The History of Hindu India, 1000-1850 ce


Namaste. My name is Raj Narayan. In
this documentary we will talk about the foreign invasions and rule of India
between 1000 and 1847 ce–from the Arab Muslims to the British rulers. This was a difficult time for the common
people of India who faced religious persecution and economic hardship.
However this period also saw the development of great music, devotional
literature and Indo-Islamic art and architecture. This is the great temple of
Somnath, which held an important position in this period of Indian
history, a time of warfare, conquest and subjugation. Of all the ancient world
cultures that the Muslims conquered and ruled during this era, only the Indian
culture and Hindu identity survived largely intact and continue to flourish
today. Tis is a high tribute to the determination and courage is resistance
of the people of this great land. The Foreign Conquests The first Muslim
conquest was of the Sindh region by Arabs from Basra in southern Iraq in 712,
not long after Islam was founded. By 870, Arab armies
conquered the Hindu kingdoms of southwestern Afghanistan, but were
prevented by the kings of northern India from advancing east of Khyber Pass. The
next wave of invasions began in the late 10th century. These attacks were by
Central Asian Muslim Turks who were already established in southwestern
Afghanistan. Their leader, Mahmud of Ghazni, raided India 17 times between 1001
and 1024. In each city, his armies looted and destroyed temples and killed or
enslaved the inhabitants. The attack on the renowned Shiva temple at Somnath in
1024 was the most horrific, involving the massacre of 50,000 defenders and the
plunder of the city’s fabulous wealth. As a result of these invasions and
warfare, twenty million indians perished between 1000 and 1100 ce according to
modern historians. This was about 10 percent of the population. In the words
of the contemporary Arabic scholar Al- Biruni, “These invasions utterly ruined
the prosperity of the country.” Between 1192 and 1194, Muhammad of Ghur, also
Turkic, finally defeated the Hindu rulers of the Delhi-Ajmer region and the
Ganga river valley. In 1206, his regime established formal Muslim rule, called
the Sultanate, in the key city of Delhi. By 1300, the Sultanate had secured stable
control around its main stronghold in the north. Early in the next century, its invasions
reached as far south as Thanjavur and Madurai. But these more remote regions
were never annexed. Hindu rule generally continued in Rajasthan and Gujarat and
thrived throughout the south during these nine centuries, notably under the
Vijayanagara empire founded in 1336 by Hindu princes re-converted from Islam. In
1504, Babur, a descendant of both the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan and the
famous Central Asian Muslim ruler Timur, seized Kabul, Afghanistan, and from there attacked India. He overpowered both the
Muslim Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu Rajput confederacy to found the Mogul
Empire. His army was the first in India to use matchlock rifles and field cannons,
which had deadly effects against his enemies. Babur’s grandson, Akbar, who became emperor in
1556, expanded the Mughal Empire over northern India and part of the Deccan by
conquest and by entering into alliances with Hindu kings. Akbar’s rule was noted for its religious
harmony and the beginning of Indo-Islamic art and architecture. Unfortunately, Akbar’s successors did
not inherit his tolerance. His great-grandson Aurangzeb, who annexed most
of the south, also resumed the destruction of temples
and reimpose the hated jizya, a religious tax, on the Hindus. A legendary Hindu
hero of this era was the courageous Maratha warrior Shivaji. By the time of
his birth in 1627, the Marathas had lived under Muslim domination for hundreds of
years. At age 17, Shivaji led his first military campaign. Within 10 years he
gained control of enough territory to alarm both his overlord, the Sultan of
Bijapur, and Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi, both of whom sent large armies to
subdue him. But Shivaji’s smaller, fast-moving and well-armed forces proved
invincible. Unlike earlier Hindu kings, Shivaji made use of modern means of warfare, such
as rifles and cannons, and developed a navy to expand his power. He inaugurated
independent Maratha rule by performing his coronation in 1674. by the mid-18th century, the Mughal Empire
had declined. The Sikhs, Jats, Rajputs and Marathas as well as the Mughla Imperial
provincial governors of Oudh, Bengal and Hyderabad had carved independent states,
thereby leaving no strong central government in India. Since 1498 when the
Portuguese arrived in India a number of European powers including the Dutch,
British and French established trading posts in India. Tis also contributed to
the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. The British, in particular, established
the East India Company in 1600 to trade goods between Britain, India and other
Eastern countries. Like the other Europeans, they came to India as
businessman not conquerors. However, over time, the East India Company fortified
key trading post using private armies, meddled in local politics, engaged in
unfair trading practices and levied heavy taxes. Through a strategy of divide
and conquer, they attained near total control of the Indian subcontinent, a
story which hotel in part 4 of this documentary. Hindu Religion During Muslim Times The Arab and Turkic Muslim invaders who
swept across the Middle East, Africa, Central and South Asia were intent on
religious domination, demanding conversion from those they conquered and
subjugated. According to Muslim accounts of the time, thousands of Indian temples
were sacked and destroyed including hundreds at sacred pilgrimage destinations
such as Somnath, Mathura, Vrindaban and Varanasi. A religious tax , jizya, was
imposed on conquered non-Muslims. This tax and the periodic violence put strong
pressure on Hindus to convert. However, the caste or jati system
