The History of Physics and Its Applications


Thousands of years of physics research and discoveries has shaped the world. We live in today from technologies we use all the time to machines and inventions that change the world all the way to our knowledge of the universe from the very Baked to the very small without the advancement of physics. These would not exist Although we have discovered quite a lot these discoveries happened over a long period of time some of them even by accident So let’s take a look at the thousands of years of work that went into creating the world We live in today and some of the people who got us here Let’s start this in the seventh and sixth century BC with a man named Thales of Miletus Whom some consider to be the father of science? He’s known for his attempts to explain phenomena through theories and hypotheses rather than mythology For example, although this may seem like nonsense to us now one theater He had was that all matter was made up of a single substance, and that was water He may have missed the mark on that one But is believed by some that he was able to predict as solar eclipse on May 28th 585 BC Now known as the Eclipse of Daly’s this eclipse actually interrupted and may have helped end a war between two local kingdoms at the time now fast-forward to the 5th century BC when philosophers came up with a new theory that Matters not made up of just water but a collection of elements Water was one the others were earth air and fire several years later Aristotle also Suggested a fifth element known as aether that made up celestial bodies and stars probably would not be made of the same elements down on Earth, he definitely would have been shocked to learn that they are in fact made up of the elements found here on earth But even though we know these classical elements to be wrong, they do align quite well with these four states of matter We all know us Now those are some ancient theories but where I really want to start this video is with a story I’m sure many of you know of which begins with a gold crown and a bathtub in The 3rd century BC live scientist engineer and mathematician Archimedes who contributed more to the world than any other scientist of ancient times Probably his most famous contribution was made while he was taking a bath Archimedes need to calculate the density of supposedly gold crown to determine whether some silver had been substituted by dishonest Goldsmith He was not allowed to melt the crown to a normal shape in order to perform calculations, though one day taking a bath He knows the level of the water rise as he got in and he used this principle to determine the volume of the crown Since the crown would displace his own volume in water He was able to then calculate the density of the crown using mass over volume and concluded it was less than that of gold Proving that silver had in fact been mixed in later Archimedes went on to write on floating bodies where he continued his research into submerged objects and this he describes what is known as Archimedes principle which states how the upward buoyant force exerted on a body in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body This principle is why you feel lighter when in water or white is very difficult to push an inflated beach ball under water now the story of the gold crown has actually been called into question due to the accuracy needed to measure the water displacement and how Difficult, that would be given the instruments available to Archimedes instead a more practical technique that actually makes use of Archimedes principle would be to suspend the crown on one end of a scale and Balance it with an equal mass of gold on the other Then when put into water the crown would have displaced more water than the gold due to its larger volume and thus experience a higher Buoyant force making it more apparent it was mixed with silver Now physics is not just a foundational science But it’s also the basis of technology new physics discoveries today lead to new technologies tomorrow And this goes way back during ancient times many Greeks were interested in the development of machines For example Archimedes is recognized for the invention of various networks of pulleys and levers His famous quote is give me a place to stand and I will move the earth This of course has to do with mechanical advantage in the amplification of applied forces Machines that make use of mechanical advantage allow us to let’s say lift a car using only our own strength One notable invention of his was the claw of Archimedes They use mechanical advantage as a weapon to defend a portion of Syracuse’s city wall during the Second Punic War its exact design is unclear But it worked kind of like a crane using pulleys and levers to lift enemy ships slightly out of the water Causing them to eventually flood and sink Nowadays simple things like bottle openers nail clippers hammers bike gears wheelbarrows and more make use of these principles Now let’s fast forward all the way to the 11th century when a physicists known as M Nel Haytham changed the way we think about light Although a lot of research has been done since I’ll hate them is considered the father of optics For reasons I won’t go into I’ll hate them was kept under house arrest for several years and during that time He published a seven-volume collection of books known as the book of optics where he proved that light travels in a straight line He did this through one of the