TIME magazine called him

“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.”

President Bill Clinton called him “one of the great minds of the Information

Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist

of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali.

He is coming to Trinidad and Tobago to launch the 2008 Kwame Ture lecture series

on Sunday June 8 at the JFK [John F. Kennedy] auditorium

UWI [The University of the West Indies] Saint Augustine 5 p.m.

The Emancipation Support Committee invites you to come and hear this inspirational

mind address the theme:

“Crossing New Frontiers to Conquer Today’s Challenges.”

This lecture is one you cannot afford to miss. Admission is free.

So be there on Sunday June 8 5 p.m.

at the JFK auditorium UWI St. Augustine. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] [Inventing a New Supercomputer] [Changing the Way We Look at the Computer] Thank you. Thank you. Thank you very much. I’m Philip Emeagwali. On the Fourth of July 1989,

in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States, I discovered

how to solve the toughest problems arising in science and engineering.

I discovered how to solve grand challenge problems

and how to solve them by dividing them into one million smaller problems.

I discovered how to solve those problems at once,

or in parallel, and how to solve them across one million processors

that outlined and defined a new internet. That discovery,

called practical parallel supercomputing, was my physical realization

of a hypothesis that was published as science fiction

back on February 1, 1922. That science fiction was published as

64,000 humans working together as one

and doing so to solve the complex partial differential equations of calculus

that, in turn, must be solved because their solutions were the preconditions

to mathematically forecasting the weather for the whole Earth.

I was in the news headlines shortly after my discovery

that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989. I was in the news headlines

because I was the first person to figure out how to solve

that grand challenge problem of weather forecasting

and for figuring out how to solve the problem across

a new internet that is a new global network of

64 binary thousand processors that encirlced a globe

in the sixteenth dimension and encircled that globe

in the manner the Internet encircled the Earth.

Parallel processing is vital to the supercomputer

that must solve up to one million problems

at once, or in parallel. [CONTRIBUTIONS TO LARGE-SCALE ALGEBRA] It took a decade for my discovery

of parallel processing to eventually reach the ears

of the supercomputer committee that awarded me the top prize

in the field of supercomputing. Prior to winning that top prize,

I studied physics and calculus and I did so full time

for twenty years. Calculus and large-scale algebra

are at the granite core of extreme-scale computational physics

that, in turn, is the test bed for never-before-seen supercomputers.

My contributions to mathematics made the news headlines in 1989 because I

discovered how to reformulate

the tridiagonal system of equations arising in large-scale

computational physics, such as the highest,

the most fine-grained, and the most extreme-scaled

petroleum reservoir simulations of the oilfields

of the Niger Delta region of southeastern Nigeria.

I was in the news because I returned to first principles,

or the laws of physics. From the laws of physics,

I reformulated the grand challenge problem

of computational physics. I achieved that by inventing

a diagonal system of governing equations of algebra

that replaced the otherwise tridiagonal system

that must be solved sequentially, instead of solved

in parallel and across millions upon millions

of commodity-off-the-shelf processors. I set up the largest system of equations of

algebra and I did so in the context of

discovering and recovering otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas.

I was in the news headlines because I used the oilfield as my testbed

and used it to prove for the first time ever

that the parallel supercomputer is faster than the sequential supercomputer. [My Contributions to the Supercomputer] Prior to my experimental discovery,

practical parallel supercomputing was largely the stuff of

theorical computer science. In my world

of the parallel supercomputer, July 4, 1989, was a red-letter day.

My parallel processing experiment made the news headlines because

it was a game changer for the field of supercomputing.

The first ever discovery that the parallel supercomputer

is the fastest computer in the world opened the door

to a new supercomputer and to a new computer science.

In my new way of parallel processing, the modern computer

would not be a computer per se but will be billions upon billions

of interconnected processors and email pathways

by which the processors communicate and work together

to solve grand challenge problems arising in science, engineering,

and medicine. [Inventing a New Computer] [The First Supercomputer I Programmed] The first supercomputer

that I programmed, back on June 20, 1974,

was named the CDC 3300. That supercomputer

was front-ended by the PDP-8 computer. I programmed that supercomputer

to solve a system of equations of algebra. That supercomputer

was manufactured in December 1965. In March 1967,

that supercomputer was upgraded to CDC 3500.

That supercomputer was at 1800 SW Campus Way,

Corvallis, Oregon, United States. That supercomputer

ran a Corvallis grown operating system called OS-3,

an acronym for Oregon State Open Shop Operating System.

In Corvallis (Oregon) and from the 1960s to June 1977,

I was one of the up to eight programmers that could simultaneously log into

the CDC 3300. In Oregon and in 1974 and onwards,

I took computer courses. I also learned about computers

from a twenty half-hour videotaped series

that were recorded back in October 1971. I also studied the 140-paged

computer manual that came along with the

videotaped series. [A Black African in Whitest America] Oregon was one of the whitest states

in the United States. Oregon had always attracted

white separatist groups who advocated

for the reinstatement of laws similar to the infamous

Oregon Lash Law of 1844. The Oregon Lash Law

that was passed thirteen decades before my arrival

in Oregon stipulated that any black person

in Oregon Country, free or slave, shall be whipped

twice a year until he or she flees Oregon Territory.

I first arrived in Oregon on Sunday March 24, 1974.

In my first year, I lived in the cities of Monmouth

and Independence (Oregon). In my second and third years,

I lived in Corvallis, Oregon. People in Monmouth (Oregon)

see a black person about once a week. The first two cities in Oregon

that I lived in had no black couple. When I left Corvallis (Oregon),

on June 5, 1977, it had a population of about 40,000

but had only one black family. Back in early 2010,

I was told by the International Student advisor

in Monmouth, Oregon, that no African

lives in Monmouth, Oregon. Monmouth (Oregon)

was the first American city that I lived in

and I was the fourth Nigerian to live in that city.

Due to social isolation, black people that lived in

Corvallis (Oregon) don’t stay long in Corvallis.

Despite its checkered past, I found the people of Oregon

to be friendly and supportive. It seems like Oregon

was trying to distant itself from its past. [Inventing a New Supercomputer] I began supercomputing in Oregon

on June 20, 1974. The CDC 3300 was called

the first supercomputer because it was the first computer

that was calibrated at one million instructions per second.

To discover is to change the narrative of science.

Before 1989, computer science was a study of the science of

processing information on only one isolated processor

that was not a member of an ensemble of processors.

After 1989, the frontier of knowledge of computer science

was extended to an ensemble of processors.

The grand challenge question of supercomputing

is the toughest IQ test in science and engineering.

My contribution to the development of the computer

is this: I changed the narrative

in computer centers and in supercomputer textbooks.

Back in the 1970s and ‘80s, in Oregon, District of Columbia, Maryland,

Wyoming, and New Mexico, I was exploring

the grand challenge questions that will change the way

we looked at the computer. [Turning Science Fiction to Reality] By definition and as the inventor,

I was not trained in the never-before-seen

massively parallel supercomputer technology that did not exist.

That is, I was searching for answers to grand challenge questions

that could not be googled in the 1970s. Back in June 1970, at age fifteen,

at Christ the King College, Onitsha, Nigeria, I unknowingly

began my technological journey to the unknown world

of the massively parallel supercomputer that was then

in the realm of science fiction. The mathematical path

that I forged—from my high school algebra textbook

to the solution of the largest system of equations

in algebra—took me across a new internet that I visualized

within a sixteen dimensional hyperspace. [Early Life of Philip Emeagwali] [Early Science Fair Projects on the Electric

Fish] Back in March 1972,

I was an independent student studying alone

in the small village called “Ibuzor” that was in the then Midwest state

of Nigeria. In the mornings and afternoons,

I studied in our house that was behind the small hospital

in Ibuzor. In the late afternoons,

I studied alone at Sacred Heart Primary School,

Ibuzor. That school was a short distance

from the town’s market. I also conducted independent research

at the Science Fair level and I did so from mid-1970

at Venn Road (Onitsha) to late 1973

in Ibuzor, Asaba, and Onitsha (Nigeria). My first scientific investigation

was to understand how an electric fish generates

an electric field. I developed an interest

on the electric fish back in mid-1969 at Ndoni (Biafra).