proved a major obstacle and only a fraction of Hindus converted. Jati formed an integral part of one’s
identity and place in the Hindu community, one which would be lost upon
conversion. some Hindus of low socioeconomic status were tempted to
convert in order to improve their position. However, in practice, this
adoption of the foreign religion did not bring the promised advancement. the
convert from Islam, and later Christianity, simply formed new jatis or
casts among themselves of similar status. Meanwhile in South India, in areas beyond
Moghul control, Hindu religion thrived, with frequent and spirited temple
festivals providing a vital part of each community’s social, cultural and
religious life. The art of building majestic temples reached its peak during
this period. Many of these remarkable structures are
popular places of worship today. Dynamic saint philosophers of the time
inspired devotional lineages which strengthened Hindus and discouraged
conversion. Among the most notable Vaishnava saints were Ramanuja and
Madhva. Around 1,200, Jayadeva, a popular writer in Orissa and Bengal wrote
the famous Gita Govinda. The Hindus of Maharastra were similarly roused by
Jnaneshvara, Namdeva, Tukaram and Samarth Ramdas. In North
India Swami Ramanand inspired the worship of God as Lord Rama, a
personal and intimate form of the divine. From his popular teachings two
traditions arose. The first included Nimb and totally does
arka, Chaitanya, Surdas, Mirabai and Tulsidas Each encouraged worship of Lord Krishna
or Lord Rama and influenced millions of people with spiritual songs in the
regional languages. The second tradition began with Ramananda’s disciple
Kabir. Born in Varanasi, orphaned at a young age and raised by a low caste
Muslim family of weavers, he grew up in Islamic culture, but was drawn as a boy
to follow the teachings of the Hindu saint Ramananda. Kabir strove to
promote religious harmony by appealing to both Hindus and Muslims, teaching that
there is only one God for all religions. Often referring to Rama as his Lord, he
wrote hundreds of spiritual poems in Hindi which are sunk to this day by
millions. Another remarkable religion, Sikhism, emerged in India
at the start of the 16th century and became a powerful force. Its founder, Guru Nanak, taught “Realization
of truth is higher than all else. Higher still is truthful living.” He emphasized
the continuous recitation of God’s name and declared that meditation is the
means to see God, who is omnipresent. Dissent from prevailing beliefs has always been
common within Hinduism, sometimes resulting in new sects and from time to
time even the development of distinct religions. Nine Sikh Gurus followed
Nanak. The eighth, Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb for defending religious
freedom. His son and successor, Gobind Singh,
transform the Sikhs into a warrior community called the Khalsa, which means
“The pure.” Gobind Singh decreed that he was the last Sikh Guru and after his
death the Guru Granth Sahib, their holy scripture, would be the guide. He instituted
the five articles of Sikh identity to be worn at all times: Kesh (uncut hair); Kangha (comb); Kirpan (dagger); Kara
(iron bracelet) and Kachera or Kachcha (short pants) These have both a religious and
a military significance. From that time forward, the Sikhs have been an
influential political and military force in North India. Sihhism developed and is concentrated
mostly in the Punjab region. Today Sikhism has 26 million followers all
over the world. Teaching Religion Through Songs India has always had an extraordinarily diverse musical scene. It ranges
from the complex compositions of the classical tradition to the villagers’
devotional hymns and simple work songs in their local language. Bhajana and
kirtan are congregational singing of devotional songs. India’s classical Carnatic
music is also spiritual and devotional in nature, but much more complex. Songs were
originally composed in Sanskrit and later increasingly in the regional
languages, such as Hindi, Telugu and Tamil. Both are based upon the concept of tala,
which means a rhythm and raga, which is a system of notes producing a melody. Talas range from the simple and most
common 8 beat Adi tala… …to elaborate rhythms such as the Ata tala
composed of 14 beats divided as 5, 5, 2 and 2. Ragas include notes from the seven note Indian
scale (sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dhi, ni) as well as microtones, which are
like the sharps and flats of Western music, only more numerous. Singers improvise upon the basic melody while
keeping within the chosen raga. The results are spontaneous, creative and
never the same, much like the improvisations in Western jazz. This is
one key way that Indian classical music differs from Western classical music,
which is usually played exactly as it was composed. Both the popular village music and the
more formal classical compositions are religious and emotional in nature. Song and storytelling where the main
ways most people in those days learned and expressed their religion. It
helped them endure difficult times. Beginning in 1000, Muslim armies conquered vast regions of India, causing
great suffering and destruction. They sacked temples, monasteries and major
educational centers including 1193, the great university at Nalanda. South
India was far from the Muslim capitals of Delhi and Agra and difficult to
attack. It escaped the frequent warfare and the foreign dominance that beset
North India, suffering only periodic raids, temporary subjugation and payment
of monetary tributes. Wherever Hindus were conquered, they continue to resist, mainly
on a social and religious level. Most Hindus did not convert to Islam, despite
inducements, violence and religious taxation. The arrival of European traders
especially the British East India Company, radically transformed the
political situation over time. By force and skillful politics, the British slowly
gained complete control of the Indian subcontinent, a story we shall narrate
next time. Until then, Namaste.

