Revolutions of 1848: Crash Course European History #26

Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So, there are many candidates for most important
year in European history–1492, when permanent links between Afroeurasia and the Americas
first formed; 1688, when the Glorious Revolution gave Europe an example of constitutional governments;
1789, when the French Revolution directly challenged monarchy; 1992, when the European
Union was founded. But you can sure make a case for 1848, when
revolutions swept across Europe in the wake of the upheavals and protest we saw in the
last episode. People in cities were suffering from economic
dislocation, many having come from farms where new machinery had made their labor unnecessary. And urban artisans were also under threat
because industrialization was automating some of their jobs,
Systems of government that had functioned effectively for agrarian, subsistence economies
were proving ineffective for this brave new world. In short, automation was changing work and
governments weren’t functioning particularly well. The more things change . . .
INTRO By the end of 1848, France, the Austrian Empire,
Denmark, Hungary, the Italian States, and even Poland would be enmeshed in the greatest
wave of revolutions Europe has ever seen. Many Europeans were experiencing the “Hungry
Forties,” caused once again by bad harvests and especially in Ireland the potato blight,
a mold that devastated potato crops in Ireland and elsewhere in Europe. The problem was made worse by several aspects
of what might be called economic modernity—that is, standardization, one-crop agriculture,
and more efficient wholesaling of food. In terms of standardization and one-crop agriculture,
traditionally Peru had at least 4-5,000 types of potatoes. So if one type contracted a specific blight,
there were still several thousand other varieties that might be safe. But Europe, followed by the United States,
was gradually turning toward farms that focused on a single crop, and often a single strain
of a crop, for efficiency. Increasingly, imperialists forced this standardization
and single crop farming on other parts of the world, raising the chances for disaster. Because of the single strain of potato, blight
devastated entire crops. And this resulted in death from starvation
and diseases that invaded the weakened bodies of at least a million Irish farmers and their
families. Another million or more emigrated, some to
England and others to the United States and Canada (where in both cases, by the way, there
were no laws creating a distinction between legal and illegal immigration. People simply moved in.). And as scarcity deepened in 1846 and 1847,
Britain’s liberal Whig government stuck to its belief in laissez-faire, meaning that
the government should let events play themselves out, and therefore offered the Irish no help
at all. The system of usually English landlords requiring
payment from Irish peasants to work farmland also worsened the crisis–like, throughout
the Irish famine, huge amounts of food were exported from Ireland to England. Even today, the population of Ireland has
not recovered from the famine–some eight million people lived on the island in 1840;
today, around 6.6 million do. Meanwhile, on the continent, food riots became
common and threats to merchants, and storekeepers, and bakers, and government officials became
more menacing and direct. One warning read: “If the grain merchants
do not cease to take away grains. . . we will go to your homes and cut your
throats and those of the three bakers. . . and burn the whole place down.” So, yeah, it was pretty tense–as things tend
to be when people are starving. Also, amid all this deprivation and death,
anti-slavery and pro-freedom ideas were circulating. Between 1833-1838, Britain freed slaves across
the empire, except in India. A system of slave-like indentured labor did
spring up, but the rhetoric in Europe at least, was one of emancipation. In eastern Europe, Moldavia and Wallachia
began freeing several hundred thousand enslaved Roma in 1843. Later, in 1848, France also re-emancipated
slaves after their re-enslavement under Napoleon. These events were accompanied by popular abolitionism,
and uprisings, and the development of a language of freedom, especially freedom from governmental
and structural oppression. And that’s really important, because in
some ways, its only when we have language for ideas that we’re able to share them
and talk about them. And so, developing a language around freedoms,
and ideas about human rights allowed us to share those ideas. On the cultural front, women such as French
novelist George Sand (which was a pseudonym) and the English Bronte sisters –pictured
behind me, looking translucent as always–published best-selling novels that addressed the persecution
of women. Sand dressed in men’s clothes to get cheaper
seats at the theater and for a while led a scandal-ridden life. The Brontes did quite the opposite, but they
still shocked people with their portrayal of women as mad or crazed in domestic confinement. Across Europe, women reformers actively addressed
the disproportionate poverty of women, which intensified as price inflation for food made
it harder to feed families in the Hungry Forties. Many working women also became more politically
active, demonstrating in front of city halls because their meager salaries no longer sufficed
