The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History

Hi I’m John Green. This is Crash Course European History and
today we’re going to look at what is sometimes called the “seventeenth century crisis.” Now I know what you’re thinking: This whole
history business is just one crisis after another. And yes, dear viewer, it’s true. Humankind careens from disaster to disaster,
but still we press on, like boats against the current, and sometimes we even learn from
previous disasters. And since the Seventeenth Century Crisis involves
climate change and catastrophic war, we should maybe pay attention to this one. [Intro]
Let’s begin with the Little Ice Age. The Little Ice Age began in 1300, but it really
escalated beginning in 1570 and then the climate continued to cool for over one hundred years
after that. It was a global phenomenon. In some places, the temperature may have shifted
two degrees Celsius or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, but the average was about half a degree Celsius. That may not sound dramatic, but it was. Intense rainfall, lack of sunshine, and lower
temperatures decreased harvests or ruined them entirely. Europeans suffered hypothermia; the birthrate
dropped; and famines became more common–as did cannibalism. In New England, the end of the 17th century
was the worst part of the Little Ice Age. 1797 was especially brutal: Settler Samuel
Sewell noted in his diary: “To Horses, Swine, Nett-Cattell, Sheep, and Deer, Ninety and
Seven prov’d a Mortal yeer.” Now, unlike contemporary climate change, the
Little Ice Age was not caused primarily by human behavior–it may have been caused by
volcanic activity or orbital cycles or cyclical lows in solar radiation. We like to think of the Earth’s climate
as entirely stable, but it never has been. That said, contemporary climate change IS
caused by humans–and even the most ambitious goals to limit it would result in an average
global temperature change of 1.5 degrees celsius, far higher than the average shifts seen during
the catastrophic Little Ice Age. And something else was also happening in the
17th century that felt as mysterious and strange as lower temperatures: Higher prices, sometimes
called a “price revolution,” that increased prices for food and other goods. This was caused partly by the growing population
we discussed in our last episode, and partly by inflation–more precious metals were entering
Europe, especially due to mining in the Americas, which decreased the value of coinage. But this was really baffling for people–I
mean, imagine that you’re living in Spain in the 17th century, watching precious metals
pour into your country via the New World, and despite all this new wealth, you’re
finding it harder to pay for bread, and clothing, and almost everything else. Inflation, like climate, is extremely complex,
and also a hugely important historical force. And so as prices soared and harvests declined,
it really did feel like the 17th century might just be the end. As one pamphleteer from Spain wrote in 1643:
“Every nation is turned upside down, leading some great minds to suspect that we are approaching
the end of the world.”[i] And then there was the 30 Years War, which
unlike the 100 Years War, actually did last for 30 years. The war, which took place from 1618 to 1648,
was tremendously destructive in Central Europe–millions of people were killed, including many from
starvation brought on by the war. Many different states within the quickly fracturing
Holy Roman Empire were involved, as were France and Sweden and Denmark and
England. The war started in 1618 over, you guessed
it, religion. It began when Ferdinand II, the devotedly
Catholic new Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sent representatives to inform powerful Protestants
that Prague and the rest of Bohemia would be Catholic territory from now on. Unsurprisingly, the Protestant lords in Prague
weren’t terribly happy with this news. In fact, the were so unhappy that they threw
Ferdinand’s representatives out–literally, out the window, in the so-called Defenestration
of Prague. Did the center of the world just open? Is there a window in there? Now, this is a famous moment in European history,
in part because it’s called the Defensetration of Prague, which is just irresistible, but
in part because it was the SECOND defenestration of Prague. The first one occured in 1419 and resulted
in the deaths of seven people, the second one, the one we’re concerned with now, resulted
in the deaths of no people, because all four of the defenestrated landed in a pile of manure. Ferdinand’s people, of course, called this