first scientific experiments ever as a lot of previous theories were simply speculation Like at this point in time that was still thought that heavier objects followed a faster rate as theorized by Aristotle This would be proved wrong in a few hundred years though Anyways, one experiment al-haytham performed was he cut a small hole in a wall and hung two lanterns at different locations in an adjacent room He observed that the light Illuminated unique spots in the opposite room and each formed a straight line with the hole and one of the lanterns also for hundreds of years that was believed that her eyes actually emitted rays of light that would bounce off objects allowing us to see He was the first to say that in fact light travels from objects and enters our eyes, which is now known to be correct Now one thing he was wrong about even though he did research on them was rainbows He assumed rainbows were an image of the Sun formed from a curved mirror due to water within clouds It wasn’t until the year 1300 that Theodoric of Freiburg use spherical Flasks and glass globes to simulate water droplets that occurred during rainfall He observed that light refracted onto the droplets reflected back out or they were refracted again Although I’ll Haytham did not contribute to our understanding of rainbows directly Theodoric of Freiburg relied on al-haytham spoke of optics to further understanding of them Today optics is applications in medicine telescopes astronomy laser technology fiber optic cables and much more Next up just about 2,000 years ago. The first compass was invented and although people did eventually use these for navigation No, one truly knew how they worked for over a thousand years that was until the turn of the 17th century It was assumed for a long time that comes as were attracted to a large magnetic island on the North Pole That was until william gilbert came in and wrote his book where he proved. The earth was actually one giant magnet in This book he discusses Experiments in which he miles the earth using something called the torella or a sphere made out of a naturally magnetized material When he passed the compass over the Torah He saw it would always point towards the magnetic pole and behave just as it would on earth itself The Tyrell was improved upon 300 years later by Kristian Birkeland In order to further investigate the polar aurora and why it appeared near the magnetic poles of earth Now William Gilbert also did work in electricity In fact, he is credited with inventing the word electricity and many consider him the father of Electrical Engineering One of Gilbert’s inventions with the electroscope the first instrument to measure the presence of electric charge Over 300 years later physicist Victor Hess would use the electroscope to discover something that would win him the Nobel Prize But I’ll get to that soon Now like I said for over a thousand years it was believed that heavier objects would fall at a faster rate This was introduced by Aristotle and it seems intuitive. But of course, we know now that this is wrong The story that’s been told is around 1590 the scientist Galileo dropped spheres of different masses from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that their time to reach the ground was Independent of mass which we now know to be true He also showed that the relationship between distance and time could be represented by this equation Although the basic physics here proved to be accurate many historians believe that the story isn’t but rather it was a thought experiment Then Galileo did work on pendulums, but also introduced the idea of relativity That would be greatly expanded upon by Einstein Galileo stated that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line Meaning there’s no such thing as absolute motion. It’s all relative If you were in a rocketship moving through space at a constant velocity There’d be no way to determine if you were moving or actually stationary Your brain probably is telling you that these asteroids are passing by a still observer right now But look at it some more and you can probably convince yourself that the asteroids are still and you’re moving past them Galileo’s work not only set the foundations for Einstein but also provided the framework for what Isaac Newton would go on to discover in 1687 Newton published a book called Principia They laid out the foundations of classical mechanics and is regarded as one of the most influential scientific publications of all time and bring Capilla Newton stated that gravity pulls masses together The earth exerts a force on you just as you actually exert a force on the earth He explains what this force obeys an inverse-square law So if you get twice as far from something the gravitational force becomes four times weaker And of course as three laws of motion were discussed here Which one of the first things we all learn when we take a first level physics course Newton was also heavily interested in orbiting bodies and celestial mechanics It was believed for a long time that celestial bodies orbit in perfect circles But Newton proved that actually an elliptical path would form as a result of the inverse square law that governed gravity Newton also contributed to the field of optics in fact He coined the term spectrum in order to explain the colors that appear when white light enters a prism during his studies He invented the first known functioning reflecting telescope or the Newtonian telescope