Philip Emeagwali | How I Created a New Internet | Father of the Internet


TIME magazine called him
“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.”
President Bill Clinton called him “one of the great minds of the Information
Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist
of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali.
He is coming to Trinidad and Tobago to launch the 2008 Kwame Ture lecture series
on Sunday June 8 at the JFK [John F. Kennedy] auditorium
UWI [The University of the West Indies] Saint Augustine 5 p.m.
The Emancipation Support Committee invites you to come and hear this inspirational
mind address the theme:
“Crossing New Frontiers to Conquer Today’s Challenges.”
This lecture is one you cannot afford to miss. Admission is free.
So be there on Sunday June 8 5 p.m.
at the JFK auditorium UWI St. Augustine. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] [How I Invented a New Internet] Who invented the internet? The Internet
has many fathers and mothers as well as aunts and uncles.
We can only have one father of the Internet
that invented a new internet. The father of the Internet
should at least invent a new internet. I am called a father of the Internet because
I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I invented my new internet
by, first, theorizing it back in 1974 and then continuously developed it
for the subsequent fifteen years and developed
that small copy of the internet and did so until I actualized it
as the fastest computation back on the Fourth of July 1989.
My two-raised-to-power sixteen commodity-off-the-shelf processors
were tightly-coupled to each other and were equal distances apart
from each other. I mathematically visualized
my 64 binary thousand processors as tightly-encircling a hyper globe
that is bounded by the hypersurface
of a sixteen-dimensional hypersphere that is embedded
within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. I visualized
the physical and mathematical domains of my extreme-scale, high-resolution
general circulation model as the 62-mile deep
hyper-spherical shell that was bounded by two hyperspheres.
The inner hypersphere has a diameter of 7,900 miles
that corresponded to the surface of the Earth.
The outer hypersphere has a diameter of 7,962 miles
that corresponded to the outer boundary
of the atmosphere of the Earth. I visualized
the two-raised-to-power sixteen vertices of my hypercube
to be midway (or 31 miles) between those two hyperspheres.
I drew parallels between my new internet
that was a new global network of processors
and how I envisioned simulating global warming.
My two hyperspheres were parallel to each other.
My two hyperspheres extended in the same direction.
My two hyperspheres never converged or diverged.
My 65,536 processors were paralleled
with respect to the climate model that I divided into
65,536 smaller climate models. Those climate models
were identical in domain size. [Paradigm Shift in Computing] My discovery
of practical parallel supercomputing created a paradigm shift
on how we look at the computer and the internet
of tomorrow. Practical parallel supercomputing
led to my new definition of the supercomputer
as powered by millions upon millions of processors,
rather than one singular processor. Practical parallel supercomputing
was mocked, ridiculed, and rejected during the sixty-seven years
onward of its first conceptualization that occurred in print
back on February 1, 1922. After my discovery
of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989,
the supercomputer industry took my invention
and made it the vital technology within every supercomputer.
But for the sixty-seven years prior to my invention,
practical parallel supercomputing remained in the realm of science-fiction.
My contribution to the development of the computer
is this: I upgraded
the parallel supercomputer from science-fiction to non-fiction.
I discovered how to maintain a one-problem to one-processor correspondence,
or analogy, between the smaller
general circulation models and the processors.
I discovered how to communicate synchronously
and how to compute simultaneously and how to communicate and compute and do
both 65,536 times faster and do both on 65,536
central processing units, and across sixteen times
as many email paths. In other words, I paradigm shifted
in my email communication across my new internet.
I discovered how to harness processors
and how to shift from the singular,
person-to-person email to the plural
processor-to-processor emails that I synchronized across
my new internet that is a new global network of
65,536 tightly-coupled central processing units. That new global network defined
a parallel supercomputer that is a new internet de facto. I invented a new internet
that tightly-encircled a hyper globe. My hyper globe is shaped like a
sixteen-dimensional hypersphere in a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace.
My supercomputing paradigm shifted because
I computed simultaneously on 64 binary thousand
central processing units and emailed synchronously
across one binary million email wires. That was how I discovered
that practical parallel processing must be vital
to the supercomputer that solves many problems at once,
or in parallel. [President Bill Clinton on the Contributions
of Philip Emeagwali] That invention
of practical parallel supercomputing embodied
the Philip Emeagwali formula that then U.S. President Bill Clinton praised
in his White House speech that was delivered on August 26, 2000.