a divine miracle, while the Protestants were like, “they landed in poop!” Ah, god I love history. Soon after the defenestration, Ferdinand II
was elected Holy Roman Emperor, which led the Protestant Czechs to reject him as king
of Bohemia, and choose the protestant Frederick V of the Palitanate to replace him, and then
war truly erupted. The Czechs would be initially defeated by
Hapsburg forces in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, and the Hapsburg family would in
fact rule the area until 1918. But that didn’t settle the war–nor, in
fact, did Ferdinand’s next victories. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. So on the one hand you have the imperial forces, 2. led by the Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand
II, 3. and on the other hand you have protestant
Frederick V 4. and his allies among the protestant aristocrats
of central Europe. 5. The Hapsburgs went on to crush Frederick’s
allies. 6. In the 1620s, Ferdinand took the Palatinate
from the defeated Frederick 7. and awarded it to his Catholic ally, Maximilian
of Bavaria. 8. Ferdinand then awarded other lands to Catholic
allies 9. that had belonged to defeated protestant princes, 10. and he decreed that in conquered territories
those who had bought Catholic lands, like monasteries, had to return them. 11. Furthermore, all citizens needed to return
to the Catholic Church or else leave their homes. 12. The Little Ice Age, inflation, and war had
crashed the economies, 13. making it difficult for people to dispose
of their property before they moved. 14. And we see this again–and again and again–in
refugee crises throughout history. 15. So it seemed the Catholics Hapsburgs were
going to win, 16. but then the Protestant king of Denmark, Christian
IV, a hugely wealthy ruler, 17. decided to enter the war to block imperial
expansion, 18. protect Protestants, 19. and preserve the traditional rights of
the many hundreds of independent kingdoms, and duchies, and cities in the Holy Roman
Empire. 20. And that meant that the war, instead of being
over, was just getting started. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, Emperor Ferdinand hired the wealthy Albrecht
von Wallenstein to confront the Danish menace and to continue conquering the Protestant
princes in the empire, thus restoring more property to the Catholic Church. Wallenstein was Czech- and he’d been born
a Protestant, but he’d converted to Catholicism as a teenager and then married a widow who
died a few years after their marriage, leaving him a lot of property. But that was just the beginning of Wallenstein
gaining property via death and/or marriage. Wallenstein did his conquering with such gusto
and success that Ferdinand constantly rewarded him with more estates. And when Wallenstein married again, he gained
even more wealth and prestige. He started out as hired help, but eventually
grew to be powerful in his own right. It’s a real Holy Roman Empire Dream story. You know, you start out in the war-making
mailroom, and then eventually work your way up to being the CEO of war. He raised armies of tens of thousands of fighters
who laid waste Protestant lands and slaughtered hundreds of thousands of people. He also had army officers go house-to-house,
collecting regular contributions or “taxes” to support the ever growing military forces. And as he built his army, he justified raising
taxes. Wallenstein expanded the battlefield, in the
30 years war, by seeking out any nearby Protestants whose lands could be captured and returned
to the Catholic side, thereby bringing new entrants into the war. The Netherlands came to the Palatinate’s
rescue; Spain, Italian states, and France also got involved, as did Sweden, a military
powerhouse at the time. Unlike today, when the Swedes are primarily
a Flat Packed Home Goods powerhouse. Then in 1626, Danish King Christian IV, a
Protestant, lost half his army in the battle of Lutter. Ferdinand II’s confidence soared, and with
it his counter-reformation zeal; in 1629 he issued the Edict of Restitution—a sweeping
confiscation of formerly Catholic lands and a harsh directive for non-Catholics to emigrate. And Ferdinand was merciless. When his armies would defeat the rebels, Ferdinand
had those taken prisoner disemboweled after their right hands were hacked off. His German prince allies counseled moderation,
but Ferdinand preferred the advice of his Jesuit priest to push the Counter-Reformation
ever further. Ferdinand, his confessor announced, could