He did not come up with this idea But seems to be the first to make a working one reflecting telescopes are very simple in design and did not use a lens which offered certain advantages a Few decades earlier Galileo design was known as a Galilean telescope. They used refraction instead of reflection It contained two lenses and can magnify images about 30 times in size but flaws in the design caused images to be blurry or distorted However, these flaws did not stop Galileo from being able to observe craters on the moon or various moons of Jupiter Reflecting telescopes while not perfect did not contain some of these flaws such as unwanted refractions. Otherwise known as chromatic aberrations Then by the 1700s more and more research was being done with electricity, but note at this time No one knew that electricity came from charged particles We now call electrons that was still over a hundred years away, but that would not prevent research from being done in fact, one of the key pieces of electrical equipment in your computer phone and other electronics was first formed in 1745 when a well von Kleist was connecting metal foil to the inside surfaces of a glass jar That was then filled with water. The goal is to charge the water by connecting it to a generator that could produce an electric charge When kleiss then touched the foil with his hand, he experienced a very strong electric shock when that was arguably life-threatening but what was going on was that the jar was storing electricity this became known as a Leyden jar that Name may not be familiar to some of you but the Leyden jars also considered the first ever capacitor Capacitors exist in all sorts of electronics nowadays and what they do is store charge most people who be taking a basic physics class can expect to learn some basic circuit analysis with these The applications of capacitors have a wide range store charts can be used to represent binary within a digital system It can be used to supply large amounts of current to things like lasers and particle accelerators They can be used as sensors. They can adjust the power and high voltage systems as needed and so on Moving on when Isaac Newton was alive He became a very powerful figure in the scientific community very few were willing to challenge his ideas and this continued even after his death but he was not right about everything and the late 1700s and early 1800s Thomas Young would challenge Isaac Newton’s view of optics in 1678 the scientist Christiaan Huygens actually proposed that light was a wave but Isaac Newton disregarded this and put forward his own theories Isaac Newton viewed light as a stream of particles since he could use his laws of motion to describe them better in The late 1700s Thomas Young defended Huygens theory and in 1804 all doubt had disappeared We reported the results of his double slit experiment one of the most famous experiments in all of physics He actually first observed how water waves would behave in a ripple tank He saw that the waves were either combine or cancel each other out making some kind of interference pattern When he performed this experiment with light and shine it through two small slits He saw the same patterns emerge proving. That light was in fact aways Now shifting gears in 1843 James Joule devised an experiment to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat Back, then it seemed as though these were two very different things heat being transferred versus the physical motion of something But he eventually showed that these were interchangeable what he did was meet a device such that you could turn a handle Causing two weights to rise and fall This would then turn a paddle that would stir the water within a container When the weights fell joule noticed a rise in temperature as measured by a thermometer After raising and lowering the weight several times He calculated a value of about four point one four joules being equivalent to one calorie This is the amount of energy need to raise one gram of water one degree, Kelvin This was a little off as we now know is about 4.18 joules per calorie Drool also showed that energy did not disappear It was just transferred in different forms this then led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. Just a few years later Now something you may not know is that years earlier in? 1842 a man named Julius Robert mayor wrote a paper that discussed the concept of energy not being created nor destroyed as well as the interchangeability of mechanical work and heat Unfortunately for mayor he was not an actual physicist, but rather a physician so his papers were widely ignored by experts in the field He read up on others experiments and use his own observations to come up with ideas But not of the Train to present his findings in the proper way This led to some disappointment when he found out years later that Joule got the credit for many of the topics He had been an advocate for years earlier Joule did set up his own experiments and all that So it’s not like he stole mayor’s ideas But we now give credit to Joule for these findings and he even has a unit of energy named after him and now of course Thermodynamics has gone on to have applications in engine design refrigerators power plans and more Then if you look up the most influential equations of all time, just about any article or video you find will include Maxwell’s equations These are the equations that tell us the relationship between electricity and