Comments 100

  • Extremely thank you

  • Thanks alot we r proud to b hindu.

  • All the information conveyed is precise and compact which is very pleasing and the presentation is poetic. There is mention of a lot of scriptures and scrolls did they survive or are all destroyed

  • Thank you so much for spreading the truth

  • Many of Today Indian youth don't know the this detailed history of India. Even if they wan to know there is not enough resource which can tell the history precisely in short time. Your channel doing it. Thank you So much.

  • I don't know why i had tears in my eyes when i saw this video. please continue to the fourth one. You are a blessing .

  • Can you please bring us the history of Buddhism also during these turmoil times and why Hindu religion thrived while Budhhism failed and was completely removed during medieval times…

  • Went through the three parts, waiting for the fourth one. Great work by you guys in educating every one about our culture…

  • nice video…loved it😘

  • "The Hindu nation (India) extends from the mountains of Khorasan (Afghanistan) and of es-Sind (Baluchistan) as far as et-Tubbet (Tibetan Plateau.)"Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar

    "Hindustan is described as enclosed on the east, west and south by the ocean, but Sarandip (Sri Lanka), Achin (Indonesia), Maluk (Indonesia) and Malagha (Malaysia) and a considerable number of islands are accounted for within its extent."Ain-i-Akbari

    "This (Brahmaputra) is the eastern boundary of Jambudvipa, its western boundary being the mouths of the Indus and its southern boundary being the Indian Ocean or Rama Sethu."Artha Sastra