“lose all his kingdoms and provinces and whatever he has in this world, provided he
save his soul.”[ii] So there would be no compromise. Then in 1631, Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus
defeated the imperial army at the Battle of Breitenfeld, the first major Protestant victory
of the war, which was by then thirteen years old. Though Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle
the next year, that Catholic defeat heartened Protestant forces, who kept the war going. Meanwhile, the war stopped being about JUST
religion. For instance, Louis XIII of France had allied
himself with the Swedish king, even though Louis was Catholic and the Swedes were Protestant,
because Louis didn’t want the Holy Roman Empire to become too powerful. Over time, the daily realities of the war
became even more brutal, as armies simply wandered across central Europe killing and
scrounging for food. Young and old peasants and townspeople were
stabbed or captured and tortured to death as waves of soldiers went from house to house. The first waves took obvious treasure, and
then each successive wave settled on smaller objects like copper and other base metal coins
or tiny silver trinkets. Those were the minor offenses. Roasting people alive, torturing people’s
genitals until victims died, and raping girls to death now became standard behavior in the
war. Meanwhile, civilians were also dying of hunger,
and cold, and disease. The little ice age was taking its toll along
with the armies, who fought in the name of the Catholic, or Lutheran, or Calvinist cause
or just merely to survive. Desperate refugee families were forced to
leave their homes to start over dozens of times. Just one example of the horror: in Protestant
Magdeberg, city officials faced an imperial army and its mercenaries at the city limits
in the fall of 1630. And over the course of seven months devastation
unfolded. Residents harassed the Catholic invaders,
hurling rocks and other objects on them from the city’s ramparts. And once the imperial armies breached the
walls, they started to torch the city. Magdeberg’s citizens struggled to escape
both the armies and the fire. Of 25,000 citizens, only 5,000 were left at
the end of the battle for the city–which was in the end destroyed by fire. In 1634, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II had
his own general Wallenstein assassinated, because it appeared that Wallenstein was plotting
to make peace with Sweden and perhaps planning a coup, although why anyone would want to
be the Holy Roman Emperor at that point is an absolute mystery to me. But the war continued. The 1640s brought more horrendous weather,
and disorder reigned as social and political systems completely fell apart. There was often little in the way of a functioning
government; economies completely collapsed; and all manner of social norms broke down. There were, for instance, many reports of
cannibalism. And public spaces became additionally dangerous
when wolves and other wild animals arrived in villages and private farms. Finally, in 1648, the Peace of Westphalia
finally brought the war to an end. Even hard-headed theologians by that time
allowed concessions to the other religion in order to obtain peace. And the fact that French Catholics uniting
with Swedish and other Protestants led to the conclusion that this maybe meant the end
of religious war—at least in Europe, at least for now. The war tapered off because of political and
economic considerations, but also because the level of devastation just became too horrifying. Combatants met at a peace conference where
Emperor Ferdinand III made concessions of land and cash reluctantly, forced by exhaustion
and the continuing miseries inflicted by the little ice age. All of this marked a turn to more “practical”
concerns in government policy rather than just like, going to war to promote your religion. Rates of mortality were very high in the seventeenth
century globally because of the pervasiveness of the little ice age and because of devastating
warfare. And we need to remember the immense human
costs of the thirty Years war: some 20 percent of the central European population died, while
in areas of intense and continuous fighting, it was closer to 50 percent. If I can return to a shockingly positive picture,
amidst all of that, the creation of our modern view of science and its benefits was taking
place in many of the same regions, which reminds us that history is not one human story, but
all human stories. Some good news is coming next week. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you then.