magnetism these also predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves Which propagate through a vacuum at the speed of light? Electromagnetic waves are what encompass the signals that travel through the air when we talk in a cell phone they income as visible light Microwaves x-rays gamma rays and so on. So basically anything dealing with optics wireless communications lasers, etc Has its foundations rooted in Maxwell’s equations Now Maxwell’s equations did predict the existence of all these types of waves you see here? But at this time most of them really hadn’t been discovered yet We never sent a radio signal or observed x-rays, for example But within just a few decades these would all be discovered in the late 1880s The physicist Wilhelm Rankin was investigating vacuum tubes and external effects as current passed through them One day while running experiment with these he noticed a florescent effect on a screen with in his lab He deduced that a new Ray was having this effect because these were still unknown at the time He just called these Ray’s X like we do in math for unknowns Well, he continued his investigation He finally saw a radiographic image which was a flickering image of his skeleton on a platinocyanide screen as You can guess we had finally discovered was what we now call x-rays Just a few weeks later. He used these x-rays to take a picture of his wife’s hand to which she exclaimed I have seen my own death Only a year after this x-rays were being used in medical imaging and of course are still used today for medical and security purposes For this discovery rongkhun won the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. He became known as the father of diagnostic radiography and 2004 a radioactive element on the periodic table was named after him Rankin’s findings then inspired more research into the existence of these x-rays from other sources and Antoine Henri Becquerel was one physicist who set out to make his own discovery. He thought certain phosphorescent materials He was working on such as uranium salts may have been emitting x-rays when exposed to sunlight. He soon discovered that this was completely wrong What was happening was that the radiation was coming from the uranium itself without the need for sunlight? By the way, at this point in time uranium was thought of as a harmless metal, but that would soon change Now this phenomena observed with the uranium salts became known as becker l rays That was until a few years later when Becker ELLs research student one of the most well-known physicists of all time Marie Curie began investigating these rays and eventually coined the term radioactivity although Becker L Did not get the Rays named after him the unit for how many atomic nuclei decay no substance per second is now called a Becker L Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie are Probably the most well known couple in all of science and along with Becker L. The three of them found that thorium was also radioactive The Curry’s additionally went on to discover two new radioactive elements polonium named after Poland where Marie Curie grew up and also radium Then in 1903 the Curry’s as well as Becker L were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work in radioactivity Pierre Curie died just a few years later in 1906 and is best known for the discovery of the Curie point a temperature in which a magnet loses its magnetism Marie Curie went on to be the first person to win two Nobel prizes one in physics and another in chemistry in 1911 now when the Kiryas were working on radiation research a physicist named Ernest Rutherford began working with uranium as well and Discovered two types of radiation one that can be blocked by a thin sheet of paper, which was going alpha radiation That consists of two protons and two neutrons Oh, this was not known at the time and another that could pass right through the paper But would be blocked by something like aluminum. This was named beta radiation and much more dangerous to be exposed to The most dangerous of these three I’ll discuss is known as gamma radiation and was discovered in 1900 by Paul Villard This gamma radiation was coming off radium, which the Curry’s had recently discovered Gamma rays are not composed of subatomic particles, but instead are very high-energy electromagnetic waves Gamma rays can only be stopped by thicker barriers made up of things like lead and iron These are dangerous because they’re extremely small wavelength and high-energy makes us that they can interact with human cells causing illness and even cancer These are released by nuclear weapons. For example Although this does not make this research and irradiation seem positive radioactivity eager to apply to nuclear reactors which currently account for 14 percent of the world’s power and Radiation is used in medicine to diagnose and treat illnesses For example radiation therapy is where we use radiation to specifically kill or slowed the growth of cancer cells now we are about to enter the 1900s in which physics on an Unbelievable amount of growth when making this video is honestly surprised just how much I would have to include in that century alone You’ll note our understanding of various extremes like the very large the very small the very cold and the very fast would all be significantly improved upon in the years to come Discoveries would lead to new inventions that changed the world and others that were more controversial You