to buy high-priced bread. Hey, so quick question about the Bronte sisters
painting behind me. Who is this spectral figure in the middle
who has been erased from the painting? Is that their weird brother who was an opiate
addict? What was his name? Bromwell? Stan says his name was Branwell. which might be even worse. Update! We just found out that Branwell Bronte painted
that painting, and he painted himself in with his sisters, but then he painted himself out,
which is so sad! Oh! The self-hatred! Now I feel really bad making fun of you, person
who’s been dead for 150 years. OK, let’s move on. So, when we last visited Italy, there was
no such thing as Italy. Its territory was parceled out among the Spanish
Bourbons to the south, the Austrian Habsburgs to the north, and the papacy in the center,
among several other stakeholders. But when audiences at the operas of composer
Giuseppe Verdi heard his rousing choruses celebrating freedom and triumph over adversity,
they rose to their feet cheering, and made Verdi a symbol of a unified Italy free from
foreign domination. And in the fall of 1847, women in Messina
Sicily did more than cheer; they tore down royal insignia and in January 1848 they took
to the streets, beginning a brief revolution that took place in many parts of the peninsula. These women supported Giuseppe Mazzini, who
wanted national unification and a republican form of government. Others favored a government headed by the
pope, and still others wanted a monarchy. In the end, this disunity allowed for the
revolutions to be defeated as Austrians, French, and other military forces were sent in to
stop it. In fact, disunity of revolutions leading to
failure will become something of a theme. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. In February 1848, myriad interests came together
to spark revolution in Paris and then in other French cities. 2. Upper-class reformers objected to the cronyism,
limited voting rights, and censorship. 3. But in contrast, the prime minister, historian
François Guizot, thought Louis-Philippe’s government was just right. 4. The crowds sent him and the king into exile. 5. Those crowds were backed by the upper-class
reformers, but they were fueled by discontented workers, the unemployed, and struggling artisans 6. —all affected by rising food prices as
well as uncertain conditions of employment. 7. A socialist different from the ones we’ve
already talked about, Louis Blanc, was attuned to the needs of workers and the poor in Paris. 8. He convinced the new provisional government
to set up national workshops to create jobs for unemployed men. 9. Women successfully demanded that workshops
be established for them too and unsuccessfully nominated George Sand—“male by virtue
of virility, female by divine intuition”–as a representative to the National Assembly.” 10. As spring progressed, a new national assembly,
composed of less than ten percent workers, 11. shut down the workshops and formed a new national
police force composed of men from the countryside, 12. who had little patience for city people
and their city problems. 13. In June, tens of thousands of workers rose
up and fought the national police for several days, 14. until the bodies were piled high and the
workers defeated. 15. Now a republic, France held elections based
on universal male suffrage, 16. which the nephew of Napoleon, Louis-Napoleon
Bonaparte, won handily, 17. due to the support of peasants in the countryside. 18. Lest you think the rural-urban divide is anything
new. Thanks Thought Bubble. So, just as these revolutions started, a new
socialist duo, German lawyer and journalist Karl Marx and Manchester textile mill owner
Friedrich Engels, issued The Communist Manifesto. Its famous opening—”A spectre is haunting
Europe—the spectre of communism” used the word communism instead of socialism based
on the idea that society would soon revert to a traditional “community” of like-minded
people. Marx and Engels believed that class struggle
was going to erupt and wash away upper-class oppression, and that the proletariat would
seize the means of production–that is, factories and land and everything else would be shared
by everyone, rather than owned by the few. And for the moment, that was pretty much it
for “Marxist” socialism. But over the next half century, however, it
would, of course, take a firmer theoretical shape and infuse workers’ programs for change
across the globe, and become tremendously influential. And while initially, few people paid attention
to the Marxist ideas of class struggle, but some kind of struggle was certainly happening:
The revolutions erupting across central and eastern Europe featured–depending on who
you were–calls for the creation of constitutionally directed government structures, an end to
serf-like oppression and censorship, restoration of aristocratic privileges, and yes, even
democracy. In short, people wanted more power, and also
greater rights and protection of those rights. And of course, then as now, ideas were not
limited by borders. Like, news of the revolution in France sent
Berlin’s activists into the streets, pushing for an array of changes but mostly for the
unification of the German states. King Frederick William IV, who was forced
to witness the carnage on Berlin’s streets, summoned a congress to meet at Frankfurt to