Comments 100

  • 1:00 ~ mom says Scotland North Port, Cambridge, London England was cold day and night. So she chose USA.

  • These videos keep getting better and BETTER!!

  • this was part of the larger global General Crisis. probably the most recent period that showed a decades-long decline in world population. Mughal succession wars in India. the Fall of the Ming in China. the growing atlantic slave trade and the ongoing pandemics from the columbian exchange.oddly enough the trade of luxury goods such as sugar, tea, tobacco, and coffee also was booming. I wonder how much of this was climate change, religious fervor, or that fact that Europeans for the first time had caffeine, nicotine, and sugar?

  • Wait …… I thought climate change was caused by humans…you mean it's a natural phenomenon?

  • Thank you. I love your content. I traveled round Europe years ago and wanted to learn the history of this region. But for me, It's difficult to me to learn complex history in Europe. So many wars, kings, kingdoms and all. This channel helps me to understand what was going on. I can't wait to dig into more and more stories.

  • Bored with the 30 Years’ War, England’s elected and unelected rulers sparked a Civil War between them which eventually engulfed most of Britain and Ireland. 🥺
    PS this was about the period Garisson Keillor referred to when he wrote that his ancestors left England for New England “in search of enhanced levels of repression” 😊

  • Meanwhile… POLAND is better than it's ever been.

  • “History resists simplicity” John Green
    “This war was caused by, you guessed it, religion”
    John Green

  • There definitely needs to either be more focus on Eastern Europe or a separate series on Eastern European history

  • Battle of Breitenfeld, GOTT MIT UNS

  • So because of cold weather European became old hearted people against the asian and African

  • Good video, but you definitely should have talked about places outside Central Europe. Cromwell was completely destroying Ireland, Poland had sacked Moscow, etc.

  • oh my god, that pretty caption "Human History is not just one men History, but all human stories" 👍👍👍👍

  • How can you mention the treaty of Westphalia without talking about Westphalian sovereignty.

  • after all this murder and mayhem these smart and civilized Europeans went on to 'colonize' the so called barbaric, uncivilized & backwards people of Africa because they needed to be brought up to speed to the last millennia & of course it was a decent Christian thing to do as duty!

  • *magdeburg

  • The realistic human hands in the "though bubble" section fit surprisingly well. Like if Eldritch abominations were playing with the contenders of the war. Great stuff.

  • 0:17 It’s a view of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church in Quebec City from a 1759 sketch by military artist Richard Short, “Quebec City after the War.” The war being the Conquest of New France by Britain and its American colonies. Restoration completed in 1816, it’s still there today on Place Royale.
    My erudition and pedantry aside, it’s still a good illustration of the ravages of war in the early modern era.

  • ترجمة العربية

  • i have two old mirrors with the artwork at 0:49. Where did you find it? thanks.

  • I was reading about the defenestrations of Prague because of work a few months ago and they're fascinating. Especially the second one. Not only did the people that got thrown out of a 20 meters tall window survived but, also, they threw a secretary too (I'm guessing 'cause it's fun to throw people out of windows).

    As a side note, I think it's important to mention that before the conflict started, in Bohemia, there was freedom of religion. That probably made things even worse.

    That said, great video. Keep it up!

  • 7:12 Is that a reference to The Hudsucker Proxy, which coincidently also started with a defenestration?

  • Hi Mr Green I have always been a fan of Crash Course! They are concise, informative, appropriately planned etc. I really hope you guys can start a Clash Course Geography because it will be beneficial to our lessons in school and a variety of other reasons. Thank you so much!

  • HBO should make a 30 years war TV series.

  • You're also a Christian but you have minor differences in beliefs? Well Jesus would want me to kill you if you don't conform to my version.

  • I hope there will be an episode that focuses more on the northern and eastern europe.

  • The 30 Year War was a triumph of nationalism over religion.  It had been a religious war until Catholic Cardinal Richelieu ordered the French Army to fight on the side of the Protestant forces because it was in the best interests of France to do so.