At the tributary of the River Niger at Ndoni, I was shocked

by an electric fish and I almost drowned. [Early Science Fair Projects in Mathematics] Back in the early 1970s,

I conducted research for new mathematical knowledge.

My mathematical research was a quest for new Pythagorean triples

that consisted of three positive integers a, b, and c, such that

a-squared plus b-squared is equal to c-squared.

In summary, I started my research as a mathematician

and continued my research for twenty years

as a mathematician and a physicist but I became known

as an extreme-scaled mathematical and computational physicist

that contributed to the development of the supercomputer.

My supercomputer is a new internet de facto. [Newspaper Mentions of Philip Emeagwali in

1972] Back in the early 1970s

and in Nigeria, my research libraries

were the Onitsha Central Library that was in GRA

(the local acronym for Government Reserved Area), Onitsha,

the British Council Library in Enugu,

and the East-Central State Library also in Enugu.

As a teenager in Nigeria, I was two decades away

from the frontier of knowledge of the massively parallel supercomputer

that costs the budget of a small nation. For that reason, my early research

was actually a Science Fair Project. My research project on the electric fish

was why the Science Column of a mid-1972 issue

of the Daily Times of Nigeria had an entry that was credited to:

“Philip Emeagwali, Christ the King College,

Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria.” That was my first known printed use

of the word “Emeagwali” in any newspaper.

Back in mid-1971 and at age sixteen, I was unaware of how and where

to publish my research findings. For that reason, I submitted

my mathematical re-discoveries on number theory

to The Reader’s Digest and to Drum magazine.

Drum is a black lifestyle magazine and one of Africa’s leading magazines.

Drum magazine was to post-colonial Africans

what Ebony magazine is to African Americans.

At age sixteen and in Africa, I did not know that I shouldn’t submit

my mathematical re-discoveries to The Reader’s Digest

and to Drum magazine. Fast forward a quarter of a century

to the United States, I was featured as a cover story

in the March 19, 1998 issue of Drum magazine.

Drum magazine was published in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Drum magazine introduced me to black South Africans.

That Drum magazine story was titled: “Superbrain of Africa.”

The heart of those articles written about Philip Emeagwali

was that I discovered the supercomputer-hopeful’s

most well-guarded secret, namely, how to parallel process

and how to solve grand challenge problems

across a new internet that is defined and outlined

by millions upon millions of commodity-off-the-shelf processors.

Yet, the paradigm shift for the field of supercomputing

isn’t recording the fastest calculations. The heart of supercomputing

is solving the grand challenge problems of computer science. [Struggles to Arrive in the United States] I began my scientific journey

to the frontier of the fastest supercomputer

that must be used to solve the toughest problems

arising in STEM fields. I began my technological journey

with the slowest analog computer, called a slide rule,

that I purchased in June 1970 in Onitsha (Nigeria).

I began that journey as a tiny entry

of the name “Philip Emeagwali” in the Daily Times of Nigeria

of mid-1972. I bought my first analog computer

for the price of one Nigerian pound. That was one month’s wage,

back in 1970. I bought that manual computer

from a bookstore that was near Zik’s Roundabout

and that was near Dennis Memorial Grammar School,

Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria.

Three years after I purchased my manual computer,

I received a scholarship letter from Oregon, United States

that was dated September 10, 1973. [Struggles in Nigeria] [The Ancestry of Philip Emeagwali] For five centuries, my ancestors

were born in Onitsha (Nigeria). In about 1905,

my great grand-father, whose first name was “Emeagwali”,

was re-located from his ancestral homeland that is the present location

of General Hospital, Onitsha, Nigeria. I know the names of my ancestors

up to the year—1562— when the first slaves

were captured by John Hawkins. John Hawkins was England’s

first slave trader. John Hawkins brought the first slaves from

the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean

to the West Indies. My Igbo-speaking ancestors

were farmers and hunters. My grandparents could not read.

The farthest my paternal grandfather travelled from his mud thatched home

at 17 Mba Road, Onitsha, at the east bank of the River Niger

was to visit his maternal cousins who were living

on the west bank of the River Niger at Asaba.

The farthest my maternal grandfather travelled from his birthplace

at 6 Wilkinson Road, Onitsha, was to visit his maternal cousins

in the village of Obosi that was just a two-mile walk. [The Oldest School in Nigeria] I’m from Anambra State of Nigeria.

Anambra State adopted the motto: “The Light of the Nation.”

In mid-19th century Nigeria, elders shared their knowledge

and wisdom in informal settings, such as oral literature

in the form of moonlight stories. There were no primary schools

in Igbo Land up to a century before I was born.

The first primary school in Nigeria

was established in 1843 in Badagry, Lagos.

Back then, schools were established by Christian missionaries

and established to teach new African converts

how to read Bible stories, prayers, and prepare them to be baptized

as well as teach them arithmetic for commercial transactions, geography

and the English Language. About two decades

after the first primary school in Nigeria, the first primary school in Igbo Land

was built. That first school was located

in my ancestral hometown of Onitsha, Nigeria.

That first school was located a short walking distance

from the household of my paternal great grandfather

that was then, in the late 1850s, at the present day location

of General Hospital, Onitsha. [The First Primary School in Igbo Land] My ancestors are from the Igbo tribe

of southeastern Nigeria. At 40 million, there are more Igbos

than Kenyans or Ghanaians which, in turn, gave rise to the expression

the “Igbo Nation.” As a nation, Ndi Igbo

will be about the tenth most populous in Africa.

My ancestral hometown, Onitsha, is to Igbo Land

what London is to England. The first school in Onitsha

was a night school that opened on Monday

November 15, 1858, and opened two years and four months before

Abraham Lincoln became the president

of the United States. The first students at that first school

were young female slaves, who were ridiculed by the community.

In the mid-19th century, my forefathers preferred hands-on

agricultural education to classroom education.

In the year 1864, the total school enrollment in Igbo Land comprised

of seventy night students and fifty day students

and all those 120 students were in Onitsha,

a town of about 20,000 persons. The first school in Onitsha

was apparently built under the supervision of

Reverend John Taylor, a Sierra Leonean of Igbo ancestry who, in

turn, reported to Bishop Ajayi Crowther,

a freed slave of Yoruba ancestry that is the subject of school reports

in Nigeria. That first primary school

of mid-19th century was where Ndi Igbo

learned the times table of arithmetic. [The First Secondary School in Igbo Land] The first secondary school in Igbo Land, is

named Dennis Memorial Grammar School, or D.M.G.S., Onitsha.

That first high school was founded on the 25th of January 1925.

D.M.G.S. was located a short walk from the household

of my grandfather at 17 Mba Road, Onitsha.

The first times algebra, physics, and eventually introductory calculus

were introduced in Igbo Land was most likely in Onitsha

at either Christ the King College (Onitsha) that was founded on February 2, 1933

or in Dennis Memorial Grammar School that was founded on January 25, 1925.

When my father was born, back in May 1921

at 17 Mba Road, Onitsha, there was no secondary school

in Igbo Land, a region that is now the ancestral land

of 40 million persons. And when my father graduated from Christ the

King College, Onitsha (Nigeria), back in 1947, there was no university in Nigeria. [Importance of First Schools] Because the first schools in Igbo Land were

in my ancestral hometown of Onitsha,

it should not come as a surprise that a high concentration

of Nigeria’s leading intellectuals were born in and around Onitsha, Anambra state,

especially in Onitsha Inland Town, called Enu-Onicha.