plan for reform and unification. The meeting was dominated by the princes of
the several dozen individual states, and it progressed slowly as the princes debated whether
to include Austria in this unification project until the Prussian king, on being offered
the crown of a constitutional monarchy refused to accept “a crown from the gutter.” So instead, he would get no crown at all,
and the German states would remain disunited. Did the Center of the World just open? Is there a gutter crown in there? I don’t know if this gutter crown is for
children, or if I just have an exceptionally large head, but regardless, if there is one
lesson from 19th century Europe, it’s that royals should take a gutter crown and be grateful
for it. You know what’s fun? Being the Queen of England, or of the Netherlands. You know what’s not fun? Being the king of Germany. Because there is no king. OK. Let’s turn our attention to Poland. So, already in 1846, Polish nationalists from
the upper-classes in the Galician city of Cracow, hoped to lead a revolt against Austrian
rule. but, peasants in the region refused to join
them because Austrian rule was the peasants’ only hope for gaining freedom from the payments
and service that they owed aristocratic landowners. What’s that? Stan says I have to take off the gutter crown. So, we like to think of revolutions as being
neatly for freedoms or against them, but here we have an example of it being much more complicated. Because if you’re in like, the upper classes
in Poland, or a working person in a city, freedom might look like freedom from Austrian
oppression. But if your a peasant, freedom looks like
freedom from feudalism. So during that revolution, peasants rose up
and slaughtered several thousand from the land-holding Polish nobility. You can see how Marx came to believe class
struggle was inevitable. The same fragmentation appeared in March 1848
when an uprising broke out in cities across the Austrian empire. Remember Prince Metternich, architect of conservative
reforms in Central Europe? By 1848 he was so unpopular that disliking
him managed to unite the disparate interests of various classes and ethnic identities in
the empire. Middle-class reformers wanted constitutional
rule; aristocrats wanted more power than they had with Metternich’s imperial bureaucracy
running things, workers wanted both political and economic reforms, and peasants, of course,
wanted an end to the last oppressive vestiges of feudalism. And in the face of temporary enthusiasm on
all sides, Metternich fled the country in disguise. Later Emperor Ferdinand stepped down in favor
of his nephew, Francis Joseph, whose nephew Francis–or Franz–Ferdinand would go on to
be a rather famous assasination victim. Good God was there a rich person in central
Europe not named Frederick or Francis or William or Louis or William-Louis or Frederick-William-Louis
or Francis-Frederick-William-Louis? At any rate, with the common enemy of Metternich
gone, the common purpose soon disappeared as well. Peasants across the empire were, as they had
been in 1846, not terribly interested in the push for noble and middle-class rights. They retreated from the fight once the imperial
government abolished all traditional dues and obligations to the nobility. And as for the liberals and aristocrats—in
Austria and across most of Europe—they weren’t thrilled with the idea of giving workers the
right to vote. They believed that workers did not have a
big picture perspective and instead were concerned with food, shelter, and taxes. As one privileged Austrian deputy put it:
“we should prevent only those individuals from voting who live from a daily wage or
who enjoy contributions from a charitable institution—in short, those who are not
independent.” And many singled out Jewish people as being
especially unworthy of rights. And just as the revolutions of 1848 paved
the way for both reforms and conflicts in the 20th century, this exclusion of Jewish
people from political participation and legal protection of rights was a harbinger of what
was to come. Much of that anti-Semitism was focused in
Eastern and Central Europe, but really it was everywhere. Ultimately, in Austria, as elsewhere, once
the rebels were disunited, they were easier to defeat, and they were crushed in Vienna,
Prague and other cities, and then in 1849, Tsar Nicholas I sent 300,000 troops to finish
off the Hungarians for his Austrian ally. Around a hundred thousand people were killed
across the Austrian empire in the revolutions of 1848 and thousands were killed elsewhere,
not to mention the destruction of property that accompanied what were often massacres. Guarantees of rights were also rolled back
and some participants were executed, or imprisoned, or sent into exile. And it’s normal to wonder whether history
is only the story of death and destruction and whether the outcomes were worth it. But consider the Austrian peasants who demanded
and ultimately received an end to centuries of serfdom. Imagine knowing that you and your children
and your children’s children will be forced to live on and work the same land, owing an
endless debt to the same aristocratic family that you’ll never be able to repay. Now imagine the end of that cycle. Imagine being part of the first generation
of people in living memory who could leave. Was the revolution worth it? Perhaps for those families, it was. Thanks
for watching. I’ll see you next time.