  • This is the loud version of todays E.U

  • Interestingly, there is a theory about man's possible indirect contribution to the Little Ice Age. In the centuries before Columbus, many North American Indian tribes would have cut down large parts of the continent's trees. When the indigenous population of America plummeted in the 16th and 17th century due to influenza, pneumonic plague, smallpox, bad treatment by the Europeans ecc, large parts of the continent were left more or less depopulated. So if the theory is correct, the forrests grew back subsequently, thus cooling earth's climate. However, as estimating population numbers in North America is generally very difficult due to the lack of reliable sources, this is only a theory that can hardly be proven nor disproven.

  • You're an idiot, John Green. Climate change IS caused by man? Well, that's why you're an historian, not a leftist scientist working to keep your grants coming. Shall I start posting YouTube videos of actual climate scientists who are not dogmatic and are willing to have their hypotheses tested? Unlike the so-called 97% of "scientist" who "settled" the science but are not willing to have their experiments challenged, which is a normal part of the scientific method. STOP THE PROPAGANDA, Mr. History! The same factors still cause climate change. An uneven elliptical orbit, the earth's changing tilt, solar radiation, etc. All CO2 does is reforest the earth so it can keep breathing summer to winter like it always does.




  • You sound so certain that contemporary climate change is caused by humans…something no credible scientist can say with such certainty. This has diminished your credibility. For the record I’m a meteorology major.

  • Ermahgerd Magdeberg!

  • Can you show more maps please? Helps place events for more visual learners like me, thx

  • Rewatching this and I love the "fistful of Hapsbergs"

  • I've been so disappointed with the quality of this series. I think there's been some concerning anachronisms and historical oversights that have been creeping in. For example, for implying that wars fought for religious reasons were not 'rational' is a complete misunderstanding of how religion operated in early modern europe. For Christians, both catholics and protestants, the correct social order was centered on correct morality which was in turn centered on correct faith. People in 16th century France didn't attack each other religion simply because they disagreed on predestination or the eucharist. It was because the existence of the religious 'other' within their community was seen as a corrupting and destabilising force that had to be removed. The 30 years war, which I'm very glad no one implied was caused by climate change, was essentially this principle of religious social organisation on a much, much larger scale. This is at least the case for the holy roman empire. From their point of view, removing protestants and seizing their land was a 'rational' act. I know this is only a small thing but it points to a lot of other problems that this series has. It implies progress, from faith/irrationality to science/rationality, which in itself implies that things get better and human beings have only been making reasoned choices for the last 200 years. It also implies that any society that doesn't adhere to our western view of rationality is backwards and dangerous. I know this is small, and a week after the video was posted, but please interrogate the words you use. They are important

  • And to add to this, the English, French, and Dutch colonies in North America were taking off around the same time, as were the colonial conflicts among them, and the frontier conflicts between them and various Indigenous nations, most notably the League of the Iroquois.

  • Also notable: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms across the British Isles, 1639-1651, including the famous English Civil War of 1642-1651, which saw the execution of King Charles I and the rise and fall of the Commonwealth of England and Oliver Cromwell.

  • good job! 👍

  • Anybody else catch the little glitch there at 8:05 ?

  • Another splendid video by Crash course.

  • Dang! How soon we forget!
    Meanwhile in jolly cold England we have the beheading of dingbat Charles ending years of bloody protestant warfare etc etc Cromwell as Lord Protector failed to have a functional vision for governance … at which point Charles son of dingbat gingerly tiptoed back from exile.
    Plague in London, again … then that crazy fire … in which Charles and his brother were present in responding to help with the fire risking their own personal lives …

  • And then the Ottomans thought it would be a good time to take all of Central Europe after the thirty years war.

  • More evidence why the human species should go extinct.

  • "Western civilization always been the best"

  • mr.greene you are always late for class!!! if there is any writing or research jobs available for the channel. please let me know.

  • The picture of Christian IV is infact not a painting of him – it looks more like Christian V, His grandson.

    Nice video though!

  • More like western european history

  • Europe was physically transformed by the Catholic Benedictine "ora et labora." They transformed worthless land to the most productive lands of the world, agriculture and industry. Protestants stole these lands, turning out the monks to the street or sometimes executing them. The land cries out for justice. These lands must be returned.

