is to say that in 50 years we have not found other reasons for the extinctions and this theory goes the way of the asteroids.. Carry on these are great bits of good information for folks to learn from..

  • This is a better explanation of mantle plumes, hotspots, and igneous provinces than I got in school getting my BS in geology.

  • Why did video make me feel like i was watching a sad Disney movie at the end ?

  • I wish we had these videos as kids.. Better later than never.

  • Who wishes this thing was really underneath New York like that?

  • Descendants. Humans are the descendants. Or are you presuming there will be survivors of future megaeruptions?

  • Holy shit, this is so we'll made! I'm super impressed. Like it's really rare for me to be this impressed by a video. The graphics, info and narrating is damn impressive! Smashed that sub button!

  • I was about to subscribe to the channel for such a good video but realized I was already subbed – good job.

  • Another channel that teaches us more in 16 minutes than our school teachers manage to do in years. Thank you so much for this terrific video. Keep up the good work.

  • "it seems no other natural disaster has on such a scale decided who lives and who dies"

    Humans: "Hold my beer"

  • Oh, do "we owe our existence" to lava plumes, "Facts In Motion"?… A real scientist doesn't state what is still merely hypothesis and knows that correlation doesn't mean causation. Otherwise, is just fake news.

  • So it's like pimple :/ a giant deadly hot pimple….

  • I love all of your vidoes! Besides the fact that you present complex topics in simple enough terms for the every day person to understand, the visuals are well done and the videos are always interesting even when glossing over seemingly less interesting material.

    I cant wait for your next one 😉

  • This guys Voice reminds me of the bloke's voice from the YouTube Channel "Chillichump". Weird!

  • So what does any of this have to do with New York?

  • I would like to see more geology-related topics about plate tectonics. Like a follow-up on the more explosive Caldera supervolcanos that causes volcanic winters and that bury portions of a continent in ash and pumice. Or maybe a video on megathrust earthquakes. How the ghost forest of Washington and Japan correspond to Cascada Earthquake in 1700 and the future threat of the Big One occuing in Cascadia Subduction Zone

  • The Deccan Traps are not the cause of the K T Event, at most, they could of cause a small dying. Like those caused by both, nearly as large as the Deccan Traps, Columbia River Flood Basalts. Or those caused by the formation of the much much larger than the Deccan Traps, Central Atlantic Igneous Province. Those caused small little extinction events that are on par with, or three times larger than, the Deccan Traps. And all three of those combined don't come close to the Siberian Traps.
    It was an idiotic, I mean nice attempt to link the K T Event to geological processes, but the math has been done and the data is in, and that little six miles worth of asteroid is more than enough all on its own to cause the entire K T Event.
    Having the entirety of the planet set to broil at the very coolest areas hours after impact, and then having that last a week or so is more than enough to wipe out every single large land fauna. And the awful that was the other outcomes of the impact, again all by themselves, could of caused the K T Event.
    It's almost as if you had to have a cave or burrow, or large body of water to hide in to make it would explain why all the megafauna went bye bye.

  • just mentally visualizing the size of these massive blobs of incredibly hot molten rock and metal sitting below a place my little brother is at makes me sick in the stomach… im worried about friggin yellowstone.

  • The dinosaurs kinda got screwed over. Its like "these big volcanic eruptions aren't enough now we have big rocks thrown at us" Not very fun or nice.

  • I believe that the continent Pangea was made to break up by a huge asteroids or meteor impact on the opposite side of the Earth. This impact was by a large body that with it's impact pulsed a energy wave through the planet to cause the breakup and then the movement of the crust apart from the fracture points made within the Pangea continent.

  • To think everyone alive is a descendant of an unbroken chain of survivors that passed through all those events puts a lot of things in perspective.

  • Waiting til we find life in oceans of molten stone. I bet we are the strange life here

  • 30 videos and 435,000 subscribers – great job! +1 I just subbed! Great information @Facts in Motion ! – Next video – "How humans and carbon is impossible to change the weather from global warming" – you know – how WATER is the 70% of global atmosphere – how the moon and sun effect our weather – the grand solar maximum and minimum – you know, what we are not being taught in school and how volcano's effect the globe more than humans ever could – other than nuclear bombs.

  • "HEATED DEBATE " 0:45 " NICE PUN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • One of my professors was one of the main advocates for Mantle plumes. He had the best field trips.

  • It's funny how I JUST read a news article on how the Chicxulub impact was likely to be the only reason for the K-T extinction.
    For the corresponding PNAS article, google "Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact".

  • 13:30 who else thought the dinosaur's back was a road?? LOL

  • So much free energy we could power the whole planet for nothing .

  • Your mograph is off the charts. I gotta figure out how to emulate some of this in blender

  • It's not asteroids that kill us. Those are relatively rare. Our own planet is a boiling cauldron of smoldering death

  • There is no evidence of subduction !
    But there is much evidence of electric scarring ! And expansion!

  • hawaian hot spot was from an asteroid collision on the other side of the planet

  • That's a hot topic.

  • The information and presentation on this video is top notch

  • Why america its hell

  • 7:41 Top left Corner [Baby Data]

  • I hope it takes NY out .

  • I propose for the next flood Basalt event, we clone a million copies of Tommy Lee Jones.

  • This is really interesting when comparing LIPs or meteors for mass extinctions. While it is curious how most of the extinction events also had a similar or close meteor impact, these magma plumes shouldn't really be ignored either. Perhaps it is the combination of both?

    The impacts would certainly cause massively amounts of damage, but it being sudden with no prolonged effects would mean things would be able to struggle to survive over a couple of generations. LIPs on the other hand being over 100,000s of years would kill basically everything except the hardiest of organisms.

  • We have a earthquakes etc in Japan all the time.

  • Volcanoes are just pimples for the earth

  • Amazing, great work.

  • This one was very well done. Good job.

  • Very informative and extremely well presented with clear understandable graphics. A joy to learn something new, well done.

  • What is that accent? Is it German?

  • I use to date a girl in university who was a geology major, We had to break up she had rocks in her head.

  • Earth is not 95% filled with ocean of magma, molten core and some 40 km thick crust covering it. If earth was solid, it wouldn't have magnetic field because all that intense heat will keep demagnetizing the core. And earth would have long exploded from its own intense pressure and heat. Solid earth is just as flawed as flat earth. Research hollow earth instead, the only theory that makes most logical sense. Read books by Jan Lamprecht, Marshall B. Gardner, William Reed and Raymond Bernard. There's plenty of evidence supporting hollow earth including seismology, google "Hollow Planet Seismology Vs Solid Earth Seismology".

  • I like how we know that our planet will destroy all of us someday, and how it works, but we can't do anything to stop it.

  • Short answere , , , a coldaris fault .
    asshole !

  • Mother Earth doesn’t care if you live or die.

  • Your voice hits different bro

  • This person is very hard to listen to and understand what he says…. find someone else!!!

  • Fantastic, truly fantastic.

  • Coup de gras

  • The info is okay, but the 3D animation is very surprising to me

  • The ultimate irony – if all wolcanism was to stop suddenly the overwhelming majority of life would asphyxiate; perhaps even causing a 99+% mass extinction.

  • Too much distracting sound effects.

  • The Chicxulub asteroid strikes earth, sending a shockwave through the planet and triggering a magma plume. Magma plume rises to the surface and the resulting eruption wipes out the dinosaurs.

    Mystery solved.

  • I live on the largest laccolith in the United states

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