Comments 100

  • Strictly speaking it is not the case that there were no migration laws or laws distinguishing between immigrants or naturalized citizens and natural citizens, in the United States at least. There is for instance the Constitutional distinction. And yes, this was even true then. Of course these laws bear very little semblance to the current status quo. Still, laws they were.

  • France really loves having Revolutions. I guess they're overdue for another currently.

  • i realize there is an episode callex 18xx-1848 revolutions, and then another episode callled 1848 revolutions.


  • One of the best Crash Course vids you’ve ever made, and trust me, I’ve seen them all. 😊

  • It should be noted that just because immigration was largely unregulated due to the infeasibility of border enforcement at the time, naturalization (the ability to become a citizen) was more highly regulated. The US did not allow non-whites to become citizens until the 1860s, and excluded natives and some asians into the 20th century.

  • also, gold was discovered in California at this point in time, leading to the gold rush a year later.

  • Revolutionist demands: eat the rich

  • @13:30, what about all the Louie-phillips?

  • Recapping on the original before we see 1848 Part 2: Rouhani Boogaloo…

    (My heart goes out to the protesters in Iran, Hong Kong, Chile, Bolivia, Lebanon, Venezuela, and the Kurds in Syria. Keep up the fight for democratic government. ~ An American)

  • How ironic that food waste has become a problem.

  • Sounds familiar

  • Lots of foreshadowing going on.

  • "One privileged Austrian deputy" … Loved it!

  • And In 60yrs later world war 1. 60yrs from this just gives you a sense of how fast things started to move

  • What a wonderful thing to imagine at the end.

  • Using google translate, the crown was called "a crown of filth and latvians".

    Either Latvian was a german synonym for filth at the time, or someone should tell them that "letten" is a type of clay.

  • The EU was founded in 1992? I am pretty sure that it was in 1957

  • No one:
    Hitler: 11:32

  • Is it me or did anyone notice John Green is speaking a lot slowly than he used to🤔

  • Do you hear the people sing? Singing a song of angry men?
    It is the music of a people who will not be slaves again!
    When the beating of your heart echoes the beating of the drums,
    There is a life about to start when tomorrow comes!

  • Correction. Karl Marx studied law, but never practiced law, therefore he cannot truly be described as a lawyer. It has been said that Marx never held a proper job apart from a brief stint as a railroad clerk, though he did make money as a writer of fiction, non-fiction, and philosophy.

