NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1: What, Where, How & When? (Dr. Manishika) | English | CBSE

Welcome back this would be our first introductory
class where we will be start with history from class-6
The first chapter focuses on what, where, how and when. Now these four elements which will be try
to understand under the concept of history. Now let’s say the simple example we and
our parents might be a familiar with the means of transport say airplane. Our grand grandparents might be a familiar
with the means of transport let’s say trains and buses and our great grandfathers might
be familiar with the a means of transports which would be let’s sayble a can’t
So what had happened over the years over the years the means of transport has evolved and
therefore in history whatever we study is basically the changes that take place with
time so we call it the chronological changes that takes place or the temporal changes that
take place so all kind of temporal variations be at related to any place any specific event
you have any specific culture or so on would be a part in parcel of the concept of history. Now first concept as we will understand what. So when we say what we focus on what kind
of clothes do you wear what kind of houses there what kind of food is available. So all these come under the question what
that we study under history. So what kind of food taken by Harappan Civilization
or what kind of food was grown by let’s say ejection. So all these would come under what. We can also say in simple terms that who don’t
study the past are condemned to repeat it. That means let’s say why britishers invaded
India if we are not aware of that we might do the similar mistake and that could be a
similar advent of some another country into our territory
So that’s the kind of idea why we need to know the past so that we are aware of it and
we do not repeat the similar mistakes in the future. So that’s what the first integral part of
the historical concept is what so we have all the basic essential amenities in our life
that should be the part of what. Now where the second important question now
before we understand the second important question where we have a simple code that
helps in understand and gives us a much broader perspective on history. That explains history is studied in geographically
and geographic is studied historically. That means let’s first talk about geography
we have already covered the lectures on geography and we have seen how things evolved how the
origin of the earth took place, how landforms evolved, how there were various continence
perform. So, what we have trying to do. We are trying to see how they formed, how
they evolved, how people love. So, what was the basic areas how cultures
evolved so all those the idea of how would come under the geography is studied historically
because we have seen the evolutionary patterns. And again, when we talk about history. history is studied geographically because
we must know where the major kingdoms work, where the wars were start, what were the major
trade centers is in the country what were the areas which were fortile. Again we must be able to understand the areas
which were destroyed with and which were deserted so the areas which were destroyed were the
major center for attraction and were the major centers for cultural development the areas
let’s say the deserted area has been isolated since long so you have less a kind of history
that would be found Incas very well understand the history of that region and how things
change over that area Now let’s say in the area of Harrapan civilization
we have civilizations of Kalibangan in Rajasthan we have Lothal In Gujarat so all these were
the areas where in ancient time you have at review trees at ganga that were flowing so
what was the major false this area was sometimes fertile and therefore you had a kind of well
bestowed civilization in that area. Now when we understand the concept of where
we will see where equar the sentence of food gatherers so you Have the tribal pockets or
the forest pockets that was there so those would be the areas of food gathering and hunting. Then they have the areas which were let’s
say the low hills of mountain region so you would have the animal rearing practices that
would be found then travel was an integral part of history as well as geography most
of the ilance and quantinencw were discovered was a result of travel and that we study under
the geography but again travel let to explanation of many kind of kingdoms so you have the ashtami
that was performed that was the horse riding into the territory and wherever it travelled
you have to hold territory that was required. So all those kind of events then you have
Alexander who came from Greeks and invaded India so you have all those inventions that
were result of the travel so again travel is integral part of history then as we said
where the major was to place, where the major kingdoms were located so let’s say you have
the ganga river that flows here you have the Jhelum river and the tributaries of Hindus
that you have here. So, the reason surrounding the ganga river
you had a Magadh kingdom and Magadh kingdom was the largest traditional kingdoms of that
time. Again, you have industrially which been really
four thousand seven hundred years ago. So you have industrially civilization which
was that old then you have ganga civilization or the regions close to ganga that developed
around two thousand five hundred years ago. So, you have different time periods where
civilization took place in the various areas. So that’s what we studied under where. The next is the names of India. So, India is d-rhyme from the word sindhu
which is the Sanskrit word when Iranians and Greeks invaded India, they called India as
hindus or indos and finally the name bharat comes from Rigveda so the people in the north
west who read Ridveda considered this region as bharata. Now the next important question is how. So, we are understood word where, the next
important question comes how. How can we find out what was in the ancient
times. So there are three basic things that we go
for. The first is the manuscripts that is the documents
which are written by hand. Now to decipher the manuscripts the first
important thing is you must be aware of that script. So let’s say in Egypt the rosetta area. You had three languages which hens simultaneously
one was Greek and two other were Egyptians Now in that language you had l that means
loyal. So you have to decipher what kind of language
it is and these manuscripts in ancient times were return either on the bark of the birch
trees or on the palm leaves and these palm leaves were type together most common languages
in the Indian peninsula when we see was the Sanskrit, the Prakrit, and Tamil. So, most of the manuscripts you would find
either in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Tamil. Now Sanskrit was the language of the scholarly. Prakrit was considered as a common man at
that time. The next is inscriptions. the inscriptions are those which are engravements
on the hard surface so it can be stone, it can be metal, it can be a bet clay. So all kind of inscriptions that were seen
were writing on the hard surface and these writings were again in form of some scripts
this script could be either letters or signs that were used. And finally is archaeology. So Archeology is things that were made and
used in the past. So let’s say if you are digging something
and you find a kind of small pot or a piece of rock you can decipher what kind of utterances
of people used to use what kind of living styles they had, what kind of bathing area,
what kind of living area they had. So, all these are explored by archeologist
so archeologist are the people who mainly exclude the areas and find out the results
based on those Again, bones of the animals are important
idea to find what people ate and this is again what is studied under archeology. So how is another important question? Now the life from the ancient time has differed
for various segment of the people the life of the king was different from a trades man;
a trader’s life was different from a life of a farmer. So, you had the different segments of life
that has been studied for each and every civilization. So you have for every civilization you will
see how kings and queens used to live, how the common man and the merchant used to live
and how the farmers and the people who were engage and primary activity used to live again
there were demarcated based on the availability as we said. So, history is studied geographically so based
on the availability of resources let’s say the people in Andaman were sell sufficient
because they were producing their own food and using it
However, at that time also the people in the cities were dependent on the rural area in
terms of food supply. So, you had kind of reasons that were develop
and there was geographical isolation that happened
And finally, the last important is when. So whenever we talk about history most of
you would say we have to learn only which war was held when. So it’s not about that but yes that is an
integral part so when we say when we usually try to understand with the birth of Jesus
so prior to birth of Jesus and after the birth of Jesus so when we say after the birth of
Jesus we say it as ad. Ad is also known as CE or common era ad needs
anno domino and before the birth of Jesus we call it BC or before cries before cries
is also known as BCE before the common era. So we say common era and before the common
era and we sometimes use the word bp that is before present so these are the common
subjects that we use about when. When is again important because we need to
know and we learn to know how things had happen over the years and how the scenario has change. So this was a kind of pure introduction to
understand the concept of history will be dealing with the rear chapters as we move
forward with in history and the further classes

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