Names of persons born in or around Onitsha

who made contributions to human knowledge include

Olaudah Equiano who is credited by African-American historians

as the father of black literature, Nnamdi Azikiwe

who was Nigeria’s foremost public intellectual of the 1940s and ‘50s,

Chinua Achebe who is Africa’s foremost novelist,

and Ben Enwonwu who is Nigeria’s most influential artist. [Civil War and Corruption in Nigeria] [Early Childhood of Philip Emeagwali] In 1965, I was in the sixth grade

in Saint John’s Primary School, Agbor, Nigeria.

In January 1966, I enrolled in Saint George’s Grammar School, Obinomba,

Nigeria. Fifteen months later,

I fled from Obinomba (Nigeria) to Onitsha (Biafra).

My Igbo-speaking family fled from Nigeria to Biafra

and we fled because thousands of Igbos

from southeastern Nigeria were been killed

in Northern Nigeria. That organized killings of Igbos

occurred from May 29, 1966 through September 29, 1966.

That civil uprising preceded the war between Nigeria and Biafra.

That war began on July 6, 1967 and ended on January 15, 1970.

One in fifteen Biafrans died during that 30-month long war.

In the list of the worst genocidal crimes of the 20th century

that was committed against humanity, the death of one in fifteen Biafrans

was ranked fifth. In the evening of March 21, 1968,

the day my hometown of Onitsha was captured by Nigerian soldiers,

we fled on foot and fled from 14 Mba Road, Onitsha (Biafra)

to Merchants of Light School, Oba (Biafra). Tens of thousands of refugees

that fled from Onitsha were camped

at Merchants of Light School, Oba (Biafra). At about six o’clock

of the following morning of March 22, 1968,

we were alerted by fleeing refugees that advancing Nigerian soldiers

had captured Onitsha and might capture our refugee camp

at Oba and do so within a few hours.

Scared, we continued our flight to Nnewi and Nnobi

and stopped our flight when we reached a refugee camp

that was a former school class room that was across the street

from the Catholic Church in Awka-Etiti (Biafra).

About five days after the war was over, or about January 20, 1970,

we returned as refugees and squatted for five months

in an abandoned house that was along Port Harcourt Road

in the Fegge quarters of Onitsha. In mid-1970, I began to teach myself physics,

algebra, geometry, and calculus. [Struggles Against Corruption in Nigeria] About two weeks

after I received a scholarship letter from Oregon, United States,

that was dated September 10, 1973, I was in Lagos (Nigeria)

to apply for an international travel passport.

Back in 1973, the Nigerian passport or its application forms

cannot be received by mail. At that time, the Nigerian passport office

in Kakawa Street, Lagos (Nigeria) had a reputation

as a cesspool of corruption. All persons applying for

the Nigerian passport spent months coming to the passport office

and did so to monitor the progress of their applications.

Nigerian travel passports were deliberately withheld

by the Chief Passport Officer in Lagos.

Back in 1973, my travel passport was withheld until shortly after Christmas

Day. My passport was withheld

until I paid a bribe of five pounds to one of the passport touts.

I had expected to be in the United States as early as June 1973, at age 18.

I had applied for admission into American schools,

and I applied shortly after, I had passed the entrance examination

to the University of London that I took as an external candidate

back in January 1973 in Onitsha, East-Central State, Nigeria.

My Nigerian travel passport was issued in late December 1973

and after a six month delay. I arrived in the United States

on Sunday March 24, 1974, and after a nine-month delay

and after paying a bribe of five pounds to a passport tout

who claimed that the Chief Passport Officer

gets a large commission from that bribe. That five pounds was a month’s wage.

My Nigerian travel passport was also withheld

until I paid a presumably round trip airfare

from Lagos (Nigeria) to Portland (Oregon, United States).

That two-way airfare was in addition to my one-way airfare

to Portland, Oregon, United States. That two-way airfare

was called “repatriation fee” but it was an extortion fee.

I paid for a round-trip ticket but I was never given any ticket.

I paid 150 pounds, or 30 months salary, as the advance “repatriation fee.”

I paid the Chief Passport Officer in Lagos, Nigeria,

two-and-half years salary, for the privilege of leaving Nigeria

to study in the United States. As a result of that exorbitant extortion

from the Chief Passport Officer, I arrived in the United States

with only 134 dollars, or much less than the bribe

that I paid the corrupt Chief Passport Officer

of Nigeria. I believe that my repatriation fee

went into the personal bank account of the Chief Passport Officer

in Lagos (Nigeria). [Paradigm Shift in Supercomputing] [The Supercomputer in Oregon in 1974] My first night outside Nigeria

was spent in Room 36 of Butler Hall, Monmouth, Oregon, United States.

I checked into Butler Hall at about six in the evening

of Sunday March 24, 1974. Three months later, on June 20, 1974,

I began programming the CDC 3300. That was the first supercomputer

to be rated at one million instructions per second.

That supercomputer was marketed seven years earlier

as the world’s fastest computer. By far, the most important contribution

to the field of supercomputing is to attain a speed

that was once-impossible and then to harness that new speed

to solve the grand challenge problems arising in science and engineering. [A Breakthrough in Supercomputing] Such a breakthrough

in computational mathematics, or the supercomputer solution

of a grand challenge problem, is particularly worthy

of being a benchmark in the history of the computer.

That breakthrough is noteworthy if it changed the way

we looked at the computer and the internet.

With the supercomputer that communicates across processors

and do so synchronously and computes within processors

and do so simultaneously, we now have answers

to previously unanswerable grand challenge questions.

But back in 1974, my unanswerable question

was how to solve a large system of equations of algebra

and how to solve them across a new global network

of 64 binary thousand processors that defined and outlined a new internet.

On June 20, 1974, the day I began programming supercomputers,

the number of computer scientists in the world were few.

That should not come as a surprise. After all, the first computer science academic

programs started only ten years earlier.

For that reason, I was one of only 24 programmers

from around the state of Oregon that were remotely logged into

the supercomputer that was at 1800 SW Campus Way,

Corvallis, Oregon, United States. [New Paradigm in Supercomputing] Three months before I started programming

supercomputers, I had arrived from Onitsha, Nigeria.

It seemed like I was catapulted from a sling shot

from Onitsha to Oregon. At that time, my family in Nigeria

were still struggling to pronounce the word “Oregon.”

The sling shot that catapulted me to Oregon

was a scholarship letter that was dated September 10, 1973.

When I left Nigeria, they was no computer in Nigeria,

or in Sub-Saharan Africa outside of South Africa.

Looking back to 1974, I derived recognition

from being at the frontier of supercomputing

and being there when only twenty-four people

were logged into the primary computer in the entire state of Oregon.

On the sixteenth anniversary of my entry

into the frontier of supercomputing, trade publications

and newspaper articles, such as the June 20, 1990 issue

of The Wall Street Journal, wrote that

I—Philip Emeagwali—had discovered a different way of looking at supercomputers.

I discovered a new paradigm for supercomputing

that uses sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

central processing units to record the once-impossible

3.1 billion calculations per second.

My discovery was a paradigm shift because Seymour Cray—the then leading light in the

world of supercomputers— said that

it will forever remain impossible to use sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] “chickens,” that was his metaphor

for the as many slowest central processing units,

and use them to defeat one strong ox,

that was his metaphor for the fastest

vector supercomputers. [THE PARALLEL SUPERCOMPUTER MAKES THE IMPOSSIBLE

POSSIBLE] I was in the news in 1989

because I discovered that the impossible-to-solve

within a sequential supercomputer is possible-to-solve across

a parallel processing machinery that is not a computer per se.

That new machinery is a virtual supercomputer

and is a new internet de facto. That new internet

is a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] central processing units.