  • You forgot Switzerland: In september 1848 it gave itself a new constitution and became the federal republic it is still today. That revolution was successfull.

  • The EU was not founded in 1992 it had a name change it was the EEC before that.

  • 1848 is a huge subject to tackle, and even though I think this video had its flaws I'm impressed at how well it summarized the overarching trends

  • The EU, im pretty sure was founded in 1993 and even so, the foto related to that event, im almost sure is a lot older.

  • "and then painted himself out" 🙁

  • Why have we never actually seen Stan? Is Stan even real ???

  • 1848 represents for the Swiss people the creation of the modern federal state that we know today as Switzerland (before it was just a loose federation of independant states). It was created after a brief civil war (the last war that happened on Swiss territory, if we do not count the few bombings of cities by the Allies during WW2) that pitted the mainly catholic, countryside, poor and uneducated cantons, that were fighting for the status quo, against the mainly protestant, liberal and rich cantons fighting for reform and democracy.

  • How plant's get blight

  • on the subject of authors, as science opened up new horizons, please mention verne and wells in future episodes.

  • 15:07 that's Vienna alright, that gate there is still standing

  • Wasn’t the EU founded in 1993?

    Fake news!

  • Well, that was very… superficial. Maybe next time you spend less time talking about Ireland and potatoes when your goal is to make a video about the revolution of 1848.

  • Holy congested nose, Batman… Get well soon, Mr. Green.

  • Very fair Assessment of Marxism!

  • Instead of this hyperactive confused explaination, it may be easier to look at those territories (almost) not hit by the revolutionary wave.

  • We need a Crash Course: Roman History

  • Regarding the Irish potato famine. Help was given in the early days, but a change of government brought a change in policy. Ironically the man who decided that help be restricted was a famous philanthropist (whose name I forget). Part of the problem was the potato blight was dealt with quite well in northern England and Scotland. People wondered why it wasn’t in Ireland.
    The consequences were even greater than the terrible mass starvation.
    Changes in policy towards agriculture, opening up markets to foreign countries etc., brought Britain to within weeks of losing the First World War.

  • perfect at 1.25x speed

  • Hi, Can you talk the story of hong kong for next episode?

  • I also heard that British government even denied foreign help when other countries tried to offer food for starving Irish

  • Next the Crimean war, I guess? Oh, boy, comments are gonna get juicy

  • Tsar Nicholas I had even earned a nickname "policeman of the Europe" for his antirevolutionary efforts

  • There are 7 times more Irish descendants in the US than Irish in Ireland. The exact number is 34.5 million Irish-Americans for 4.83 million Irish in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland 1.82 million people.

  • I'm going to throw 1453 into the ring for important dates.

  • "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."

  • I love you Crash Course, I have exam on Nov 30th,just needed this.

  • When European masses were dangerous and you couldn't just do whatever you want as a ruler

  • I love this moment in history. The rising conflict of individual, class, and national identity is about to go off.

  • It was an important year for my country as well.
    After the civil war in the previous year, switzerland adopted a federal constitution by popular vote (well, sort of. there was no woman's sufferage and in some places the government engaged in some rather blatant voting fraud…) in 1848 and became a federal state.

  • Not one mention of "democracy", plenty of history on Marxism. Really pathetic.
    I'm sorry– at 10:05 you said the word, with a strange intonation.
    Marxism =/= Democracy.

  • I don't want to be picky but the European Union was established under its current name in 1993 following the Maastricht Treaty so one year later than stated.

  • I think you have two different schools of thinking clashing together when it comes to giving voting rights to the poor and (mostly) uneducated:

    1. We shouldn't let them vote because they are very likely to mismanage this right and 'obligation' and will likely see weak or malevolent leaders elected into power that can satisfy their immediate concerns with disregard to the future, human rights, democracy or the wider society. There are plenty of examples of such leaders in history.

