The Dangers of Whitewashing Black History | David Ikard | TEDxNashville

Translator: Frankie Bellevie
Reviewer: Leonardo Silva I am the proud father
of two beautiful children: Elijah, 15, and Octavia, 12. When Elijah was in the 4th grade, he came to me, he came home from school
bubbling over with excitement about what he had learned that day about African American history. Now, I’m an African American
and Cultural Studies professor, and so, as you can imagine, African American culture
is kind of serious around my home. So, I was very proud
that my son was excited about what he had learned
that day in school. So I said, “What did you learn?” He said, “I learned about Rosa Parks.” I said, “Okay, what did you learn
about Rosa Parks?” He said, “I learned that Rosa Parks
was this frail, old black woman in the 1950s, in Montgomery, Alabama, and she sat down on this bus
and she had tired feet, and when the bus driver told her
to give up her seat to a white patron, she refused because she had tired feet
and it had been a long day, and she was tired of oppression, and she didn’t give up her seat. And she marched with Martin Luther King
and she believed in non-violence.” And I guess he must have looked at my face and saw that I was
a little less than impressed by his history lesson. And so, he stopped and he’s like,
“Dad, what’s wrong? What did I get wrong?” I said, “Son, you didn’t
get anything wrong, but I think your teacher
got a whole lot of things wrong. (Laughter) He said, “But what do you mean?” I said, “Rosa Parks was not tired, she was not old and she certainly didn’t have tired feet.” He said, “What?” I said, “Yes! Rosa Parks was only 42 years old – yeah, you’re shocked, right?
You never heard that. Rosa Parks was only 42 two years old, she had only worked six hours that day
and she was a seamstress. And her feet were just fine. The only thing that she was tired of was she was tired of inequality. She was tired of oppression.” And my son said, “Well, why would my teacher, you know,
tell me this thing, you know? This is confusing for me.” Because he loved this teacher,
and she was a good teacher, a youngish, you know,
twenty-something, white woman, really, really smart, pushed him. So I liked her as well,
but he was confused. “Why would she tell me this?” he said. He said, “Dad, tell me more.
Tell me more about Rosa Parks.” And I said, “Son, I’ll do you one better.” He was like, “What?” I said, “I’m going to buy
her autobiography and I’m going to let you
read it yourself.” (Laughter) So as you can imagine, Elijah wasn’t too excited about this new,
lengthy homework assignment that his dad had just given him, but he took it in stride. And he came back after he had read it and he was excited
about what he had learned. “Dad,” he said, “not only was Rosa Parks
not initially into non-violence, but Rosa Parks’ grandfather, who basically raised her
and was light enough to pass as white, used to walk around town
with his gun in his holster, and people knew that if you messed with Mr. Parks’s
children or grandchildren, he would put a cap
in your proverbial bottom. (Laughter) Right? He was not someone to mess with. And he said, “I also learned that Rosa Parks married a man in Raymond who was a lot like her grandfather.” He was a civil rights activist, he would organize events, and sometimes the events would be
at Rosa Parks’s home. And one time, Rosa Parks remarked
that there were so many guns on the table, because they were prepared for somebody
to come busting into the door, that they were prepared for whatever
that was going to go down. Rosa Parks said, “There were
so many guns on the table that I forgot to even offer them
coffee or food.” This is who Rosa Parks was. And in fact, Rosa Parks, when she was
sitting on that bus that day, waiting for those
police officers to arrive, and not knowing what
was going to happen to her, she was not thinking
about Martin Luther King, who she barely knew; she was not thinking
about non-violence or Gandhi; she was thinking about her grandfather, a gun-toting, take-no-mess, grandfather. That’s who Rosa Parks was thinking about. And my son was mesmerized by Rosa Parks, and I was proud of him
to see this excitement. But then, I still had a problem, because I still had to go to his school
and address the issue with his teacher. because I didn’t want her
to continue to teach the kids obviously false history. So I’m agonizing over this, primarily because I understand
as an African American man that whenever you talk
to whites about racism or anything that’s racially sensitive, there’s usually going to be a challenge. This is what white sociologist
Robin Di Angelo calls “white fragility.” She argues, in fact because whites
have so little experience being challenged
about their white privilege, that whenever even the most
minute challenge is brought before them, they usually cry, get angry or run. (Laughter) And I have experienced them all. And so, when I was contemplating