  • I wish John was more excited when talking about history as he used to be

  • Where’s the next episode? I’m looking forward to it

  • That was a HUGE crowbar you used there.

  • Can we get Crash Course Ottoman History .

  • Mr. Green I have a question. Why does so much throughout history change while humans stay the same?

  • Oooh, historical info, in a bite sized format, that allows me to consume even more. I think I just found a new favorite channel. Thx for posting.

  • 208 climate change lunatics downvoted this video

  • Tell history and keep your pseudoscientific religious faith to yourself

  • "to promote your religion" is just too childish and too ignorant to hear to a narrator's point of view

  • There hasn't been a new Crash Course European History in a couple of weeks. Is it coming back? Can't wait to learn about the Scientific Revolution. Such a good show!

  • The growing population including the little ice age decrease the product of the Harvest which lead 2 make the product more expensive making it harder to live

  • how about islamic history

  • john, I highly respect you and love your historical analysis. But please in the future, do not say humans caused the current climate change. Metadata suggests that humans did not cause climate change but humans SIGNIFICANTLY accelerated it. climate change is natural, as you said before you contradicted yourself, but humans can alter it's acceleration with stupidity

  • What about Ottoman effect on this?

  • There was an article saying it was related to European genocide of the native Americans

  • There is no such thing as progress. It is a post-Enlightenment mass hallucination.

  • So on one hand the Little Ice Age was caused by natural causes but there is NO WAY that could be happening today….huh???

  • You talk like these political leaders actually gave a damn about religion. It was just a pretense.

  • Whoa!! Looks like Mr. Greene is having a mid-life crisis!!!!

  • What 17th century Europeans said when refugees entered their lands:
    – not all of them flee from war, most of them are young males who just want to exploit our great city / country
    – their culture and religion are so different from ours that our own culture and religion is in danger
    – the evil illuminatti / elite / dark lords are behind everything, they want to destroy our glorious city / country by sending waves of foreigners our way
    – we should build a wall to keep them all out

  • Please do more Crash Course John Green

  • What you're describing was a coup among Central Europe that the rest of Europe would not tolerate. Religion was an excuse for trying to control the taxation and wealth. They were exploiting the Freedom that Martin Luther had granted for himself. But these fools were illegitimate. Religion has nothing to do with it.

  • The thought bubble people look like Ethan and Hila 🙂

  • I was starting to feel bleak when John said "some good news is coming next week" and all of a sudden I got enormous goosebumps and teared of hope as if I had lived in the 17th Century. You rock, keep on making these videos forever.

  • Love your stuff. Recommended you to Devry University.

  • Thirty Years' War is like the quintessence of Hobbesian "war of all against all"

  • wow its kind of like Eberon from dnd huh?

  • Wonderful effort. Keep going.

  • Thanks, you are saving human souls

  • Nice Gatsby reference

  • As a displeased local patriot I must tell you that you mispelled the name of my hometown "Magdeburg"… Shameful! Very shameful!

  • Great video! You're a great inspiration for my new channel. Great video once again! 😊

  • The episode number isn't in the title.

  • Calling Wallenstein the CEO of War fits way to well. He basically used his army like a company to extract more wealth from the country. He even tried to have as little battles as possible, because they meant loosing men that could be used to squeeze money out of villages.

  • Christian number1: My cross is better than your cross!
    Christian number 2: No, my cross is better than your cross!
    You die!
    Both are dead.

  • 8:49 Sabaton 'The lion from the north' and 'Gott mit uns', the only reason why this sounds familiar to me! 🤘

  • I am pretty sure if there is one time to appreciate a pile of manure, it would be when being defenestrated, as a much preferable landing alternative as opposed to sharp stones and spikes.