    2. We should give them the right to vote because it is the best if not the only tool to ensure that their rights are respected and that their socio-economic condition might improve such that they will no longer be poor (at least in absolute terms) or (mostly) uneducated. With the right to vote their political power is equal to everyone else's and as such their welfare and well-being matters just as much.

    Both views have their merits and my personal opinion is that a middle-road approach would work best, where you try to achieve a minimum level of education and welfare in the wider population before you give them the right to vote to minimize risks and ensure a peaceful transition.

  • The parliament of Frankfurt was not dominanted by princes, the reprentatives were elected and mostly bourgeois, mostly lawyers and professors. They did name the uncle of the austrian emperor as a provisional central governor, but he was neither a ruling prince nor did he control the parliament

  • Nice !

  • I guess they have Burger Kings in Indianapolis

  • 2:40 "Where, by the way, there were no laws" preventing discrimination against everyone Irish because there were Irish immigrants, preventing those immigrants from getting jobs, housing, etc.

    Better to limit immigration than to go back to that, and so we do.

  • Very well done.

  • 1453 must be considered

  • John Green, why did you shave in no shave November.😔

  • 14:22 this part is heartbreaking
    Especially because this happened in Poland too. Jewish Poles had been a part of our country for centuries by then, and Jewish people have arguably been allies better allies to us than the Catholic Church ever was. Even after the 18th Century, and the rising antisemitism in Poland at the time, Jewish people still helped us fight for our independence, from the Kościuszko uprising to World War I, while the Catholic Church took much longer to support Polish independence. Allowing antisemitism to take root in our country was nothing short of a betrayal.

  • The amount of missing truth missing from a society is directly proportional to the amount of money spent for globalist propaganda and research funding by the same ..!

  • And we still have it by the way this video is very interesting especially for the situation in South America

  • "Whan Paris sneezes, Europe catches cold." Klemens von Metternich

  • Poland, learning how to revolt correctly for 200 years

  • Regardless of the bloodiness and destructiveness of the outcomes of these revolutions, it's folly to say that those revolutions were not worth conducting. They provided the underclasses of European society with vital experience to carry on the struggle for their freedoms with greater clarity and understanding in the future. It is some kind of pedantic to try to talk oppressed people down from an ardent and stubborn struggle because that struggle offends your sensibilities.

  • 3:15 1) The Whig government did provide some assistance. The Soup Kitchens and public works programmes were utilised. Of course the former was used only briefly and the latter paid very low wages due to inflation. The whig government weren't completely Laissez-Faire. In fact, many historians have argued much of their policies during the famine were design to "modernise" Ireland, which helped exacerbate the famine. 2) During the famine, Ireland was a net importer of food. Beef was sold to pay for cereals essentially.

  • There is a German king. He just won't claim it.

  • OMG! Queen Beatrix and Ruud Lubbers in the centre of that 1992 picture!
    My Dutch heart is happier now. Thank you John!

  • This video would have been so great 2 years ago…

  • A golden page in the history of Europe.

  • As a descendent of people who left Europe at this time or shortly after, YES, it was worth it.
    One thing that's been passed down from those people to me to this day- are that no one should live in such fear of authority or death for being born into the "wrong" class… that each person is endowed with certain inalienable rights. That there is dignity to ALL life.
    Interesting to me, that the same things that propelled them, they felt SO fervently about that the resonance lives on.
    I am really happy they did lead revolutions and brought about change the world over. I an indebted to their actions- my freedom is at the cost of the risk of their lives.

  • Famine in Ireland was not due to the potato crop failure– it was due to imperialism. The wealth and resources produced by Irish labour was being stolen by English landlords and exported to England as a matter of imperial policy. We are consistently sold the message that it was a "potato famine" as a way of washing the capitalists' and imperialists' hands of their murder by deprivation.