Comments 73

  • A few things I want to comment on

    1) TLDW: 0:16 – 0:29 on 1/4 speed.

    2) I apologize in advance for the mispronunciations, researching how to say these physicists names was like 50% of the work that went into this video.

    3) I already posted this but again thank you for 100k subs you guys!

  • Thanks m8

  • Wow an electroscope is a simple machine anf yet used correcly it con give you a noble prize.

  • 👌😉

  • great video! loved it

  • Can't wait for part 2!

  • Earlier physics was fueled by curiosity, Now, by grades.

  • There is a book called "The Science Book Big Ideas Simply Explained" It contains many of the things that you mentioned. I just started reading it for fun.

  • >Wtf there's not even a part 2?
    >"Published Today"
    >….fuck.
    Also with the crown thing I think there was some misunderstanding in his idea. Balancing the crown w/ an equal mass of gold is fine so you know m1 = m2, but placing them in water wouldn't make calculating the presence of silver any easier. Even as you stated, we know that a bigger volume displaces more water, so the crown feels more force anyway. Basically, if the masses are the same, but the crown is more volume, the crown will always float more than the gold, so how would that help show that there's silver in it?

  • It’s a warm summer evening—

  • Is there a wallpaper version of 8:25? It looks beautiful

  • cant wait for the next video !!!

  • Why is Physics so hard, I am taking AP Physics and I always doubt myself when answering test questions.

  • Plasma is gas under a ionized form

  • What a tease, I want part 2

  • I may not be religious but i know i am grateful for all the circumstances that have brought society to where it is now.

  • I wish there was someone like you for computer science. I still watch you and have learned a lot about CS from you even though you’re an engineer!

  • I still do not understand how they come up with those formulas. Has the formula proven to be right? Also how is it possible to instill a formula from your own observations?

  • when will you post part 2 ?

  • How come never mention the Nagasaki and Hiroshima 15 kiloton nuclear fission explosion?

  • Now physics is done to push out massive amount of research papers, get grants, and grades.

    Pretty sad.

  • Excellent video as always

  • Correction

    https://www.storyofmathematics.com/chinese.html

  • Physics doesn’t exist

  • Thanks for the video.

  • 9:06 – uuh ? Kepler described that planets followed elliptical paths in 1609, 72 years before Newton published Principia Mathematica

  • It's pronounced "prinseepia", Ci in Latin languages is "see"

  • I can't wait to see part 2

  • Watching this video because im stalling on continuing studying for my electromagnetism test.. I should get back, thank you MAJORPREP I subscribed almost 2 years ago because I was an engineering major, recently switched to applied mathematics. Thank you for always inspiring both indirectly such as videos like these, and directly when you give your own input and suggestion. Looking forward to part 2! The history of Mathematics video was also very good.

  • I have.nocomment.at.thistime

  • Hello MajorPrep! I'm 15 & really love watching your videos! Do you think you could make a video about early college? I'm going into an early college program soon, which will allow me to go to college classes after my high school ones. I'd enjoy seeing you give your opinion on it & facts you found. I'm sure it'll be helpful to me and any other younger fans of this channel. Thanks!

  • Can you make a video about Petroleum engineering?

  • Eagerly waiting for your part 2

  • Woah!!You have clearly uped your game.Nice work!!!

  • Come on get the part about the law of falling bodies from Galileo right next time.
    http://www.dartmouth.edu/~phys1/labs/lab1.pdf

  • According to Stephen Hawking na Jhon Gribbin that Galileo story isn't real

  • Physics is now a joke, so many students i see, who only care about grades.

  • Thanks for sharing your knowledge!

  • Isaac Newton, chilling reading a book

    Apple falls into his head

    Proceeds to come up with gravity and invented Calculus to support his argument. What a freaking legend. Lmao

  • RefrActive index = sin i/sin r
    A law given by ibn al haytham
    Today known as snells law

  • We hereby accuse the science of physics of relativism for expounding that there is no absolute truth and that there is a history of physics that seem to imply that the truth of the matter has been changing all the time!