    "The country lying north of the ocean and south of the Himadri is Bharata."Vishnu Purana

    "In the west [for Aryavarta] the boundary-river (Indus), in the east the region where the sun rises (Himalayas),—as far as the black antelopes wander (between these two limits.)"Vasiśṭha Sutra

    "The boundary of the land of India towards the north is Mount Taurus (Caucasus.) The western part of India is bounded by the river Indus right down to the ocean. Towards the south this ocean bounds the land of India, and eastwards the sea itself is the boundary."Indoi

    IVC residents worshiped Shiva in both his Pasupati and Shivling forms as found in the valley.

  • superb bro , make some more ,like this , we are with you, jai hind , jay maa bharati,

  • very informative thank you for making this series hope you add more videos

  • Thanks for your excellant narration.My favourite indian hero is' the great Shivaji'

  • it's nice video and very helpfull

  • Very interesting documentary……can we please have the part 4 of this series.

  • Make me in tears 😭 so beautifully described 😒Proud to be Indian..!!

  • Please make hindi version also for who don't know english please please

  • Hi there….. I've been watched Part 1, 2 and 3 and I really love this documentary 😍😍😍😍….. Will be waiting for the next part. Good job 👍🏻👍🏻👍🏻👍🏻👍🏻

  • Thanks a lot for keeping commnets section clean.

  • Very nice presentation. Thank you.

  • feeling more connected to my faith and got more data to debate with others logically.
    Thank you.

  • Absolutely educational and informational to modern Hindus.. loved it.. look forward to more of this and more detailed narratives.

  • This is very interesting that i never knew before amazing

  • Very interesting and informative

  • Very informative indeed. But lacks a major history of the north East India.
    While many do know about Shivaji and Rana Pratap, there was one ruling dynasty that gave nightmares to the Mughals, the Ahoms of Assam.  Ahom dynasty successfully ruled the north East India for a period of 600 years(1228-1826). 'Lachit Borphukan Award' is given to the best cadet of NDA(National Defence Academy) in honour of the great Ahom General Lachit Borphukan who defeated the mughals number of times. Please include the history of this great dynasty without which the History of India remains incomplete. Thanks

  • thank yew

  • Hats off to the producers and other technicians of the most valuable video for every modern Indians.

  • This entire series about the Hindu and India is beautifully executed I've always been attracted to the cultures of India, Egypt and the Indigenous North American Indian Tribes in the US. The seem like they had concrete well grounded love of their people. Developed high spiritual awareness and the least traditionally at war. The West and Tribes of the Moslem were all warrior nations. There is a great human dignity in high spiritual awareness. Maybe if I reincarnate I'll be a Hindu. I think I would enjoy most of the Hindu traditions…especially the singing.

  • excellent ,great skill of communication..learned speaker love you friend be connected regards

  • what an amazing explanation proud to be hindu

  • Har har Mahadev.🙏

  • Great well done video

  • I just finished watching the video I'm like wow India has a beautiful mysterious history so much to learn thank you for posting this video

  • Good video.
    But, you left a lot out.
    You didn't mention Kashmir, Ladakh, Nepal, Arunachal, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Malabar, etc.

  • very interesting and informative. i like it

  • excellent… I would like to convert to the Malayalam language

  • Excellent narration and composition

  • Will part 4 ever come?

  • Great Effort!!👌

  • Jay shivaji

  • Really awesome

  • Happy to see no hate comments here. I am a muslim but have a lot of respect for Hindu brothers. Peace ✌️

  • fabulous work!

  • Between all the cultures in the world, I loved mostly the Hinduism

  • India is a fairy tale land. The more I hear about it the more I want to know about it. Thank you for this wondrous series.

