The History of Internet in the 1990s

Before everything, we have to say what’s the
Internet, how and why it was born. Internet is an evolution of “Arpanet”,
which was the first computer network ever created; In fact it was created in 1969 and
officially closed in 1990. Its purpose was to keep in contact a lot of
governative computers in the USA during the Cold War, mostly for defensive reasons. In the years Universities started to use this
network to keep themselves in contact and even other countries created national networks
(such as the French CYCLADES or the Norwegian NORSAR) to connect to the Arpanet; between
1982 and 1983 Arpanet was officially replaced by the Internet, which still link all the
nations of the world and lost its primal defensive purposes. But when Internet became as we know it? The Net is continually evolving but it reached
most of its important goals in the 1990s: let’s see what happened with a timeline. 1990: Arpanet officially closed because of
its evolution in Internet: as we said before it already lost its military purposes in 1983
(when the US government created the secret MILNET) and it started to be used by Universities
to communicate. In 1990 was also created the HyperText Markup
Language. It was mostly born to format and typeset the
first Internet hypertextual documents and it’s still updating! It’s still important in its simplicity for
the actual websites even if there are a lot of others markup languages. 1991: The CERN announced the creation of the
World Wide Web, whose inventor is Tim Berners-Lee. Already in 1989 he exposed his idea to create
a database project to connect all the documents in the Internet, then in the next years he
used the Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) to identify everything in the Internet, the
already mentioned HTML and the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which was created in 1991 to transmit
hypertexts by a client-server structure. From this moment the WWW will become the most
important service in the Internet to link almost everything: the original version of
the website is still available and opened to all the people who wants to visit it. 1992: The Internet Society (ISOC) was born. The ISOC it’s still a non-profit organization
founded to provide leadership in nternet-related standards, education, access, and policy. It states that its mission is “to promote
the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people
throughout the world.”. It has its headquarters in Reston, Virginia,
and its offices in Geneva, Switzerland. 1993: Mosaic, the most important web browser
in the early years of Internet, was created by Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina. Mosaic was a real innovation for the World
Wide Web: it was the first browser to visualize picture with the other texts: other browsers
in fact had to open other windows to show them. Meanwhile, the CERN officially made the “WWW”
a public domain, pretending no copyright: before, it was used for scientific divulgation
and research. 1994: The White House created its own website:
it’s one of the first governments to use Internet. Initial commerce sites are established and
mass marketing campaigns are launched by email, introducing the term “spamming”
to the Internet vocabulary. Also Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark start Netscape
Communications. They introduce the Navigator browser, which
soon will replace definitely Mosaic. 1995: National Science Foundation stopped
to finance the Internet project: from this moment there will not be restrictions on Internet
commercial use. The CRS4 (Center for Advanced Studies, Research
and Development in Sardinia) also developes the first web-mail software. In 1995 W3C, the World Wide Web Consortium
was officially born too. 1996: Internet reaches a very important goal:
in this year almost 10 milions of computers use Internet worldwide: the Web era has already
started. 1997: Mosaic was updated for the last time
to the 3.0 version: infact, from this moment the project will be abandoned, simply because people started
to use other browsers, such as the Microsoft Internet Explorer, which was more efficient. In December Jorn Barger creates the “weblog”
term to describe that kind of websites used as a sort of “diary” by the creators. 1998: From this year the blog-revolution starts:
people all over the world started to create milions of personal weblogs thanks to OpenDiary. 1999: In the last year of the 20th century
Napster, the first file-sharing system, was born. The Internet users in this moment are over
200 milions: I want to remember that just three years before, in 1996, they were only
10 milions. Also Peter Merholz uses for the first time
the term “blog” in his site, splitting ironically the word created in 1997 by Barger
in “we blog”. As you can see, the 90s were definitely the
most important years for the Internet rise: in those years Internet lost his military,
scientific and academic purposes to be accessible to all the people. I also want to say that this video is just
a quick summary of what happened to Internet in ten long years, we could talk about a lot of
other things: but if you are interested in the topic you can depeen it by yourself! Finally, I want to thank you for watching
this video and I hope you enjoyed it.

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