  • https://www.lookchup.com/read-blog/103392

  • Before watching the video OMG I'm GONNA LEARN SOMETHING NEW.
    After Watching the video WHAT THE ACTUAL FUCK WAS THAT.
    As Result: "NO INFO LOST NO INFO FOUND"

  • Highschool physics all topics breifly covered!
    Btw,well presented

  • I came here from "Sheldon teaches penny about physics"

  • one of my favourite documentaries when i just wanna chill and relax

  • prinKipia

    floored, im sure he learned his mistake later though

  • Everything is made of one element and more massive versions of itself. Light is a wave of particles.

  • Actually Archimedes was playing with a toy boat

  • bro my pee pee became hard bro

  • I like this history series of yours. You should make more like maybe the history of computer science to name one.

  • I dont know how the oyramids were built without engineering and physics.

  • I think Galileo did not do the pisa experience… if you do the heavier will reach the earth faster do to friction. So inconclusive… instead he demonstrate it. A clean demonstration. Suppose Aristote was correct. Then the watermelon should reach earth before the apple. Now you tie by a rope the apple to the water melon. Following aristote, the watermelon+apple should reach the earth before the watermelon alone. But following aristote as well, the system watermelon+apple should actually arrive after the watermelon since the apple will act as a parachute and slow down the system. The conjecture of aristote is therefore inconsistent… and then both case will reach earth at same time…. super nice no?

  • Is it really Newton who discovered that the orbit of earth was elliptical rather than circular. I think it was Kepler, isn't it?

  • Thanks

  • No offence but you should change the very first statement. It should not be thousands of years, but hundreds of years. Last time i checked all discoveries were made in 2000 years only.

  • The Great Physicists' Road Trip by Ms. Rachel C. Millison

    Great physicists and a few of their friends from the past decide to return to Earth for one last road-trip vacation to the coast together. They all appear on Earth on the designated evening. Heisenberg pulls up behind the wheel of a gigantic 1930's car, a huge grin on his face.
    As they're getting in the car, Hubble looks up and says "What a wonderfully dark sky".
    "Shouldn't be" responds Olbers.
    "Always has been" says Hoyle.
    "No, it hasn't" says Lemaitre.
    "I knew that!" says an embarrassed Einstein.
    Once they're all in, Teller says "Hey guys, this trip is going to be The Bomb!".
    "Yeah, but why do I always have to organize?" asks Oppenheimer.
    "Where exactly will we end up?" asks Kepler.
    "That's impossible to predict" says Bohr.
    "I just can't believe that's true" says Einstein.
    Heisenberg punches the throttle and the old car roars off.
    "Say – this thing sure accelerates" says Newton.
    "I don't know, Isaac. It feels like gravity to me" smirks Einstein.

    Later that night, as they are speeding down a country road, a police car catches up to them and pulls them over.[1]
    "Do you know how fast you were going?" the cop asks. [1]
    "No, but I know exactly where I am" Heisenberg replies. [1]
    The cop says "You were doing 55 in a 35" [1]
    Heisenberg throws up his hands and shouts "Great! Now I'm lost!" [1]
    The cop thinks this is suspicious and orders him to pop open the trunk. He checks it out and says "Do you know you have a dead cat back here?" [1]
    "We do now, a**hole!" shouts Schrodinger. [1]
    "I think it's time to split" says Everett.
    "Scatter!!!" yells a panicked Compton.