confronting his teacher, I wasn’t happy about it, but I was like, “This is the necessary evil
of being a black parent trying to raise self-actualized
black children.” So I called Elijah to me and I said, “Elijah, I’m going to tell
your teacher, you know, I’ll set up an appointment
with your teacher and try and correct this,
and maybe your principle. What do you think?” And Elijah said,
“Dad, I have a better idea.” And I said, “Really? What’s your idea?” He said, “We have
a public speaking assignment, and why don’t I use
that public speaking assignment to talk about debunking
the myth of Rosa Parks?” And I was like, “Well, that is a good idea!” (Laughter) So Elijah goes to school, he does his presentation, he comes back home, and I could see
something positive happened. I said, “Well, what happened, Son?” He said, “Well, later on in that day, the teacher pulled aside
and she apologized to me, for giving that misinformation.” And then something else
miraculous happened the next day: she actually taught
a new lesson on Rosa Parks, filling in the gaps that she had left
and correcting the mistakes that she made, and I was so, so proud of my son. But then, I thought about it. And I got angry. And I got real angry. Why? Why would I get angry? Because my nine-year-old son had to educate
his teacher about his history, had to educate his teacher
about his own humanity. He’s nine years old! He should be thinking about basketball,
or soccer, or the latest movie … He should not be thinking about
having to take the responsibility of educating his teacher,
his [classmates], right, about himself, about his history. That was the burden that I carried, that was the burden
that my parents carried, and generations before them carried. And now I was seeing my son
take on that burden too. You see, that’s why Rosa Parks
wrote her autobiography. Because during her lifetime – If you can imagine: you do this amazing thing; you’re alive and you’re talking about
you civil rights activism, and a story emerges
in which somebody is telling the world that you were old, and you had tired feet, and you just were an accidental activist, not that you had been an activist,
by then for twenty years; not that the boycott
had been planned for months; not that you were not even the first,
or the second, or even the third woman to be arrested for doing that. Right? You become an accidental activist. Even in her own lifetime! So she wrote that autobiography
to correct the record. Because what she wanted
to remind people of was that this is
what it was like in the 1950s, trying to be black in America
and fight for your rights. During the year, little over a year,
that the boycott lasted, there were over four church bombings. Martin Luther King’s
house was bombed twice. Other civil rights leaders’ houses
were bombed in Birmingham. Rosa Parks’s husband
slept at night with a shotgun, because they would get
constant death threats. In fact, Rosa Parks’ mother
lived with them, and sometimes she would stay
on the phone for hours so that nobody would call in
with death threats, because it was constant and persistent. In fact there was so much tension,
there was so much pressure, there was so much terrorism, that Rosa Parks and her husband lost
their jobs and they became unemployable, and eventually had to leave
and move out of the South. This is the civil rights reality that Rosa Parks wanted to make sure
that people understood. So you say, “Well, David, what does that have to do with me? I’m a well-meaning person,
I didn’t own slaves, you know, I’m not trying to whitewash history,
I’m a good guy, I’m a good person.” Let me tell you
what it has to do with you. And I’ll tell it to you
by telling you a story about a professor of mine,
a white professor, when I was in graduate school, who was a brilliant, brilliant individual. We’ll call him Fred. And Fred was writing this history
of the Civil Rights movement, but he was writing specifically
about a moment that happened to him in North Carolina, when this white man shot
this black man in cold blood, in a wide open space, and was never convicted. And so, it was this great book, and he called together
a couple of his professor friends, and he called me to read a draft of it
before final submission. And I was flattered that he called me,
I was only a graduate student then, and I was kind of, you know,
feeling myself a little bit. OK, yeah! I’m sitting around
amongst intellectuals, and I read the draft of the book. And there’s a moment in the book that
struck me as being deeply problematic. And so I said, “Fred,” as we were
sitting around, talking about this draft – I said, “Fred, I got a real problem
with this moment that you talk about
your maid in your book.” And he said – I can see Fred get a little up, you know. He’s got a little “tight,” as we say, And he said, “what do you mean?
That’s a great story! It happened just like I said!” I said, “Hmm… can I give you