  • Hinduism is the greatest religion in the world..There are no Hindu converts..only the born and those who adopt it..That’s the beauty of this great path

  • Should be appreciated ! Great work ! 👌👏

  • good history review

  • There is more information about muslim invasion of india rather than the kingdoms that resisted the invasion especially the vijaynagar empire the reason that hinduism thrived and more temples were built in south india is because of this vijaynagar empire sadly this empire has always been left out indians should know about this empire and its importance

  • A very good piece of work. Please keep it up. Let me know if i could assist you in this

  • Namaste. Simply awesome. Thank you so much for a clear look at Indian history. Very well done.

  • what do you mean by hindu princes reconverted from islam ?

  • I watched all 3 parts listed here and I am so glad I watched it.
    Thank you so much for making it. Blessings. Namaste.

  • good history thank you very much for information

  • Really interesting presentation. I like that there are sections that present culture along with the history. Because Hinduism is so enduring it's like studying the past and present all at once.

  • Thanks,skt

  • But Mughals could never capture ancient Assam. They attacked assam 3 times and every time Mughals were defeated by Ahom rulers. Their worst defeat was in the battle of Saraighat in 1671

  • 🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏

  • Thank you for truth !.

  • i find india/hindu music so beautiful.

  • I learn many things from this video

  • Now I guess why all the old temples are located in Tamil nadu and Orissa and Karnataka . – Thanks to Deccan plateau and Chota Nagpur plateaus .

  • Thanks sir

  • Very nice and accurate documentary

  • The things been represented so well.But one mistake here is Guru Teg Bahadur who was ninth Sikh Guru been told eight Sikh Guru also Guru Gobind Singh was tenth Sikh Guru who was again mistakingly told ninth Sikh Guru this was a bit discrepancy otherwise everything was fine.

  • Excellent Video !!! Very Informative.. there is no doubt that Mughal rule in India faced stiff resistance at different periods from the great RAJPUT warriors, fierce AHOMS warriors from Assam & from Punjab the brave SIKHS warriors…
    Rightly did the great Hindi Poet Bhushana, who forsook the royal favours of the Mughal court to come over to Shivaji to record his glories, he sang :-“काशी की कला जाती, मथुरा की मसजीद बनती, अगर शिवाजी ना होते तो सबकी सुन्नत होती.”
    meaning : (Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture,Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised.)
    If not for Shivaji and the Marathas, there would have existed a continuous Islamic belt from Morocco to Indonesia. What addition of 1 billion more adherents to Islam would have done to the world power balance or what would have happened to Indian legacy like yoga, ayurveda, music, art and philosophy, is not difficult to guess….
    It is worthwhile examining the 'what if' of Indias history, Aurengzeb, Akbars great great grandson, had embarked on the 'Islamisation' of India. The Marathas, inspired by Shivaji, fought Aurengzeb and saved India from following the fate of Persia. The proof of Maratha victory lies in the fact that Aurengzeb lies buried, not in Lahore /Delhi or Agra , but near Aurangabad in good old Maharashtra…
    Indian history before Shivaji's advent reads like a chronicle of military disasters. Shivaji changed all that. He used Guerilla Tactics very effectively. Shivaji, as a great warrior & visionary laid a strong and solid foundation that after his death in 1680, there was a series of battles fought between Marathas and Mughals from 1681 to 1707 known as 'War of 27 years' and ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. The Marathas eventually emerged victorious and consolidated their lost territories. This was further expanded by the Peshwas. The Maratha empire reached its peak in summer of 1758 with the conquest of Attock, which is banks of Indus river in Pakistan today. Its eastern frontier was today’s Orissa, being ruled by Raghuji Bhosale of Nagpur. Maratha armies had also reached upto Murshidabad, but then retreated and settled for tribute from Bengal and control of Orissa. To the south, in 1758, territories upto the fort of Gurramkonda in Kadappah district were held. Also, Tanjore (Thanjavur) was under Marathas, but that was a different line. (By the way Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is also considered as the 'Father of the Indian Navy'.)
    Jai HIND !!! VANDE MATARAAM !! VANDE MATARAAM !! VANDE MATARAAM !!