At a visceral level, I felt like a nineteen-year-old

that sojourned from the heart of my ancestral Igbo Land

and across the Atlantic Ocean, beyond North America,

and beyond the North Pole and sojourned to reach

the 21st century’s land of the spirits (or ala mmuo), namely,

the unexplored territory of the never-before-seen computer

and the new internet. It was within that unknown world

of the massively parallel supercomputer that I discovered

how to solve the once-impossible grand challenge problems

and thereby extend the boundaries of mathematics, science,

and engineering. I made the impossible-to-solve

possible-to-solve and I accomplished that

when I discovered how to perform the world’s fastest computations

and, far more importantly, discovered how to perform the fastest calculations

and do so with and across the slowest processors in the world. [Contributions to the Development of the Computer] [Philip Emeagwali: What is He Famous For?] In 1989, it made the news headlines

that a lone wolf Nigerian Supercomputer Wizard

in the United States had discovered how to build

the fastest supercomputer and discovered how to always compute fastest.

I am that Nigerian supercomputer scientist

that was in the news back in 1989 and in the news for discovering

practical parallel supercomputing. I was in the news because

I was unconventional and saw something previously unseen,

namely, a new way of supercomputing. In the old way of supercomputing,

a supercomputer that did only one thing at a time

was used to solve the toughest problems that arose in mathematics, science,

and engineering. In my new way of supercomputing,

I used the slowest processors that each merely executed

forty-seven thousand three hundred and three [47,303] calculations

per second per processor.

I am that lone wolf supercomputer scientist

that was in the news for discovering

how to perform the fastest calculations and how to do so across a new internet

that is a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] inexpensive, tightly-coupled,

commodity-off-the-shelf processors that shared nothing between each other. What is the contribution

of Philip Emeagwali to the development of the computer? I discovered

how to always perform the world’s fastest computations

and perform it with the world’s slowest

processors. I was in the news, in 1989, because

my experimental discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

marked a milestone in the history of the computer.

For me—Philip Emeagwali— my experimental discovery of 1989

of practical parallel supercomputing wasn’t unexpected.

I expected to confirm my earlier theoretical discovery

of how to massively parallel process across a new internet

that will become a virtual supercomputer.

I expected to confirm that I could communicate across

and compute on sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

computational fluid dynamics codes and communicate and compute them

at once. As a theory, my theoretical discovery

of parallel supercomputing was ridiculed

as a huge waste of everybody’s time. Yet, I discovered

how to save everybody time and how to do so

by synchronously communicating and simultaneously computing

in only one day what used to take

sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six

[65,536] days, or 180 years. [Contribution of Philip Emeagwali to Computer

Development] The contribution

of Philip Emeagwali to the development of the computer

is this: I experimentally discovered

how to parallel process across a new internet

that is a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] central processing units.

After my discovery, a grand challenge problem

that formerly took sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six

[65,536] days, or 180 years, of time-to-solution

on one central processing unit now takes only one day

of time-to-solution across a new internet.

Metaphorically speaking, that was how I discovered

180 years in one day. [Why a Supercomputer Scientist Hid His Racial

Identity] Back in 1989, the Award Committee

of The Computer Society was not aware that I was black

and African and for that reason gave me credit

for discovering practical parallel supercomputing

and did so without taking race into consideration.

But scientists that knew that I was black and African

were terribly upset that The Computer Society

gave me the top award in the field of supercomputing

and gave it to me without digging deeper to discover

that I was black and African. In that respect,

the IEEE Computer Society did not give

the top supercomputer award to a black supercomputer scientist.

I simply kept the credits for my contributions

and I could keep them because I was the sole inventor

of practical parallel supercomputing and the sole expert

on the new supercomputer that parallel processed across

my ensemble of 64 binary thousand processors.

Parallel processing appeared as science fiction

on February 1, 1922 and as 64 thousand human computers

working together and in parallel and doing so to forecast the weather.

The precondition to forecasting the weather

is that those 64 thousand human computers

must solve the initial-boundary value grand challenge problem of calculus

that is governed by the primitive equations

of meteorology. For thirty-six years after 1922,

interest in parallel processing was lost, in part, because

the automatic programmable computer that provided the motivation

for faster computing did not exist and was not invented until 1946.

Parallel processing started appearing in computer science literature

and appeared regularly onwards of 1958. For the thirty-one years onward of 1958, parallel

processing was mocked at computer science conferences

and the supercomputer technology was ridiculed as a beautiful theory

that lacked an experimental confirmation. [Changing the Way Mathematicians Count] [Changing the Way We Look at Computers] As a research supercomputer scientist,

my goal is to discover how to compute fastest

and do so with the slowest processors, or how to do more with less

and how to create reality from science-fiction.

Parallel processing—the technology that enables the supercomputer

to solve many problems at once—enabled me

to solve 65,536 problems at once. In principle, your computer

can do whatever my supercomputer can do.

However, your computer that is powered by only one

isolated processor takes 30,000 years to solve a grand challenge problem

that my supercomputer that is powered by an ensemble of

over 10 million processors takes only one day to solve.

Practical parallel supercomputing must be investigated on a broad canvas

and imagined in broad imaginative strokes.

Practical parallel supercomputing only benefits humankind

if and only if it is proven to solve the grand challenge problems.

Practical parallel supercomputing is not for the faint of heart

or for those locked within their own intellectual silos.

As a research supercomputer scientist, my goal was not to merely invent

new algebra and new calculus. My research goal was to project

my new mathematics and project that new knowledge

from the blackboard to the motherboard

and across a new internet that is a new global network of

64 binary thousand processors and, most importantly, to project

that new supercomputer into the real world

where it helps my country of birth, Nigeria, discover and recover

otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas,

or where it impacts the market trader in my ancestral hometown

of Onitsha. The fastest supercomputer

attracts the toughest mathematical problems

in physics in the manner a high mountain

attracts the storms. The supercomputer is to mathematics

what the Nile is to Egypt. Each is a lifeline.

The supercomputer is an intellectual extension

of the complex equations scribbled on the mathematician’s blackboard.

My goal was to invent a supercomputer out of the slowest processors.

Inventing that supercomputer demanded that I become an athlete

of the mind. Nine out of ten supercomputer cycles

are consumed solving the partial differential equation

of calculus and physics. For that reason,

practical parallel supercomputing may be defined

as solving millions upon millions of initial-boundary value problems

at once. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I announced my discovery of practical parallel supercomputing.

The response from everybody was that I made a mistake.

The first six copies of my 1,057-page research report

that was dated July 4, 1989 that described how I discovered

practical parallel supercomputing were thrown into the dustbin

of the reviewers. I was mocked

and I was warned that I was computing with science-fiction,

not with a new supercomputer. Everybody that said that

I made a mistake was mistaken. Practical parallel supercomputing

has withstood the test of time and is the vital technology

that powers every supercomputer manufactured today.

That experimental discovery that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989

took the parallel supercomputer from a research and development project

to the widespread commercialization that is called the modern computer.

Parallel processing validated the modern computer.

The amount of new computations that I discovered how to compute

on the 4th of July 1989 was 64 binary thousand times

what could be computed only one day earlier. After 1989, massively parallel processing

became the standard technology that must be used in all supercomputers.

Before 1989, the fastest one thousand supercomputers

in the world derived their supercomputing speeds

from only one vector processing unit. After 1989,

the fastest one thousand supercomputers in the world

derived their supercomputing speeds from up to 10.65 million

central processing units that counter-intuitively computed

10.65 million things at once, instead of intuitively computing

only one thing at a time. My 1989 paradigm shift

from computing only one thing at a time to computing 65,536 things at once

opened the door to computing 10.65 million things at once.

A future world without the parallel supercomputer

could be a world without the computer of the future.