another scenario?” Now, what’s the story? It was 1968: Martin Luther King
had just been assassinated. His maid, domestic – we’ll call her
May Belle – was in the kitchen. Little Fred is eight years old;
little Fred comes into the kitchen. And May Belle, who is only seen
as smiling and helpful and happy, is bent over the sink, and she’s crying. And she’s sobbing, inconsolably. And little Fred comes over
to her and says, “May Belle, what is wrong?!” May Belle turns and she says,
“They killed him! They killed our leader!
They killed Martin Luther King! He’s dead! They are monsters!” And little Fred says,
“It’ll be OK, May Belle, it’ll be OK, it’ll be OK.” And she looked at him and she’s,
“No! It’s not going to be OK! Did you not hear what I just said?!
They killed Martin Luther King!” And Fred, son of a preacher, looks up at May Belle and he says, “But May Belle, didn’t Jesus die
on the cross for our sins? Wasn’t that a good outcome? Maybe this will be a good outcome. Maybe the death of Martin Luther King
will lead to a good outcome.” And as Fred tells the story, he says that May Belle
put her hand over her mouth, she reached down
and she gave little Fred a hug, and then she reached into the ice box and took out a couple of Pepsis,
gave him some Pepsis, and sent him on his way
to play with his siblings. And he said, “This was proof that even
in the most harrowing times, a race struggle, that two people
can come together across racial lines and find human commonality
along the lines of love and affection.” And I said, “Fred, that is some BS.” (Laughter) (Applause) And Fred was … And Fred was like,
“But I don’t understand. That’s the story!” I said, “Fred, may I ask you a question?” I said, “You were in North Carolina, 1968. If May Belle would have gone
to her community – you were 8 years old – what do you think 8-year-old African
American children were calling her? Do you think they were
calling her by her first name? No, they called her Ms. May Belle,
or they called her Ms. Johnson, or they called her Auntie Johnson. They would have never dared
call her by her first name, because that would have been
the height of disrespect. And yet you were calling her by her first
name every single day that she worked, and you never thought about it. I said, “May I ask you another question? Was May Belle married? Did she have children? What church did she go to?
What was her favorite dessert?” Fred could not answer
any of those questions. I said, “Fred, this story is not
about May Belle, this story is about you.” I said, “This story made you feel good,
but this story is not about May Belle. The reality is what probably
happened was May Belle was crying, which was not something
she customarily did. So she was letting her guard down. And you came into the kitchen,
and you caught her at a weak moment, when she was letting her guard down. And see, because you thought of yourself
as just like one of her children, you didn’t recognize that you were
in fact the child of her employer. And she found herself yelling at you, and then she caught herself realizing
that if I’m yelling at him, and he goes back and he tells
his dad or he tells mum, I could lose my job. And so she tempered herself. And even though she needed consoling, she ended up consoling you
and sending you on your way. Perhaps so she could finish
mourning in peace.” And Fred was stunned. And he realized that he had actually
misread that moment. And see, this is what
they did to Rosa Parks. Because it’s a lot easier to digest
an old grandmother with tired feet, who doesn’t stand up
because she wants to fight for inequality, but because her feet and her back
are tired and she’s worked all day. See, grandmothers,
all grandmothers are not scary, but young, radical black women,
who don’t take any stuff from anybody, are very scary, who stand up to power
and are willing to die for that. Those are not the kind of people
that make us comfortable. So you say, “What do you want me to do, David?
I don’t know what to do.” Well, what I would say to you is: There was a time in which
if you were Jewish you were not white, if you were Italian you were not white, if you were Irish you were not
white in this country. It took a while before the Irish, the Jews
and the Italians became white, right? There was a time
in which you were othered, when you were the people on the outside. Toni Morrison said, “If in order for you
to be taller I have to be on my knees, you have a serious problem.” She says, “White America
has a serious, serious problem.” To be honest, I don’t know
if race relations will improve in America, but I know that if they will improve, we have to take
these challenges on head on. The future of my children depends on it. The future of my children’s
children depends on it. And whether you know it or not, the future of your children, and your children’s children, depends on it too. Thank you. (Applause)