    "Say, officer – how did you manage to spot us on such a dark night?" asks Hubble.
    "I saw the light from your head lamps" says the cop.
    "How fast was it going?" asks Michelson.
    "That's simple addition" giggles Galileo.
    "Not exactly" says Lorentz.
    "Look here" says Heisenberg, "how do you know I was going that fast?"
    "I clocked you over a measured distance" says the cop.
    "How often?" asks Hertz.
    "I disagree with your measurement, officer" interjects Einstein.
    "Don't start tonight, Albert" says Bohr, shaking his head.
    "What Herr Einstein is trying to say" continues Heisenberg, "is that time was running at a different rate for you than for us".
    "WHAT??? I should have realized that!" exclaims Newton.
    "I discovered it first" interjects Hooke.
    "It's true" says Maxwell. "We're all famous scientists and, believe us, Herr Einstein proved it, though it came as no surprise to me".
    "Must have been a real eureka moment" nods Archimedes.
    "Extraordinary!" says Galileo.
    "Extraordinary evidence" asserts Sagan.
    "Well, it sounds awfully complicated" responds the cop.
    "Not really. I'll draw you a simple diagram" says Feynman.
    Totally flummoxed, the cop lets them go with a warning. As he drives away, Doppler cocks his head and listens to the sound of the receding police car. "Gotta love that" he says.
    "Amen" responds Hubble.

    Returning to their car, Lord Kelvin remarks "Sure is warm tonight"
    "Yep – lots of disorder" replies Boltzmann.
    "In places you'd never expect, Ludwig" adds Hawking.
    "I was lucky to get away with that" says Heisenberg. "Most cops think they're better than everyone else".
    "Yes – I hate inequality" adds Bell.
    "Though you were speeding" says Faraday to Heisenberg. "I carefully observed the needle creep from 35 to 55".
    "Actually, it went up in jumps, Michael" replies Planck.
    "I couldn't see it because of the condensation" says Bose.
    "Please keep it under 0.07, Werner" says Mach.
    "In which frame of reference?" asks Albert.
    "Hey, Max" says Heisenberg, "If you loan me a tiny bit of money, I'll pay it back so quickly you'll never notice it was gone".

    As they pile back into the car, Bohr says "See here – you must fill the seats in order – no empty spaces allowed. And stop interfering with each other!"
    "Only one of you can sit next to me!" yells an agitated Pauli.
    "I need my own space" grumbles Minkowski.
    "Say, Werner – it's stuffy in here. Be a good chap and crack the window a bit" says Hawking.
    "Sorry, Stephen. It can be all the way up or all the way down, but nowhere in between" replies Heisenberg.
    "Hey guys – Albert and I just figured out a great shortcut. Only one bridge" announces Rosen.
    "It will save us a lot of distance" says Einstein, "but it might get spooky".
    "We could just tunnel" says Hund.
    "I prefer left-hand turns" says Madame Wu.

    Arriving at the beach the next morning, they hurry from the car and stand looking out over the ocean.
    "Look at the wonderful waves" says Schrodinger.
    "They don't look like waves to me" says Bohr.
    "This is not my idea of a sea" opines Fermi.
    Looking down at the fine sand, Dirac exclaims "Look at all the particles!"
    "Now those look like waves" says De Broglie.
    "This is great!" exclaims Feynman, rubbing his hands together. "Now, lets go meet some girls!"
    "Sounds good to me!" exclaims Schrodinger.
    "Let's delay" says Wheeler.
    "We have to be discrete" warns Bohm.
    "I need to shave first" says Occam.
    "What are girls?" asks Newton.

    1 Based on, and including the original joke attributed to Rich Granger, Engineer, Battelle.

  • Can you please make an explanation video on the History of Logic and Contradiction

  • Basically the history of ol dead white guys.

  • I noticed that you made a mistake around 9:18 saying that Newton corrected the theory that Copernicus made saying that planets move in perfect circles

  • Actually Newton's laws are actually related to the three laws of Johannes Kepler(1571-1630) actually was the first one to suggest that planets move in elliptical orbits

  • does uranus have lots of uranium?

  • Great video thank you for the upload

  • What is the symbol between the d and at at 7:50? I can't find anything about it via searching.

  • 10:55 Thumbs up if you were thinking of the Flux Capacitor from Back to the Future. You have your application right there dude!

  • For information related to this click here👉https://physicsforuniverse.blogspot.com/2019/06/physics.html?m=1

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxwvSLDU8vQ

  • Very interesting to hear it explained with coordinated visuals.

  • Your contents are so amazing and informative I love ur channel.

  • You forgot About Sir Michael Faraday my friend

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