Tectonics – Part 3: The Zodiac Fan Anomaly


Plate Tectonics assumes that crustal plates
have moved thousands of kilometres. The Zodiac Fan presents a major problem for
this central premise of Plate Tectonics, and this problem has become known as the Zodiac
Fan Anomaly. I’ve added the Zodiac Fan to my Palaeographic
Reconstructions. Whenever a large river enters the ocean, it
carries hundreds of tons of silt and mud into the ocean. This sediment accumulates on the
ocean floor as a growing fan shaped structure. The Zodiac Fan is about a million square kilometres
in area and contains nearly three million cubic kilometres of fined grained mud. The
maximum thickness of the fan is more than 600 metres, gradually thinning out towards
the edges. The mud has been dated to be at least 24 million
years old, so we know that it must have been carried there by a massive river system flowing
off the land more than 24 million years ago. It has been estimated that this river would
have drained an area of at least 0.5 million square kilometres, which is about half the
total area of Alaska. In 1983, three oceanographers from the United
States Geological Survey noticed a strange anomaly with the fan. Standard Plate Tectonic
reconstructions positioned the ocean floor thousands of kilometres from any continental
landmass. We can see the anomaly that was troubling
the oceanographers by simply clicking back to twenty million years ago on the Plate Tectonic
reconstruction. The inferred ocean crust above the fan must be subducted into the trench to move
the Pacific Plate back to its present day position. The author’s thought that such a large distance was unworkable. Not only was it thousands
of kilometres away from the continent but there was supposed to be a deep trench between
the continent and the fan system. How could the river sediment have reached the ocean?
Samuel Warren Carey noted that this problem only occurred with the Plate Tectonic theory.
As Carey explained in his 1988 book, Theories of the Earth and Universe, there is no problem
with Earth expansion. In the Eocene, Plate Tectonic reconstructions
place the Zodiac Fan far out in the Pacific Ocean, 1000s of kilometres away from any continental
landmass. In contrast, Earth expansion reconstructions
place the Zodiac Fan next to the continental landmass, exactly where it should be to receive
the massive amounts of sediment from a large river system.
We see the same results on the Palaeographic Reconstructions.
With the Plate Tectonic reconstruction, set at twenty million years, the Zodiac Fan is
thousands of kilometres away from the continent. With the Earth expansion reconstruction the
Zodiac Fan is right next to the continent. There is no anomaly with Earth expansion.
As Professor Carey asked in his book, “Which is credible, subduction or expansion?”

Comments 4

  • Thanks, Steven.

  • I'm looking at topographic ocean maps, I can't find it.

  • Excellent presentation of an easily understood empirical test that is a problem for plate tectonics but not for Earth expansion.

  • Hi Stephen, 0:45
    1,000,000 km^2 , 3,00,000 km^3
    "the maximum thickness of the mud is more than 600m"
    if the area and volume estimates are assumed, then the average thickness would be 3km.
    Your max thickness statement is correct, but why use such a low lower bound?

    Researching the zodiac fan, I'm getting different specific values from different sources, e.g. some say its only 250,000km^2.

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