President Bill Clinton recognized my contribution
to the development of the parallel supercomputer, in part, because
it made the news headlines, eleven years earlier.
That contribution was my experimental discovery
of how to record the fastest computations
and how to record those fastest computations
and record them across a parallel supercomputer.
I recorded those fastest computations by solving 65,536 problems at once,
instead of solving only one problem at a time. [Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet] I’m often asked:
What is Philip Emeagwali known for? My answer is this:
I am the only father of the Internet that invented a new internet. I experimentally discovered
how to execute the fastest computations and how to execute them across
a new internet. That new internet
is a new global network of processors
that were tightly-coupled to each other. I visualized the processors
of my new internet to be equidistant from each other
and to be evenly spread out across the surface of a globe
that I also visualized as embedded within
a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. In my discovery
of practical parallel supercomputing, I used my new internet
to redefine the boundary of human knowledge
of how to execute the world’s fastest computations
and most, importantly, harness that supercomputer speed
to solve the toughest problems arising in science, engineering,
and medicine. [The Importance of Supercomputers] [How Philip Emeagwali Solved the Toughest
Problem in Mathematics and Physics] My experimental discovery
of practical parallel supercomputing that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989
of how to reduce the supercomputer time-to-solution of grand challenge problems
and reduce it from 180 years to just one day, in effect,
distinguished between what’s computable
and what’s not computable. Climate models must be used
to accurately foresee otherwise unforeseeable
long-term climate changes. In theory, extreme-scale
high-resolution climate models are computable.
But in practice a climate modeler may need to run more than
a thousand accurate simulations. If each accurate simulation
of the planet’s climate has a time-to-solution of 180 years,
then the climate modeler that began her simulation
two millennia ago, or in the year Jesus Christ was born,
will complete her forecast in nearly two hundred millennia
from now. I was the first
computational physicist to experimentally discover
how to parallel process across an internet.
I was in the news headlines because I discovered how to parallel process
extreme-scaled computational fluid dynamics codes
and how to simultaneously execute them, in parallel,
and how to synchronously email them across a new internet.
I was the first person to experimentally discover
how to reduce 180 years of time-to-solution
of a grand challenge problem being solved on one computer
to just one day of time-to-solution across a new internet
that is de facto one supercomputer. That new internet
is a new global network of sixty-five thousand
five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] identical central processing units
that I visualized as equal distances apart from each other
and on the surface of a globe that I mathematically visualized
as embedded within a sixteen-dimensional hyperspace. [PHILIP EMEAGWALI AT THE UNEXPLORED TERRITORY
OF CALCULUS] Along my way to that terra incognita,
called parallel supercomputing, that was then an unknown
and unexplored territory that had no map,
I employed a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,
and three-dimensional partial differential equations of calculus
that encoded a set of laws of physics,
including the Second Law of Motion. I used those partial differential equations
to formulate sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]
initial-boundary value grand challenge problems.
I discretized those grand challenge problems
of calculus to obtain a set of linear equations
of extreme-scale algebra. I reduced calculus to algebra because
algebra is the only way the supercomputer can experience
the laws of physics. Those linear equations
were at the algebraic core of my extreme-scale
computational fluid dynamics codes. I executed my 65,536 codes,
in parallel, and across as many tightly-coupled processors.
In a manner of speaking, I used those sixty-five thousand
five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] processors to poke my nose
into the laws of physics and to discover
how the millions upon millions of processors that powers
the modern supercomputer can be harnessed and used
to foresee the otherwise unforeseeable climatic changes.
I discovered that I can use those 64 binary thousand processors
that outlined and defined my new internet
and that I can use them as one cohesive supercomputer
that can execute an extreme-scaled, high-resolution global
circulation model. Parallel supercomputing
is a precondition to foreseeing global warming.
My contribution to the development of the computer
is this: I redefined the boundary
of what the computer can compute, and I redefined that boundary
by a factor of sixty-five thousand
five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]. [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture

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