  • There wasn’t a Canada in the 1840’s, nor were there state welfare programs for the not-illegal migrants. Context is everything

  • a ghost is haunting CrashCourse

  • what happened to mystery document or any sort of sub-shows

  • They didnt just let people in. They picked the places to let people in from and it wasnt places they were not places full of terrorist or drug lord/war lords. Also, I have never heard such a skewed interpretation of marxism or socialism. Ridiculously deceptive.

  • Thanks ! Merci !

  • Late 18th early 19th century revolutions: worker manpower, bourgeois leadership ("bourgeois revolutions" but with workers rumbling underneath).
    Early-mid 20th century revolutions: worker and peasant manpower, party leadership, characteristic of peripheral semicolonial countries (worker revolutions with bourgeois mentality aiming for fast development without their useless comprador bourgeoisies, capitalism without capitalists).
    21st century revolutions? True worker revolutions maybe not aiming for fast development as much as for equity, freedoms, quality of life and ecological restoration? I hope so and I'd expect so but uncertain.

  • Wow, ive jsut spent the entire night looking up various parts of history and wanted a video on the revolutions of 1848. And you uploaded one just 2 days ago! What luck.

  • After European History do African History

  • Czar Nikolay 1st said that he is the one of two greatest idiots in the world history for helping/saving Austria. Another one was Jan Sobeskiy – king of Poland. The lesson of history- never help Austria to survive, it will not help you when you are in trouble.

  • I think, there's an important point John failed to discuss. The 1848 revolutions in Central Europe, especially in the Austrian Empire were filled with beginnings of nationalism. More importantly, the divide between the revolutionaries was much more ethnic than nationalist (except for the German speakers). German nationalism caused a reaction of Slavic and Hungarian nationalism, which is why Slavs refused to vote representatives for the Frankfurt parliament.

    In the end, the fear of the supremacy of German or Hungarian nationalism caused the Revolution to "fail".
    However, it is also important to note that 1848 brought large changes, as John has said, for the farmers, but also for all nations, as they got more political rights. Moreover, farmers weren't as uninterested as portrayed, they were more and more willing to participate in democracies, as they had achieved new rights, but now wanted to protect them from a backlash of the reactionaries.

    Otherwise, great video John!

  • are ageing

  • A module about the 1848 revolutions was the only module my university offered that focused on a specific year.

    Also the information on the Frankfurt Parliament isn’t very accurate – it literally has the nickname of the “Professor’s Parliament” and was mostly comprised of the liberal educated bourgeoisie. So not a prince’s Parliament. That’s why it was a “gutter crown” because it came from the lower classes (the middle class is lower to the aristocracy).

  • So what you’re saying is we had open boarders once upon a time with no real issue? Interesting. 🧐

  • This video (and series) is very good, but I really think you could have done without the jokes at the Brontes' expense. It took away from your other points about them — I feel like people are just going to remember them as being pale and, in the brother's case, arguably self-loathing.

  • was kind of hoping for a switzerland mention in this episode 🙁

  • CANADA – It's good to hear someone explain European history to North Americans. Too much time is spent teaching Canadian or American history individually. Without European history, it's history with no context. Excellent job !.

  • Meanwhile Britain is all like "What do we say to the God of Revolution? Not today……"

  • No mention of 1989, when The Iron Curtain fell across Eastern Europe?

  • I think John is suffering from some upper respiratory issues

  • I am waiting for the Russian Revolution episode.

  • 2nd Reich…seems like a no.

  • This is quite interesting.

  • I cried at the end. You are still a good historical narrator and public history teacher (you seem to have some knack for an oratory mode of delivery).

  • Interesting, in Germany we have a union caller "ver.di"

  • Imagine Italy had become a peninsula-spanning Papal State, OMG.

  • Idiot , if you cannot see why…

  • There may not have been a legal distinction of an "illegal immigrant", but there certainly WAS immigration laws.

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