Comments 100

  • I dont like the idea of "white washing". As far as I can tell and please correct me if I'm wrong I'm being genuine, white washing is blaming white people for miseducation?

  • This doesn't sound like whitewashing so much as whitesplaining in all honesty.

  • people in South Africa complain because they feel our transition is not happening fast enough but in America yol have had freedom way longer yol should not still be mitigating… a few weeks ago a mass shooting

  • What books do i read for reeducation.

  • Why would white people be challenged something that does not exist.

  • My nephew, 15 months old and white, needs to be aware of the history that he will not be shown in his classrooms. Educate your children, America. This is on point and white America needs to listen to non-white voices. It’s so obvious.

  • No one ever speaks Claudette Colvin.


  • I actually like the real Rosa and her gun toting granddaddy. signed a champion for individual rights

  • I believed it was my responsibility to educate my children rather than the public school. So. I did just that. I took them out of school for 2 years & home schooled them.. They went back to school but it was private school. I was satisfied with the education. Today both are very successful.. Now I have a grandchild. I will b involed in her education also.

  • This guy is a GREAT speaker!

  • There is no African history in America, because there are not Africans in America (aside from recent legal immigrants from that continent). There are only Americans in this country.

  • You sir, are the reason we Americans are still dealing with racism. I think it would be great if people got on with the business of being an American instead of identifying with Africa. You should ask yourself why you will not let racism die.

  • I'm not sure if saying this would actually be of any benefit to anyone, but I've already started writing…
    I consider myself supportive of racial equality, despite being raised in an environment that was not particularly supportive of that. I learned some things in this video I've not heard before and and I'm uneasy. I'm now wondering if I'm part of the problem, even if I'm trying to be the opposite…

  • They'll never change as a collective…

    We must take back our control

  • I’m going to say this we asked for integration and look what we now have.

  • He is a child! Parks story is taught differently to children than grad students. I learned that Parks did this as a political statement in high school.
    Who on earth asks children to read graduate level writings on every historical figure? Children learn basic lessons which evolve as they grow. Secondly let’s not act as if there is no debate on Parks. His is ONE narrative! It’s not the only narrative about Parks and her motivations.
    Sorry but he does not get to define the be all end all of this issue. It’s still debated among scholars yet here we want extremely complex concepts taught to 9 year olds??? Really?
    Who on earth believes that this is a practical way of teaching 9 year old children?

  • I do believe that it's very common for any strong woman to be history to be viewed as a threatening presence. But I think sharing historically accurate videos like this are a great way to help clear up some 'confusion'. I shared this with my child and made him promise to share it with his. Truth is a treasure without any monetary value to me. Thank you for sharing this wonderful and powerful message.

  • Not a day has gone by in my life where I didn’t hear about slavery …. thanks YouTube recommendations for keeping the streak going.

  • Yep! It's the same B.S. they taught us re: Rosa Park's activism…glad I ran upon this vid…smh

  • food is stripped of its nutrients and serves no purpose.( Bleach flour, white rice, fake juice, the list is endless)..white wash history includes white washed food.

  • People who cry about the past are dooming their present.

  • Violating the rights of others always came with consequences from bows and arrows to shoot guns and pistols, the forbidden knowledge of gunpowder was introduced by the Chinese. It wasn't Adam and Eve who bit that Apple

  • White people are so bad, yet blacks all want to live in white countries. I don't see any of them going to Asia, Africa, South America or the Middle East.

  • Everyone should see this. Histories injustices are being hid from us by the government.

  • Oh, according to him I am not WASP white, as I am a catholic.

  • Children are taught filtered versions of all history. That what happens when your pushing an agenda!!

  • is this guy getting paid by soros or what.

  • Only people whitewashing history are the party of hate the party of the KKK the demOcrats

  • Like King, the plagiarist, Rosa Parks was an unoriginal instance taken from from someone else work and repackaged and reused. Claudette Colvin's arrest happened months before Parks' incident. Colvin herself was but one of many in a long line of people who spoke out against it

  • So even "professors" who give out fake degrees to gullible dummies get to speak at Tedx.

  • How is this white washing? It seems to be just another example of an apocryphal story being made about a real historical figure. Was it white washing to say that George Washington had wooden teeth or chopped down a cherry tree?

  • We are all children of the universe of this creation of God, the universe shall correct all wrongs, I would hate to be caught on the wrong side of it's Justice system.
    Just like men, they have their so called criminal Justice systems, then what do you think of The universe, and His Justice system.
    Don't get caught on the wrong side of real universal Justice.