If parallel supercomputing is subtracted from human knowledge,

nearly every computer, all supercomputers,

and the internet itself will shut down!! Parallel supercomputing is not

a new knowledge that was created. Parallel supercomputing exists theoretically

and a priori and existed as a technique

that was uncovered for computing faster. I discovered practical parallel supercomputing

when I parallel processed across my new internet

that was a new global network of 65,536 tightly-coupled,

commodity-off-the-shelf processors that shared nothing between each other

and that were equal distances apart from each other.

I turned science-fiction to reality by discovering

how to parallel compute and how to do so sight unseen.

I was in the news back in 1989 because I was the first person

to solve a grand challenge problem and solve it

by massively parallel computing it. I achieved that

supercomputer breakthrough and did so at a time

all my 64 binary thousand processors

were expected to forever remain silent. Parallel supercomputing is an invention because

computers and supercomputers are now parallel processing. Thank you. I’m Philip Emeagwali. [How I Invented a New Internet that is a New

Supercomputer] [What is Philip Emeagwali Famous For in Computing?] I’m Philip Emeagwali.

The fundamental problem of supercomputing

was to discover how to solve the toughest problems

arising in mathematics, science, and engineering.

And to discover how to solve those grand challenge problems across

an ensemble of processors that were identical to each other

and that shared nothing between each other

with each processor operating its own operating system.

The latter was the biggest scientific question

in the unknown world of the supercomputer.

The concrete, measurable, and visible proof

that I was in the terra incognita, or in the unexplored territory,

of the supercomputer was that it made the news headlines

that I experimentally parallel processed and communicated across

a new internet. After my invention

of practical parallel processing, I became well known

but not known well. That is, many knew Philip Emeagwali

as an inventor but few understood his invention.

It’s easier to recognize my face than to understand

my abstract contributions to mathematics, physics,

and computer science. Who is Philip Emeagwali? I am the computational mathematician

that contributed to a greater understanding

of how to execute the fastest floating-point calculations of arithmetic. I am the research mathematician

who figured out how to solve the largest system of equations

of algebra that must be solved

to discover and recover otherwise elusive

crude oil and natural gas. I am the mathematician

that invented new partial differential equations

of the calculus of extreme-scaled petroleum reservoir simulation. For those reasons, I said that

I am well known as a supercomputer scientist

that contributed to the development of the computer

but I am not known well as a mathematician

that contributed to mathematics. It’s easier to understand that

I contributed to the modern computer or to the modern supercomputer

that’s an internet than to understand my contributions

to computational mathematics and even computational physics.

Most people think calculus is difficult to understand.

The invention of the fastest computer

is easier to recall than the invention

of the most advanced expression in calculus

that, in turn, is the recurring decimal in nearly all the workloads

of supercomputers. [School Reports on Philip Emeagwali] A 12-year-old writing

a school inventor report on Philip Emeagwali

cannot explain to her teacher how the new nine

partial differential equations that I contributed to calculus

is more accurate than the previous equations

in textbooks. On the other hand,

she could explain my contributions to the development of the supercomputer

that is a new internet. The technology called

practical parallel processing that I discovered

on the Fourth of July 1989 was called a grand challenge

for a good reason. Because it was a once-impossible problem

that was in the realm of science-fiction the machinery was abandoned

by 25,000 supercomputer scientists that were only at home

with scalar and/or vector processing. I was the only full time programmer

of the 1980s that was at the frontier

of the most massively parallel supercomputers. In the 1980s, attempting to harness

64 binary thousand processors and to use them to solve

the biggest scientific challenges evoked a sense of foreboding.

In the 1980s, harnessing one billion processors—that defined

and outlined a massively parallel supercomputer

—and using them to solve a grand challenge problem

was as science fiction as sending an astronaut to planet Mars. [WHY I PARALLEL PROCESSED ALONE] In the 1980s, to parallel process

a grand challenge problem was to make the impossible-to-solve

initial-boundary value problem of calculus and physics

possible-to-solve as a discretized problem

in large-scale algebra. The reason I parallel processed alone

was that I was the only person with the confidence to do so.

In the 1970s and ‘80s, practical parallel supercomputing

across a new internet that was a new global network of

65,536 processors was like shooting at as many birds

in the dark. I parallel processed

to discover speeds in computation and communication

that were previously unseen, and that made the news headlines

in 1989. Supercomputer scientists

that had seen me daily in the 1980s

first read about my discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

and read about it in newspapers, instead of hearing about my discovery from

me. For me as a lone

supercomputer scientist, breaking the speed records

in both computation and communication and breaking those records alone

and breaking those records for the first time

and breaking those records with a parallel processing machinery

was the metaphorical equivalence of being the first solo mountain climber

that climbed to the peak of Mount Everest.

The significance of reaching the top of Mount Everest

and being the first person to reach it was an achievement

in geographical exploration that redefined the boundary

of the reachable regions of the Earth. I was in the news headlines because

I was the first lone wolf supercomputer scientist

to climb to the peak of the Mount Everest

of massively parallel supercomputing across a new ensemble of

65,536 tightly-coupled, commodity-off-the shelf processors

that shared nothing between each other and that were equal distances apart

from each other. [Inventing a New Internet] [Thirty Thousand Years in One Day] Prior to my experimental discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing and my discovery

of how to solve a grand challenge problem

and how to solve it across a new internet,

the fastest computations were recorded

on the scalar supercomputers of the late 1940s

through early 1970s. The fastest computations

were also recorded on the vector supercomputers

of the mid-1970s through late 1980s. I first entered

into the world of scalar supercomputing on June 20, 1974

at 1800 SW Campus Way Corvallis, Oregon, United States.

That scalar supercomputer solved only one

initial-boundary value problem of calculus at a time.

The ensemble of 65,536 processors that I programmed in the 1980s

and programmed as a new internet

and that made the news headlines in 1989

solved 65,536 initial-boundary value problems

at once. Initial-boundary value problems

of calculus are at the foundation

of computational physics. Nine in ten supercomputer cycles

consumed in the 1980s were consumed by extreme-scale

computational physicists. Extreme-scale, high-resolution computational

physics is executed across

a massively parallel supercomputer that occupies the space

of a soccer field. For that reason, computational physics

is a branch of physics that lies between theoretical

and experimental physics. That is, computational physics

is the third branch of physics. That branch of physics is midway

between theory and experiment. That branch of physics encompassed

both theory and experiment. My experimental discovery

of how to solve many initial-boundary value problems

that are governed by a system of partial differential equations

of calculus and governed by its companion

and discretized system of partial difference equations

of algebra and my discovery

of how to solve them at once opened the door

to the parallel supercomputer that is the world’s fastest supercomputer

that achieves its record-breaking supercomputing speed

by solving millions upon millions of initial-boundary value problems

and solving them at once. In computational physics,

my experimental discovery made it possible

for the supercomputer of today to reduce the time-to-solution

of the biggest scientific challenges and reduce it from

10.65 million days, or 30,000 years, to just one day.

Without parallel supercomputing, a global warming prediction will occur 30,000

years after the said global warming occurred. [Crossing the Frontier of Supercomputer Knowledge] My quest for the fastest speeds

in computing demanded that I parallel process across

a new internet that is a new global network

of 64 binary thousand processors. In the 1980s,

massively parallel processing defined the boundary

of the supercomputer. The reason I am well known

but not known well was that I was the first person

to enter into the unexplored territory where the fastest computations

can be executed across a new internet. The proof that I entered into

that unexplored territory was that I recorded speeds

in supercomputing that were previously unrecorded.

That contribution made more news headlines

than any singular contribution made by an individual

to the development of the computer. In the 1970s and ‘80s,

the complete knowledge of the parallel supercomputer

was out of the reach of human beings. That is, I parallel processed

in that new frontier of knowledge and did so without a map, or a textbook.