  • Our continent has been savaged by religion, yet people say that Christianity has never lead to conflict, unlike Islam. All of them have, which shows that the content doesn't really matter, because the problem is our tribalism.

  • Meanwhile in russia seventeenth century started with the Time of Troubles

  • Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).

    He was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and Maria of Bavaria.

    In 1590, his parents, who were devout Catholics, sent him to study at the Jesuits' college in Ingolstadt, because they wanted to isolate him from the Lutheran nobles.

    In the same year, he inherited Inner Austria—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and smaller provinces—from his father.

    Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the head of the Habsburg family, appointed regents to administer Inner Austria on behalf of the minor Ferdinand.

    Ferdinand was installed as the actual ruler of the Inner Austrian provinces in 1596 and 1597.

    Rudolph II also charged him with the command of the defense of Croatia, Slavonia and southeastern Hungary against the Ottoman Empire.

    He regarded the regulation of religious issues as a royal prerogative and introduced strict Counter-Reformation measures from 1598.

    First, he ordered the expulsion of all Protestant pastors and teachers, then he established special commissions to restore the Catholic parishes.

    The Ottomans captured Nagykanizsa in Hungary in 1600, which enabled them to invade Styria.

    A year later, Ferdinand tried to recapture the fortress, but the action ended with a defeat due to the unprofessional command of his troops in November 1601.

    During the first stage of the family feud known as the Brothers' Quarrel, Ferdinand initially supported Rudolph II's brother, Maximilian, who wanted to convince the melancholic Emperor to abdicate, but Matthias' concessions to the Protestants in Hungary, Austria and Bohemia outraged him.

    He planned an alliance to strengthen the position of the Catholic Church in the Holy Roman Empire, but the Catholic princes established the Catholic League without his participation in 1610.

    Philip III of Spain, who was the childless Matthias' nephew, acknowledged Ferdinand's right to succeed Matthias in Bohemia and Hungary in exchange for territorial concessions in 1617.

    Spain also supported Ferdinand against the Republic of Venice during the Uskok War in 1617–18.

    The Diets of Bohemia and Hungary confirmed Ferdinand's position as Matthias' successor only after he had promised to respect the Estates' privileges in both realms.

    The different interpretation of the Letter of Majesty, which summarized the Bohemian Protestants' liberties, gave rise to an uprising, known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618.

    The Bohemian rebels established a provisional government, invaded Upper Austria and sought assistance from the Habsburgs' opponents.

    After Matthias' death on 20 March 1619, Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor, but the Protestant Bohemian Estates dethroned him and offered the crown to the Calvinist Frederick V of the Palatinate on 26 August.

    The Thirty Years' War had begun in 1618 as a result of inadequacies of his predecessors Rudolf II and Matthias.

    But Ferdinand's acts against Protestantism caused the war to engulf the whole empire.

    As a zealous Catholic, Ferdinand wanted to restore the Catholic Church as the only religion in the Empire and to wipe out any form of religious dissent.

    The war left the Holy Roman Empire devastated, its cities in ruins, and its population took a century to recover.

  • You might have forgotten about the Dutch in all of your videos….

  • In most paintings the faction leaders are portrayed to be really fighting alongside their forces, even in the frontline. Was this really something that still happened? I would assume these paintings were purely propaganda, and the leaders were safely in the camps making plans.

  • Fun fact, in Sweden the fact that the Catholic were called "The Catholic League" has tainted the word league. Any sort of criminal groupe tends to be called a league for example.

  • So many hands.

  • John Green is my hero!

  • Mr. Green, we love ypu

  • Inflation isnt really that complex. The more gold and silver floating around Spain, the less its purchase value. Pretty simple.

  • European history? You mean western european history

  • Watched the whole series…lots of biased propaganda in these “crash” courses. History should be looked at with serious scholarship not a bias agenda.

  • good job not glorifying the leaders of the war. I hate when historians do that. These people killed hordes of people for nothing but power and ego.

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