  • I'm originally from North and having lived in Maharashtra for 2 years want to say with all conviction that it's unfortunate that Shivaji is lauded and revered only in Maharashtra instead he should be revered in all of India being one of the main saviours of Hinduism.

  • I'm Tamilian and I admit that Northern States acted as a wall between Invaders and Southern India. It must not be a matter of shame for South Indian people to accept that North India faced Most of the Invasions.

  • Thank you for informative video. Expecting more on future!

  • Apt presentation ,how ever u have missed the contribution of Great Kannada sain Basavanna and his followers ,it's his teachings mainly in karnataka parts of Maharashtra, Tamil nadu and andra pradesh, gave solace to the millions…they also played a key role in vijayanagar empire which acted as a bullwork against Islam and Muslims..

  • Good video bro

  • Often everyone says we r the only survivors of onslaughts.we r not survivors.we lost all scholars then and we r now left with baths,yatras,vrats,pujas.the real religion is lost forever

  • I'm so glad to find this video and learn some of the history. It always fascinates me how cultures evolved through centuries.

  • punjab is more than what u showed…

  • It will be proper to Part 1,2 or 3 then we know where we are…

  • Excellent Video. A Must Watch.

  • Great indeed.

  • Thank you this video.💐💐🙏👍👍

  • Religion of the future or rather for eternity is definetly hinduism

  • Very nice compilation of great info

  • Everytime I listen about shivaji my pride increases….A proud maratha

  • Thanks for a great narrative. However, it is important to also add that the defeat of India was at least in part because Hindus stopped accepting constant interaction with foreign people of all kinds, which led to India becoming unaware of advances in the middle east and Ottoman empire. This included military tactics and new technologies, which left Indians incapable of incorporating these new methods that would have helped in pursuing their enemies and destroying them.

  • I would think that the lack of support for unique Indian Ashrams and temples after Islamic turnover also kept India from technological developments of the previous era. It will be great to hear your comments on this thought.

  • Great job u did thanks a lot

  • Helpful to know past of us 👌

  • Best Documentary about this great nation!

  • Chattrapati Shivaji only Indian king who was not a fool like other Indian Kings. No Muslim ruler was stronger than Aurangazeb but Shivaji the only Indian ruler who didn't believe in old ideologies and believed that Marathas greatest strength lies in intelligence and it's utilization proved to be a pain to Mughals.

  • Jai Shivaji . He spread back hindu empire

  • Cool video m8

  • Tears rolling my eyes.But one confidential message is that, all our indian gurus promising that again india is going to be the light of the world. Yogi ji of thiruvannamalai promised that Ram rajya is not far away in earlier 2000s. Also assured that it will start from 2020 itself.Soon lets hope for All in one India again.

  • Wow, what a fine and satisfactory video….I was always in search and keen of videos like this …Special Thanks from my side… keep going with some new stuff and we will be keep waiting for your new videos. Thanks

  • We have a beautiful history. Thanx Chatrapati Maharaj for saving this gold culture.

  • I humbly bow my head to all the saints and shaheeds of mother india!

  • Very well made video. The recent Kumbh mela in 2019 had a great exhibition of Indian history in what they called as an art and culture extravaganza. We were lucky to film it and was an enlightening experience.

  • That woman is a great singer.

  • Beautiful ❤️

  • Hindus In The Caribbean And South Americas Resisted Colonization! And Remain Hindus For Life! 🚩 🇬🇾 🇹🇹 🇸🇷

  • Great video
    Jai Bhwani Jai Shivaji

  • We know all this history from mohd ghazni. Let us know history about before 1000 years. That is what we have not learnt in our textbooks. We need to research on that and to be taught to our students , children, teachers, principal, that is what will get us the pride. We were better and confident society than. Our men and women had better ideas and thoughts. We were better professionals, scholars, scientist, thinkers and implementators.
    We need to get that back. This what is required today. Research on our books is required whether, religious, scientific, literature, mathematics or any others studies.

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