On the Fourth of July 1989, I became the first person

to provide practical, in-depth, and easy to understand explanations

of how to harness millions of processors and how to use those processors

to solve a real-world problem that is chopped up

into millions of smaller problems. My invention

of practical parallel supercomputing made the news headlines because

I also discovered how to harness the new supercomputer

to solve grand challenge problems that will be otherwise impossible

to solve. [New Internet Versus Old Computer] In the history of computing,

the invention of parallel supercomputing is the biggest change

in the way we think about the supercomputer.

In the old way, the fastest supercomputer solved

only one problem at a time, or in sequence.

In my new way, the fastest supercomputer solved

ten million problems at once, or in parallel.

I was in the news because I discovered

how to experimentally perform 65,536 synchronized

parallel communication that was as many times faster

than your email. The supercomputer that I programmed

in 1974 only computed sequentially

and did so within only one central processing unit.

The virtual supercomputer that I programmed in the 1980s

computed in parallel and did so in the plural senses

and communicated across a new internet

that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand processors. [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] [How I Invented a New Internet] Who invented the internet? The Internet

has many fathers and mothers as well as aunts and uncles.

We can only have one father of the Internet

that invented a new internet. The father of the Internet

should at least invent a new internet. I am called a father of the Internet because

I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I invented my new internet

by, first, theorizing it back in 1974 and then continuously developed it

for the subsequent fifteen years and developed

that small copy of the internet and did so until I actualized it

as the fastest computation back on the Fourth of July 1989.

My two-raised-to-power sixteen commodity-off-the-shelf processors

were tightly-coupled to each other and were equal distances apart

from each other. I mathematically visualized

my 64 binary thousand processors as tightly-encircling a hyper globe

that is bounded by the hypersurface

of a sixteen-dimensional hypersphere that is embedded

within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. I visualized

the physical and mathematical domains of my extreme-scale, high-resolution

general circulation model as the 62-mile deep

hyper-spherical shell that was bounded by two hyperspheres.

The inner hypersphere has a diameter of 7,900 miles

that corresponded to the surface of the Earth.

The outer hypersphere has a diameter of 7,962 miles

that corresponded to the outer boundary

of the atmosphere of the Earth. I visualized

the two-raised-to-power sixteen vertices of my hypercube

to be midway (or 31 miles) between those two hyperspheres.

I drew parallels between my new internet

that was a new global network of processors

and how I envisioned simulating global warming.

My two hyperspheres were parallel to each other.

My two hyperspheres extended in the same direction.

My two hyperspheres never converged or diverged.

My 65,536 processors were paralleled

with respect to the climate model that I divided into

65,536 smaller climate models. Those climate models

were identical in domain size. [Paradigm Shift in Computing] My discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing created a paradigm shift

on how we look at the computer and the internet

of tomorrow. Practical parallel supercomputing

led to my new definition of the supercomputer

as powered by millions upon millions of processors,

rather than one singular processor. Practical parallel supercomputing

was mocked, ridiculed, and rejected during the sixty-seven years

onward of its first conceptualization that occurred in print

back on February 1, 1922. After my discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989,

the supercomputer industry took my invention

and made it the vital technology within every supercomputer.

But for the sixty-seven years prior to my invention,

practical parallel supercomputing remained in the realm of science-fiction.

My contribution to the development of the computer

is this: I upgraded

the parallel supercomputer from science-fiction to non-fiction.

I discovered how to maintain a one-problem to one-processor correspondence,

or analogy, between the smaller

general circulation models and the processors.

I discovered how to communicate synchronously

and how to compute simultaneously and how to communicate and compute and do

both 65,536 times faster and do both on 65,536

central processing units, and across sixteen times

as many email paths. In other words, I paradigm shifted

in my email communication across my new internet.

I discovered how to harness processors

and how to shift from the singular,

person-to-person email to the plural

processor-to-processor emails that I synchronized across

my new internet that is a new global network of

65,536 tightly-coupled central processing units. That new global network defined

a parallel supercomputer that is a new internet de facto. I invented a new internet

that tightly-encircled a hyper globe. My hyper globe is shaped like a

sixteen-dimensional hypersphere in a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace.

My supercomputing paradigm shifted because

I computed simultaneously on 64 binary thousand

central processing units and emailed synchronously

across one binary million email wires. That was how I discovered

that practical parallel processing must be vital

to the supercomputer that solves many problems at once,

or in parallel. [President Bill Clinton on the Contributions

of Philip Emeagwali] That invention

of practical parallel supercomputing embodied

the Philip Emeagwali formula that then U.S. President Bill Clinton praised

in his White House speech that was delivered on August 26, 2000.

President Bill Clinton recognized my contribution

to the development of the parallel supercomputer, in part, because

it made the news headlines, eleven years earlier.

That contribution was my experimental discovery

of how to record the fastest computations

and how to record those fastest computations

and record them across a parallel supercomputer.

I recorded those fastest computations by solving 65,536 problems at once,

instead of solving only one problem at a time. [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] I’m often asked:

What is Philip Emeagwali known for? My answer is this:

I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I experimentally discovered

how to execute the fastest computations and how to execute them across

a new internet. That new internet

is a new global network of processors

that were tightly-coupled to each other. I visualized the processors

of my new internet to be equidistant from each other

and to be evenly spread out across the surface of a globe

that I also visualized as embedded within

a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. In my discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing, I used my new internet

to redefine the boundary of human knowledge

of how to execute the world’s fastest computations

and most, importantly, harness that supercomputer speed

to solve the toughest problems arising in science, engineering,

and medicine. [The Importance of Supercomputers] [How Philip Emeagwali Solved the Toughest

Problem in Mathematics and Physics] My experimental discovery

of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989

of how to reduce the supercomputer time-to-solution of grand challenge problems

and reduce it from 180 years to just one day, in effect,

distinguished between what’s computable

and what’s not computable. Climate models must be used

to accurately foresee otherwise unforeseeable

long-term climate changes. In theory, extreme-scale

high-resolution climate models are computable.

But in practice a climate modeler may need to run more than

a thousand accurate simulations. If each accurate simulation

of the planet’s climate has a time-to-solution of 180 years,

then the climate modeler that began her simulation

two millennia ago, or in the year Jesus Christ was born,

will complete her forecast in nearly two hundred millennia

from now. I was the first

computational physicist to experimentally discover

how to parallel process across an internet.

I was in the news headlines because I discovered how to parallel process

extreme-scaled computational fluid dynamics codes

and how to simultaneously execute them, in parallel,

and how to synchronously email them across a new internet.

I was the first person to experimentally discover

how to reduce 180 years of time-to-solution

of a grand challenge problem being solved on one computer

to just one day of time-to-solution across a new internet

that is de facto one supercomputer. That new internet

is a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] identical central processing units

that I visualized as equal distances apart from each other

and on the surface of a globe that I mathematically visualized

as embedded within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. [PHILIP EMEAGWALI AT THE UNEXPLORED TERRITORY

OF CALCULUS] Along my way to that terra incognita,

called parallel supercomputing, that was then an unknown

and unexplored territory that had no map,

I employed a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,

and three-dimensional partial differential equations of calculus

that encoded a set of laws of physics,

including the Second Law of Motion. I used those partial differential equations

to formulate sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

initial-boundary value grand challenge problems.

I discretized those grand challenge problems

of calculus to obtain a set of linear equations

of extreme-scale algebra. I reduced calculus to algebra because

algebra is the only way the supercomputer can experience

the laws of physics. Those linear equations

were at the algebraic core of my extreme-scale

computational fluid dynamics codes. I executed my 65,536 codes,

in parallel, and across as many tightly-coupled processors.

In a manner of speaking, I used those sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] processors to poke my nose

into the laws of physics and to discover

how the millions upon millions of processors that powers

the modern supercomputer can be harnessed and used

to foresee the otherwise unforeseeable climatic changes.