  • Wait! But little Fred was right and on point about The Jesus Christ part to maybelll, have you never read in psalm 8. And in The story of Jesus' glorious or of His Triumphant entry into Jerusalem in The four synoptic gospels, Where it's stated, out of The mouth of babes and sucklings thou has ordained strength and has perfected praise…
    Yeah, God was using little Fred to comfort and console may bell, concerning the death of King, comparing it to the death of Christ.
    that's powerful theology for full grown adults, less alone a little child like Fred.
    no my brother, Fred didn't miss the mark on this, you did, being wise in your own conceit, you missed the wisdom of God.
    Fred was used by Jesus Christ that day to comfort and to console a hurting soul and perhaps one of His own, and to teach a profound truth of, to gain you must lose, to live we must die.
    Glory hallelujah.
    I think an apology is in order towards Fred.

  • This is why Democrats want to take our guns…so we can't DEFEND OURSELVES.

  • Huh, it's almost like you guys should have your own schools in your own neighborhoods filled with teachers and administrators who look and act like you. I think there's a word for that, I can't remember what it is… Oh, yeah, it's segregation. Sounds like a good idea, sounds like we could really use some segregation.

  • But in the picture she looks 29

  • School is their to teach the basics. It is up to the student to expand on what he learns. No, their is no conspiracy to conceal black's history.

  • Our people have gotten lazy. What is our real problem asking for a friend or many.

  • Blacks wouldn't have a history without white people 👌 talk about ungrateful

  • History is told by the winners guys. If you want a true history, you need to go to a history class in every single country

  • ;_; this is sad

  • Racebateing is real

  • No more lies?

  • Great Video

  • i had to correct my teacher that russia isnt communist anymore

  • The only history that's being blackwashed right now (literally statues being torn down and history books rewritten) is white history. Just give it another 10 years.

  • That happened to several men and women before the Rosa Parks incident, most of whom we'll never know their names, but they didn't fit the type that they wanted to use as the example, which I think was wrong. She was light skinned dignified and her and her family had a connection with several civil rights organizations. From their point of view she was the perfect candidate for this legal challenge. Times were different then. Who knows at that time I may have done the same thing. I don't think so but who knows?

  • This mis-education is NOT an accident!! These issues should be addressed often, immediately, and harshly!!!

  • Great

  • Now do a talk on Blackwashing white history and society

  • Did u learn that we r not africans, stop all the lies.

  • It's not true. Also it wasn't Rosa Park it was a present for pregnant lady alright didn't want to use a present present lady so they pick Rosa Park.

  • I don't find no problem with him educating the teacher okay because they all know how to lie so I don't have a problem that's a system that we're at just like you calling yourself the Afro-American I mean color this is a part of the system that we are so I don't have a problem with my son learning that about Rosa Park and taking it back to her teacher the teacher


  • I am so proud of this day I shared the same truth with my daughter. She is a honor role student in high school.

  • How do we even learn our TRUE HISTORY ??

  • Thank you David Ikard! I am mesmerized like your son was.. and I am in my 30s!

  • this guy is pure bs

  • so the episode of "rosa parks" in "dr who" was all shyte. never trust the bbc. we should be told the truth about what really happened, irrelevant of how people feel.

  • Could the next video be the Dangerd of Jewashing White History?

  • I sat in on a colleague's history class and he, a Caucasian man, was teaching about Park's image being seen as more suitable for the movement. So glad the truth us getting out there.

  • gun-toting gun father😂😂😂 did anybody catch that

  • 😂🤣 Yes! That is what I was taught when I was in elementary school… We need to educate ourselves and our children our history. And correct them when our history is whitewashed.

  • It's not just a problem in America. Its in many countries. The narrative and the choice of history needs to change

  • Bro I’ve had a teacher that told me that Venezuela was perfectly fine -_- I’m also Venezuelan so you bet I was about to get mad

  • The audience's applause has to be shown… It's hard to tell if anyone appreciates it other than me..

  • The 1.1k people who disliked this video have issues with their White Fragility!✌🏿

  • Subjugation is like oppression or conquest: one group takes control over another and forces them to do as they're told. 
    Subjugation is one of many types of injustice in the world. It has to do with one group of people dominating another group by taking away their freedom.
    You have to look no further than to the “JESUS ” they were introduced to to see the miracle. The “Jesus” they met in the Middle Passage and on the plantations was firmly on the side of the oppressor and opposing their freedom. This experience was not a neutral one. He clearly was used by the slavers and planters to pacify the slaves and to justify their enslavement. He clearly anointed and appointed the oppressors, not for the ministry of reconciliation but for their “ministry of subjugation.” He was the “White Man’s Jesus.”

  • White America does have a serious problem

  • His death made it worse. Plus Jesus was not real , so dont compare the 2 one was real and the other was not

  • The public schools are still teaching the same history.

  • He wasted too much time acting uppity 😒✌🏾

  • Glad that I have been proactive enough to research my own history.

    White people it’s okay ur not all responsible for this. So try to avoid being offended.

    U whitewashed history because u have ur own nations interest at heart.

    But let’s accept and stop acting like the truth ain’t in front of us

  • I remember in kindergarten, my teacher (a White man) played a song on his guitar about her. It was all about the real reasons why she did what she did. I guess I was lucky to have a teacher who wasn’t scared to tell us about the real history of this extraordinary women

  • Hi,I believe there are so many Hebrews all over the world,but also
    believe the there is a difference between an Hebrew decendant and a
    Hebrew Israelite decendant from Jacob.Both nations came through
    Abraham,but only one was choosen of the Most High as his people/at that
    time).I don't think race matters then so much(maybe I'm wrong),does it
    matter still today and also which color the decendants of Jacob were and
    who they are today?I personally don't believe it matters what color
    they were,but think it would be good to know who they are today.And I
    may be wrong and or out of place to say this,but I don't believe it is
    the people over in Israel right @t you have any true information on this?

  • Hi,I believe there are so many Hebrews all over the world,but also
    believe the there is a difference between an Hebrew decendant and a
    Hebrew Israelite decendant from Jacob.Both nations came through
    Abraham,but only one was choosen of the Most High as his people/at that
    time).I don't think race matters then so much(maybe I'm wrong),does it
    matter still today and also which color the decendants of Jacob were and
    who they are today?I personally don't believe it matters what color
    they were,but think it would be good to know who they are today.And I
    may be wrong and or out of place to say this,but I don't believe it is
    the people over in Israel right @t you have any true information on this?

  • They whitewash the entire ancient civilisations and the history of Africa!

  • Thank you for putting Fred in his place

  • Public school’s common core is a joke bruh. I didn’t even learn bout Rosa parks till this yr and I’m a freshman in high school. Danonly reason I knew who she was in MS was cuz of da outkast song

  • As a European-American, I’d like to explain my family’s experience.

  • Africa belongs to you. We Europeans are allowed nothing for ourselves. Let us claim our European race!

  • and her grandfather and husband were probably Republicans

  • And the CEO of Little Caesars Pizza paid all her bills up till her death. rip🙏

  • When the White forefathers wrote the Constitution to these United States they clearly and transparently wrote it with the same intentions and mindset of the judge, who judged the Dred Scott decision, and the plantation owners/descendants who kept, cheated, refused to fight for the justice of 40 acres and a mule, instead of housing them as slaves and cheating, then calling them sharecroppers.
    This is the mindset, that they know the facts, acknowledge the facts, even write facts.
    Whites have usurped themselves over everyone, everything, everywhere, and none can/will hold them to the facts. Noone is bold enough, bad enough, or just enough to hold them to the facts in deed…So, actions speak louder than words!
    Terror, powers, and by any means necessary.

  • Talking of whitewash why the man with the big old mind not mention what happened in libera. …

  • Perhaps we should focus on similarities and not differences if we are to close this divide. Love each other like we Are Family.

  • I teach myself, not only because it amuses me, but because I’m disgusted by how much our public schools get things wrong. I plan to teach history, not only because it amuses me, but because we desperately require teachers in our society who care about the histories of the world.

  • I wish I knew as a kid that rosa parks lived in Michigan.

  • Amazing! Thanks, for your voice!

  • Enough with blacks, let talk about Asians.

  • How about they stop lying. Yes, she was tired but old, etc? She was tired allright. Tired of the BS.

  • HBCU'S are the best learning Institutions for learning African Americans History!!!

  • White women messing up our children. Tipical. Can't seem to get away from these people.

  • Brown people have no history. What is known as our history is lie.

  • The future looks bleak then …

  • 🙌🏼👏🏻

  • Hope we got African scholars who can rewrite our History perfectly well.

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