I discovered that I can use those 64 binary thousand processors

that outlined and defined my new internet

and that I can use them as one cohesive supercomputer

that can execute an extreme-scaled, high-resolution global

circulation model. Parallel supercomputing

is a precondition to foreseeing global warming.

My contribution to the development of the computer

is this: I redefined the boundary

of what the computer can compute, and I redefined that boundary

by a factor of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Explained] [What is Philip Emeagwali Famous for in Math?] I am often asked:

What are the Philip Emeagwali Equations?

Or, how were the Philip Emeagwali Equations derived?

The Philip Emeagwali Equations are a system of coupled, non-linear,

time-dependent, and three-dimensional partial differential equations

that are symbolic restatements in calculus of multi-phased fluids

flowing across a porous medium. The Philip Emeagwali Equations

encoded into calculus the Second Law of Motion of physics.

The Philip Emeagwali Equations model the three-phase,

three-dimensional flows of crude oil, natural gas,

and injected water that are flowing one mile deep

and flowing across an oilfield that is the size of a town.

I have been presenting the Philip Emeagwali Equations

to research mathematicians and doing so since the early 1980s.

The Philip Emeagwali Equations were the cover story

of the June 1990 issue of the SIAM News.

The SIAM News is the premier publication

for mathematicians. The SIAM News

is the flagship publication of the Society for Industrial

and Applied Mathematics. The SIAM News

presents new mathematical knowledge as written by research mathematicians

for research mathematicians. I also presented

the Philip Emeagwali Equations at invited lectures that I delivered to

research mathematicians in the United States.

I delivered an invited lecture on my contributions to mathematics

and I delivered that lecture to the largest international congress

of mathematicians, called ICIAM ’91.

That congress is the Olympics of the world of mathematics

and is held once every four years. My ICIAM ’91 lecture

was at eleven [11] in the morning of Monday July 8, 1991,

in the Dover Room of the Washington Sheraton Hotel

in Washington in the District of Columbia,

United States. The complete mathematical description of the

invention of the Philip Emeagwali Equations

is posted at emeagwali dot com and shared at the YouTube channel of Philip

Emeagwali. In summary,

the Philip Emeagwali Equations is akin in mathematical structure

to the iconic Navier-Stokes equations that were used to design jet aircrafts, and

used to model the flow of bloods flowing across veins and arteries.

Due to its importance, the Navier-Stokes equations

were used to define one of the seven millennium problems

of mathematics. The system of Navier-Stokes equations

own itself to the oceans, wind, and fire. Just like the system of

Philip Emeagwali equations own itself to the injected water,

crude oil, and natural gas that flows one mile deep

and flows inside an oilfield that is the size of a town. The differential equation

plays a central role in subdisciplines of mathematics,

such as complex analysis, Lie algebra theory

[pronounced /liː/ “Lee”], and probability theory.

My discovery of practical parallel processing

can be extended to all boundary value problems

of calculus that are governed by

partial differential equations, such as Maxwell’s equations

of electrodynamics, diffusion equation

of heat and mass transfer, beam and plate equations

of solid mechanics, lubrication theory of fluid mechanics,

Hodgkin-Huxley equations of neurobiology,

Fisher’s and reaction-diffusion equations of genetics and population dynamics,

and the Black-Scholes equation of financial engineering.

For these partial differential equations, the timescales

for discretizing and solving them range from one trillionth of a second

to a thousand years. And the length scales for solving them

range from the sub-atomic to the astronomical. [Millennium Equations Versus Philip Emeagwali

Equations] The various formulations

of the partial differential equations governing the flows of fluids

were almost independently derived by Claude-Louis Navier,

Siméon-Denis Poisson, Barré de Saint Venant,

and George Stokes. Those partial differential equations

were derived between 1827 and 1845. The Philip Emeagwali equations

were my independent derivations of new partial differential equations

that I formulated when I was a research mathematician

of the early 1980s and in College Park

(Maryland, United States). The Philip Emeagwali equations

were the governing equations that encoded the time-dependent

and three-dimensional subterranean motions

of crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

that flow one-mile deep and across an oilfield and towards

production oil wells. The mathematical difference between

the Navier-Stokes Equations as written in the millennium problem

of mathematics and the Philip Emeagwali Equations

is that the latter govern the three-dimensional,

three-phase fluids flowing across a porous medium

that is one mile deep and that is the size of a town.

Please allow me a couple of minutes to speak only

to the mathematicians in this audience. In most fluid dynamics textbooks,

the Navier-Stokes Equations are written in compact, vector form as: rho, the fluid density,

times the sum of the partial

of v, the fluid velocity in vector, with respect to the partial

of t, the independent variable time, (that is, the change in velocity

with respect to time that is called the temporal acceleration)

plus the product of the fluid velocity in vector

and nabla (or upside down delta

and the gradient operator) v, the fluid velocity in vector

(that is, the convective acceleration) is equal to

minus nabla p, the fluid pressure term (that is, the fluid flows

in the direction of the largest change in pressure),

plus the product of nabla and capital T

(where capital T is the stress tensor for viscous fluids)

plus f (the body forces

such as wind, gravity, and electromagneticism). I stated a vector equation

for each of my three phases, namely, crude oil, injected water,

and natural gas. That is equivalent

to nine scalar equations. My unknowns were the velocity

and the pressure. In three spatial dimensions,

I have three equations and four unknowns, namely,

the pressure and the three scalar velocities.

For that reason, I introduced a system of supplementary

partial differential equations. Those extra partial differential equations

encode the law of conservation of mass for the crude oil, natural gas,

and injected water phases. Those continuity equations

are the products of nabla

(or the gradient operator) and v,

the fluid velocity in vector equals

zero. [The Internet in a Million Years] [The Millennium Problem of Mathematics] One of the seven millennium problems

of mathematics is to prove or give a counter-example

of this statement: [open quote]

“In three space dimensions and time, given an initial velocity field,

there exists a vector velocity and a scalar pressure field,

which are both smooth and globally defined,

that solve the Navier–Stokes equations.” [end quote]

One million dollars will be given to the first person

to prove that statement. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Mathematics] In mathematical physics textbooks

dealing with the subject of multiphase fluids flowing across

a porous medium, the partial derivative terms

on the left hand side of the partial differential equations

that I described are non-zero. Those mathematical terms

encoded both the temporal and the convective acceleration forces.

By the definition of the word “inertia” as the tendency of fluids in motion

to remain in motion those two inertial forces exist

whenever and wherever any fluid is in motion.

Yet, those two forces were erroneously zeroed

in every mathematical physics textbooks on porous media flows.

My contribution to mathematics that was the cover stories

of top mathematics publications is this:

I discovered that those egregrious mathematical errors

were coded and transferred into supercomputers

and communicated across a tightly-coupled ensemble

of millions upon millions of processors

that defines and outlines the modern supercomputer.

In expanded form, for three phase, three dimensional fluid flows,

those temporal and convective inertial terms

corresponded to the thirty-six (36) partial derivative terms

that I invented and added to the forty-five (45)

partial derivative terms that were described

in mathematical physics textbooks that dealt with

petroleum reservoir simulation. My contribution to mathematics

is this: I extended the borders

of mathematical knowledge and I did so by a distance of

thirty-six (36) partial derivative terms

that encoded the fluid dynamical processes

at a distance of one mile beneath the surface of the Earth. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Internet] The massively parallel supercomputer

that I discovered to be faster than the vector supercomputer

communicated across its central processing units

and, therefore, was not a computer per se.

It was a [quote unquote] “virtual supercomputer”

that was shortened to and renamed as a supercomputer.

I was in the news headlines back in 1989 because

I discovered how to compute and communicate

and how to do both across that virtual supercomputer

that I visualized as a new internet de facto.

That discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

was how I redefined the boundary of what a new internet can communicate,

and redefined that boundary of human knowledge

by a factor of sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536].

That discovery of the practical parallel supercomputer

pushed the frontier of the Internet technology

and did so because it is a theoretical discovery

of the Internet and an idealized model

of a planetary supercomputer-hopeful that is a new internet.

That new Internet is a new global network of

billions of computers. The new supercomputer

that I experimentally parallel processed through

is a new global network of 65,536 identical

central processing units that I visualized

as equal distances apart and on the surface of a hyper globe

embedded inside in a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace.

I use the word “internet” is this manner because

I prefer that the technology define the name,

rather than the name define the technology. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Computer

Science] [PHILIP EMEAGWALI ON INVENTING A NEW COMPUTATIONAL

PHYSICS] My parallel supercomputer

is a new internet that’s faithful to its dictionary definition

as a new global network of processors. Those processors

within that new internet were tightly-coupled to each other.

Those processors within that new internet

were equal distances apart from each other.

Each processor within that new internet operated

its own operating system. As the supercomputer scientist

that discovered practical parallel supercomputing,

I was only faithful to the laws of physics

as well as to the laws of logic. I was not faithful to Amdahl’s Law.

Amdahl’s Law was merely a human law

that erroneously decreed that the parallel supercomputer

will forever remain a huge waste of everybody’s time.

I was not faithful to out-of-date definitions

and soon-to-be-obsolete supercomputers. In 1989, I discovered how to

experimentally parallel process and process

computational fluid dynamics codes and process them through

a new global network of sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] central processing units

that I described as a new internet. I use the word “internet”

to define the new global network of

sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

central processing units that I theoretically discovered

in the 1970s and experimentally discovered

on the Fourth of July 1989 in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

United States. [THE WAYS OF PRE-HUMAN COUNTING] A long time ago,

our hunter gatherer ancestors added the fruits of their labors

by counting on their fingers and toes. Three thousand five hundred years [3,500]

ago, merchants in China

used the abacus to add and multiply two numbers.

The abacus was the manual computing aid

of ancient China. I was asked:

“What supercomputing aid could be relevant in Year Million,

or in a million years?” The answer to what supercomputing aid

could be used in a million years is best understood

by looking at the counting aid that was used a million years ago.

A million years ago, our pre-human ancestors

roamed across the African savannahs and did so on four legs.

The counting ability of our pre-human ancestors

of a million years ago was about as abstract

as that of a chimpanzee. [Post-Human Supercomputing of Year Million] I believe that

our post-human descendants of Year Million

will develop Year Million supercomputers that will make them super-intelligent.

I believe that our post-human descendants will invent

their Year Million supercomputers that will enable them

to safely travel to distant galaxies. I believe that

our post-human descendants will invent Year Million supercomputers

that will enable them to reinvent themselves

as pulsating brains that are safely encased

and floating in the middle and safety

of the Atlantic Ocean. I believe that

our post-human descendants of one thousand millennia

will see us, their distant human ancestors,

as retarded as donkeys and perhaps use those of us

that did not evolve to their level of intelligence

as their human donkeys. I believe that

our post-human descendants could achieve immortality

and eternal bliss but yet deny that immortality

to lesser beings, such as human beings

and other beings. And I still believe that

our post-human descendants will still need to add

and multiply numbers. The reason is that the need to add

and multiply numbers was around for our pre-human ancestors

of one hundred and fifty thousand [150,000] years ago,

and was around a million years ago, and could be around

in a million years. [Philip Emeagwali on Inventing a New Computer

Science] In the 1980s, my intellect

was questioned and I was discredited by white scientists

who could not understand the extremely difficult subject

of how to parallel process and how to solve the toughest problems

arising in science and engineering and how to solve them across

a new internet that was a new global network of

millions of processors. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I discovered a new path that led to a new computer science.

In 1989, my 1,057-page research report on the new computer science

of how I parallel processed across my ensemble of 65,536 processors

was rejected. I was mocked and made fun of

and advised that parallel processing was a huge waste of time.

The first scientists that reviewed my invention

could not understand parallel processing. Those scientists denied that I could

parallel process and solve the grand challenge problem

of supercomputing and solve it alone. Another reason my invention

was discredited was that white scientists

did not believe that a black scientist that worked alone

could solve the very multidisciplinary grand challenge problem

that they could not solve as a team. That scientific problem

was called a grand challenge because massively parallel supercomputing

straddled the frontiers of mathematics, physics,

and computer science. [Supercomputing Across the Internet] My quest for the fastest way to add

and multiply numbers and do so on a supercomputer

began on Thursday June 20, 1974. The quest began on a supercomputer

that was at 1800 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, Oregon, United States.

My experimental discovery of how to always perform

the fastest calculations and how to use that new knowledge

of supercomputing to solve the grand challenge problems

that arise in science and engineering was the cover story

of the May 1990 issue of the SIAM News.

The acronym “SIAM” stands for the Society for Industrial

and Applied Mathematics. The SIAM News

is the flagship publication of the mathematics community.

My experimental discovery of how to reduce the time-to-solution

for solving a grand challenge problem and reduce it from 180 years,

or 65,536 days, on one isolated processor

to just one day across a new internet

that is a new global network of 65,536 processors

entered into the June 20, 1990 issue of the Wall Street Journal.

Looking back to 1974, I learned that programming

the parallel supercomputer and doing so back then

was akin to the Wright Brothers learning how to fly

an airplane and doing so six decades earlier.

Back then, spectators were asking the Wright Brothers:

“Why do you want to fly?” For the same reason,

programmers of the 1970s were asking me:

“Why do you want to parallel process?” In the 1970s, it was often said that

parallel processing is a huge waste of everybody’s time.

And it was also said that parallel processing

is a beautiful theory that lacked

an experimental confirmation. [INFLUENCE OF MODERN COMPUTING] Parallel supercomputing

that was uncharted territory in the 1970s and ‘80s

opened an unknown world in the 1990s through 2010s.

Today, all computers are multi-cored, or are powered by many processors

that are doing many things at once, or in parallel.

My experimental discovery of how to speedup

180 years of sequential processing to only one day of

parallel supercomputing opened the door

for the manufacturing of Japanese, Chinese, and American

parallel supercomputers. The reason the Japanese or Chinese

or American supercomputer is one of the world’s fastest

is because it embodied my discovery of practical parallel supercomputing

and used my new knowledge to reduce the time-to-solution

of grand challenge problems arising in computational physics

and science. A Chinese supercomputer

reduced its time-to-solution from thirty thousand [30,000] years,

or 10.65 million days, of sequential processing

on one isolated processor to just one day

of parallel supercomputing across an ensemble of

10.65 million processors. I began my quest

for the fastest arithmetical computations and began it in June 1970

and began with an analog computer, called a slide rule,

and began in Onitsha, Nigeria. I believe that in a million years

our post-human descendants will still be searching

for their fastest supercomputer that is perhaps

the size of their known universe. Finally, I believe that

the computing technique that was around the longest

will remain around the longest. The need to add and multiply numbers

was around for our pre-human ancestors of one million years ago.

That need to compute at the fastest speeds could be around

for our post-human ancestors of Year Million.

The research supercomputer scientist must always remain a polymath

and a magician that turns science fiction

to non-fiction. We need to discover that

the invisible is, sometimes, visible; that the impossible is, sometimes, possible;

and that the unforeseeable is, sometimes, foreseeable.

That never-ending need for faster computations

means that the supercomputer must be ahead of itself

at all times. To invent is to create something

out of nothing. We create tomorrow

by what we invent today. What we don’t discover

will do what it wishes. And my experimental discovery

of how parallel processing powers the computer

and the supercomputer is how I will tell posterity that

I—Chukwurah Philip Emeagwali— was once here. Thank you. I’m Philip Emeagwali. [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture