Migrations and Intensification: Crash Course Big History #7

Hi, I’m John Green, welcome to Crash Course
Big History. Today, we’re gonna be talking about the spread of human foragers across
the world and the start of the agrarian era. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Didn’t we study all
that agrarian stuff in World History, because I’m a very busy person, I don’t wanna do it
again. Yeah, a couple things, Me From the Past, first
off, playing Zelda alone in your basement does not constitute being busy. Also, in Crash
Course World History, we zoomed through a lot of this stuff, because we wanted to get
to, like, the real history-ish parts of history, you know, the parts with the funny hats and
the Mongols. [Mongoltage] But if it weren’t for agriculture and the
surpluses that came with it, we never would have had funny hats. That’s why we study Big
History. [Theme Music] So as mentioned last week, humans anatomically
similar to us have been around for about 200 or 250 thousand years. Like, here’s a picture
of one of the oldest known fossil remains of our species from Ethiopia, dated to approximately
195,000 years ago. For the vast, vast majority of our existence, homo sapiens were hunter-gatherers,
like farming, civilization, modernity, all of that happened in the last 10-15,000 years.
And you’ll remember that the eruption of Mount Toba about 74,000 years ago reduced the human
population to a few thousand, and that scrappy group of survivors held on, and for the next
60,000 years, human populations migrated over the world, separating into their own little
petri dishes. And that was interesting, because the human experiment could proceed in isolation
in several different zones in the world: the Afro-Eurasian, the Americas, Australasia,
and the Pacific. And this was really useful, because it allowed each of those world zones
to develop their own distinct brand of football, which makes for such a beautiful game today,
apparently there was no football back then. Really? What did they do all day? Apparently they were hunting and gathering. Okay, so by 11,000 years ago, the human population
had recovered from the Mount Toba disaster and grown to about 6 to 8 million people.
Now, because foraging requires humans to constantly move on to new ecosystems to find food while
the old ones regrow and replenish themselves, 6 to 8 million is about the largest population of foragers
that the entire surface of the earth could support. Now you may remember in the very first episode
of Crash Course World History we talked about the mystery of why humans developed agriculture
even though foraging is easier. One theory involves so-called Gardens of Eden, where
the warming climate of the earth created some lush ecosystems with enough food for foragers to
quit migrating and settle down for several generations. The Natufians of what later became the
Fertile Crescent in the middle east hunted gazelles and fished and harvested wild grains,
but they weren’t really farmers. But then after a few generations of vigorous population
growth, food started to grow scarce in these Gardens of Eden. Given their new relatively sedentary
lifestyle, those humans may have forgotten how to forage effectively. Also, surrounding
areas may have been already overpopulated with other foragers. So humans had to choose
between starving to death and getting more out of the land that they were currently on —
a choice that historically we make by trying not to die. These humans already had a deep knowledge
of plants and animals, and if you’ve got organisms nearby that might be useful to domesticate
like wheat or goats or wild pigs – bingo, agriculture! Now of course there are also many other theories
about why agriculture emerged around the world but regardless, agriculture represents a massive
shift in human activity. Hunter-gatherers adapted themselves to the resources provided
by the environment, right? But agriculturalists increasingly adapted the environment to suit their
needs. Forcing the environment to adapt to humans became an increasingly big deal until, you know,
like today when it is arguably the biggest deal of all. Now, all that being said, the advent of agriculture
didn’t, like, immediately lead to wars and cities and kings and funny hats. In fact another
5000 years would pass before the first states emerged. So for the first half of the agrarian
era, humans lived in a world of villages with transient herders and foragers in the gaps
between. Giving up foraging and settling down did have
some downsides in the form of backbreaking labor and diseases moving easily among denser
and more numerous populations, but farming allowed humans to support a much larger number
of people within a much smaller land area than foraging. This was very good for collective
learning, which relies on both the number of potential innovators and the close connectivity
between them. The world population had grown from roughly 6 million people at the beginning
of agriculture to 50 million by the emergence of states 5000 years ago – roughly 5000 times
the size of the population that survived the Mount Toba disaster 70,000 years prior. And because early farmers didn’t really understand
or have the technology to solve the problem of pooping near the drinking water, another
upside was that we invented alcohol which was safer to drink instead. So the next time
you see a person looking fancy with a glass of champagne, just remember, it’s a tradition
that started from there being too much poop in the water, and ever since has fueled millions
of bad decisions. States did eventually appear but not all states
emerged at once, any more than all agriculture emerged at once. Agriculture first emerged
in the Fertile Crescent in Egypt around 11,000 years ago and then in east Asia and Papua
New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Agriculture emerged in west Africa and the Americas around
5,000 years ago, though estimates definitely vary for the Americas. Accordingly, the first
states to arise were in the middle east where agriculture first emerged, followed shortly
by the Chinese and Indus Valley Civilizations. Papua New Guinea may have invented agriculture
around the same time but they never developed enough agricultural surplus to support states.
So yeah, in every world zone the invention of agriculture was a precursor for the rise
of states. The key to having a state is agrarian surplus.
If you produce enough food, you can have a class of people who don’t need to farm. They
can then fulfill other duties in this increasingly numerous and complex society whether they
be leaders or judges who settle disputes, bureaucrats who deal with administration,
and infrastructure doctors who heal the sick, priests who make sacrifices to vengeful gods
or soldiers who provide security or at least extract a portion of the agricultural surplus
for the leadership through some kind of taxation. And with more people filling new jobs and
generating new ideas about them, this is also good news for collective learning. Diversification
of labor is also the first step of early states toward hierarchies and classes – aristocrats
and popular and despotic kings and pharaohs and sultans, shahs and emperors. It also
meant the first divisions into unequal, unfair, and undemocratic hierarchies dividing man from man,
man from woman, and the high from the low. All of this brings us back to the Hobbes verses
Rousseau debate. Hobbes viewed life without state control as nasty, brutish, and short,
while Rousseau viewed humanity as largely egalitarian before claims to land and wealth
and property corrupted them. Now certainly the idea of an Age of Innocence or a Golden
Age has been popular with many philosophers and political idealists throughout history.
I mean, if humanity had once been perfect and was simply corrupted by societal structures
or political systems, then it would take only a few tweaks or reforms to get us back to
perfection. Unfortunately, it now seems clear that a lot of humanity’s evils are created
simply by the bad wiring of our evolutionary biology, and the solution to that problem
is somewhat complicated. It’s very difficult for me to imagine a world in which humans
will say, “You know what? If the Earth can only support 6-8 million foragers, then there
should only be 6-8 million of us.” So where you stand on this Hobbes v. Rousseau question
affects your view of the entire 250,000 years of human history, and also your view about
much of human morality, character, and potential. Another Big History take on agriculture is
this: Consider the sun. We are made up of the leftovers of its formation and the debris
of stars that came before it, but its role in our history doesn’t stop there. Fusion
reactions happen in the sun’s core. This generates energy, which is released into space and takes
approximately eight minutes to get to us. Here on Earth, plants capture that energy
and store it via photosynthesis. Agriculture lets one species, us, harness more of that
energy, we either eat it or we use it to feed animals that we eat, or we use it to feed animals
like horses and oxen that pull carts and carry burdens, providing 500-750 watts of power, about 10
times more than what a human being could do. So essentially, agriculture is the act of
harnessing more energy from the sun, way more than we could as foragers. All of this leads
to an interesting perspective: human history has frequently been viewed as too chaotic
or complex to allow us to find an underlying trend, a bottom line or overarching theme.
And this to some people makes conventional history differ greatly from the natural sciences.
However, given what we know of energy and complexity, consider the following: If we
want to prevent our bodily complexity, as well as the complexity that we have created,
from descending into chaos, we must keep harvesting matter and energy flows on a regular basis.
This is the bottom line of human history. I will therefore argue that during most, if
not all, of human history, the quest for sufficient matter and energy to survive and reproduce
has been the overriding theme. That doesn’t mean that the bottom line is
all there is to human history. You’ve got political history and the history of warfare
and gender history, class history, art history, environmental history, oral traditions, creation
myths, and much, much more, but none of those would matter if we were all dead. If you don’t
eat, if you don’t drink, you die. Much of the collective learning, invention, shifts
in social structure, have been geared toward coping with the problem of energy flows as
the population continued to expand by leaps and bounds, from a tiny 10,000 people 74,000
years ago to over 7 billion people today. So the beautiful thing about being able to
remember and accumulate the ideas of your ancestors is that some of their ideas are
great for agriculture, also other things, but mostly food. Whether it’s new forms of
irrigation invented in ancient Mesopotamia or the four-crop rotation that gradually proliferated
across Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, these innovations increased the number of
potential innovators who could exist in a social order without starving. And there were also great innovative leaps
in connectivity. For instance, the invention of writing in ancient states about 5,000 years
ago. Like, starting from a bureaucratic form of accounting, mostly to count livestock,
to an art, largely enjoyed by the elite, writing gradually communicated more abstract and complex
ideas. And those ideas became available to more and more people as more people could
read, until eventually writing became so popular that these days, everyone writes books, even
some of your Crash Course Big History hosts. We also liked writing because it made it less
likely that things we’d learned would be forgotten, like when people started to write down what
they knew, that knowledge became set in stone. Sometimes literally! And then with the invention
of printing in China and later Korea and the printing press in Europe, more writing could
be produced and circulated more quickly, and often more cheaply than books copied out by
hand. All of this turned into a beneficial feedback cycle, potential innovators raise
the carrying capacity of the population, more people go on to produce more ideas, which
raises the carrying capacity of the population, which in turn produces more potential innovators.
And we can do it all without anything bad happening to the environment. What’s that?
Oh. Oh my. So, throughout the agrarian period, collective
learning continued to raise the carrying capacity of the world. Populations grew from 6 million
10,000 years ago to 50 million by the dawn of states to 120 million by 1000 BCE in the
midst of classical civilizations. By the end of the agrarian era, in the beginning of the industrial
revolution, 954 million people lived on the Earth. But while collective learning gradually raised
the carrying capacity in the agrarian era, it did not keep pace with population growth,
and this is a significant problem with humanity. Just like any other animals in nature, we
breed until we strain the resources of our environment, so we are prone toward unsustainable
levels of overpopulation. So every two or three centuries, humans would hit the carrying
capacity and then the population would recoil, resulting in famine, disease, periods of in-fighting
and population decline, in every agrarian civilization, from civil wars between Caesar
and Pompey, the English War of the Roses, to the revolt of the Janissaries in the Ottoman
Empire, and similar events all across the world, the cycles of prosperity, strain, crisis,
and civil in-fighting repeated themselves. And I do worry a little bit that when we talk
about traditional history, we don’t do it enough in the context of carrying capacity.
We are, after all, organisms, and we behave a lot like other animals on this planet. We
want there to be more of us, and we want more resources for that more of us to enjoy. So that broad, Big History take on the agrarian
era takes us to the Age of Exploration. Explorers, including Christopher Columbus, but also many
others, united the previously isolated world zones of Afro-Eurasia, the Americas, Australasia,
and the Pacific. Eventually, this combination of world zones into one unified global network,
although not that unified, would produce an even more astounding rise in complexity: the Modern
Revolution — we’ll talk about that next time.

Comments 100

  • some of the best work i've seen out of thought bubble😮 well done!

  • 3:38 "By your powers combine, I am…." got killed by sticky oily tentacles.

  • Wikipedia is example of collective learning

  • Study Big History for the funny big hats

  • You lost me at overpopulation. If there are too many of us, how many should there be? No one who believes this myth ever gives a specific number.

  • Here is one thing that I find surprising in Crash Course episodes in general. John and Hank both have so much knowledge about the human brain and its evolution and its optimal conditions, etc. This channel was made as an educational channel, for learning by auditory and visual techniques.

    I am so astonished by how despite your knowledge of human evolution and thinking, you squeeze in one ten minute video 20+ pictures, some five quotations, and of course all of the easily omitted by the eye information, like truly appreciating the animation you guys put on or the faces or names of the people you quote. It is all absolutely mind blowing and seeing as to how you already know how rapidly technology and information grew in the last few decades, and how our genes may or may not be able to keep up with it, you are honestly contradicting yourself and defying the purpose of the channel.

    Too much flood of information.

    Thumbs up for them to see

  • Appreciating an idea has always been the key to human endaevour in science and learning. Charles Darwin was first interested in biology, observed organisms and finally appreciated a very simple event (like different beak sizes) and investigated it, today it is one of the most controversial and important topics.

    Even Sherlock Holmes wouldn't keep up with videos like this. Have you ever wondered whether or not your audience actually learns something or grasps the concept of the episode? Do not forget that we are all watching through a screen, which already outrules real participation and communication in the topic. You should not furthermore complicate it with ALL of the information you can find about one topic. If you squeeze it all together and present it to people it is useless. This is not education in any way, we are not robots

    Even Einstein only took hold of a few mathematical concepts to explain them. He never had all the knowledge to explain quantum phenomena, too

    Slow down!

  • 11:12–11:17 gold. crash course gold.

  • The claim that foraging was easier than farming may be true, but farming allowed for other industries and modes of life that were not possible before. These new industries and modes of life eventually allowed for the elevation of everyone's wealth, not just the rich and the leaders.

  • I'm having a hard time understanding why australasia and "the pacific" are considered separate zones. I mean it's common sense for the Amercias and the Afro-Eurasiatic zone, but it seems like I can't manage to wrap my head around that pacific zone notion. Anyone care to explain?

  • But John what about marngrook?! A game that can claim to be an ancestor of Australian football, played by indigenous Australians with possum skins. Football!!

  • i would love t have someone explain to me how population surplus drove caesar and pompey's civil war

  • +Sammy Gaming …

  • You should do a series on Anthropology

  • I wish my brother was this smart.

  • "So the beautiful thing about being able to remember and accumulate the ideas of your ancestors is that some of their ideas are great for agriculture"

    This is a complete literal whitewash. The knowledge and ideas of ancestors were and are being passed down, with a wealth of information about agriculture and land management, millennia before the dawn of writing.
    Some of this video is outdated but that line, in particular, is a perpetuation of western closeted 20th-century thought.

    Read: Dark Emu, Black Seeds by Bruce Pascoe, in regards to ideas and instructions around agriculture accumulated recorded and remembered… it is only 160 short pages.

    Crash Course needs to read this book.

  • "We can do it all without hurting the environment, wait what?" Hahahahahahah john lmao

  • Gotta love those Mongols! 😀

  • what's that?? oh my

  • Why did they need to highlight the pacific ocean in the world map?

  • So good 🙂

  • #TeamRousseau

  • The fact that all the contemporary governments let everyone breed unconditionally is beyond my belief. Charitable organizations should focus on birth control in all region's where people cannot live sustained lives, instead fighting diseases which really are just the symptoms of the underlying problem.

  • In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons suggested a link between the eruption and a population bottleneck in human evolution, and Michael R. Rampino of New York University and Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii at Manoa gave support to the idea. In 1998, the bottleneck theory was further developed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Both the link and global winter theories are highly controversial.[2][3]

  • You are an immortal spiritual being having an earthly experience
    Those who are foolish enough to follow the darkness will be left behind
    Make no mistake, these are the last days
    Get saved before it`s too late
    Salvation Prayer
    Dear Jesus, I know I am a sinner.
    I pray that you will forgive me for all of my sins,
    that you will come into my heart and be my Lord,
    the savior of my life.
    I confess that you died on the cross to save me from my sins
    and I am committed to turning away from those sins.
    I ask that you fill me with your Holy Spirit so that I can be born again. Wash my sins away with your blood and make me as pure white as snow. Put a hedge of protection around me as I go forth in doing your will. Thank you Jesus for saving me, as I know that only through my faith in you that all this is possible. Amen!

    John 3:16
    For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life

  • Whats the name of the painting at 5:57?

  • States Appear from conquest, the agriculture surplus was an incentive to do so. the states are not providers of services, they can become that after the fact. The States are group of bandits/bullies.

  • Have any morons left any comments about Atlantis or spacemen? Ask them if they know what the Columbian Exchange was. This is a comment that supplements what he says at 7:20 or so… I love it when people talk about the pop culture ideology of what the paleolithic was like. Ask them if it was so much better to live back in the days when life expectancy was 24 and you were likely to die by being ripped apart by a sabre toothed tiger as you sleep. I like that these guys talk about Hobbes v. Rousseau. However, Malthus might be even better. Well, actually Marvin Harris or that one female anthropologist who talked about "diminishing returns". Well, I guess I have to end this comment sometime. If you read this far, I'm sure you're asleep.

  • John Green, I almost enjoy your discussions of civilization and the Hobbes vs. Rousseau debate. Almost. Please, PLEASE read the 4 books in the Ishmael series by Daniel Quinn. You're missing the much bigger (more general) picture.

    Also, technological innovation wasn't originally what fueled population growth (increased carrying capacity). It was conquest and expansion. Civilized society would outgrow it's resources and use its surplus population to wage war and obliterate (sometimes assimilating) their tribal neighbors. As civilization spread, its unsustainable approach to living created larger and larger populations.

    Again, please read all of the Ishmael books, and don't stop if they initially seem to basic for you. You clearly have things to learn from them.

  • Shout out to Steven Gerrard #lfc

  • Does anyone have an article reference for 4:57?

  • why are his hair green

  • Johns entire dedication to learning history is because of 'funny hats"

  • Lies Lies Lies Fake Fake Fake

  • What's with all the talk about humans "being corrupted"? We are simply products of evolution. THAT'S IT. And, no, the high IQ groups do NOT need central planning. This is because they evolved in environments that required cooperation, planning, and regard for the tribe (they understand why it's in THEIR best interest to respect property rights, etc). Hence, America thriving with free market capitalism, and lower IQ countries turning into war zones without dictators).

  • I finally found it, this is absolutely astonishing! It turns out that the most concise, elegant and probable solution to the grandest mystery our species has ever pondered, the base meaning of human life, can be revealed eight minutes and forty-six seconds (8:46) into this wonderful YouTube video. So, this is how it happened, the meaning of life was illuminated in my mind like a gleaming, multi-faceted jewel of insight, by Hank Green. Thank you, Hank and John, and everyone responsible for creating Crash Course and making it freely available to all peoples with access to the miracle of human technology that is the World Wide Web and the Internet. What a divine, soul-shattering, psycho-spiritually-liberating moment of pure, blissful, mindful awareness.

  • The Mount Toba disaster is no longer accepted from my research, still a great vid!

  • I'm glad I found a video that matches my though process

  • Okay is it bad that I'm American, and it took a me a second to process that when he said football he meant American football?

  • Human ancestors found themselves in an environment they were horribly unfit for. Only the ones who remembered disaster and were able to tell the stories to the future survived, and so we became good at evading future danger through communication across time and eventually at controlling future danger through communication across large populations.

  • Survival instinct is the source of everything wrong with us, yet we can't survive without it. It's a Catch-22. The day we become machines that don't care whether they survive and thrive, and yet still have the power to do so is the day that evil and life as we know it will cease.

  • Guys, did Captain Planet just die right before my eyes?!😥3:38

  • I watched this twice in my sleep but have only heard the whole responsibility humanity thing this first time and agree so much

  • why r u obsessed with mongols

  • Both Hobbes and Rousseau were right, because that's life

  • 7:25 isn't that what Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann is about?

  • The huge numbers needed for labor are no longer needed and is burden some on the enviroment . If famine and disease dont bring death to the meek War certainly will .

  • How can you with that big brain of yours say that Egypt is in the middle east ?

  • I dont know why but at 11:55 the baby at the extreme left looked David Schwimmer….

  • LIke the Vid's but how come your brother does not break the 4th wall, and do asides as you do, would better match the expected flow 😉

  • How does your machine kill fascists?


  • Looking for this subject I wondered why there is a teacher myth all around the world, from adapa 7 sage in Sumer to okikurumi in Japan, Pahana, Masaau, true white brother and many other in America, Nommo in Affrica, and so and so on. It seems to be a myth almost more spread than the creation myth, but yet how could it have spread with migration before agriculture itself.

  • Mongols 😀

  • do we have empirical evidence that shows a direct relationship of our incredible adaptability in correlation to our ability to create and tinker with tools?

  • guys, whats the natufian complex?


  • obviously hobbes a lot righter than rousseau…why? …b/c aristotle rightest of all [ there was never Asocial man…man is born social]

  • the old homosapience was receltly find in morroco 😉

  • So what I wanna know is when did people become self-aware like when did we realize woah we’re alive instead of just sex and food. Was this a natural thing that our brains just got so “high-leveled” that we could understand more complex scenarios or was it a single mutation or what? And also how awkward would it be for the first self aware person😂

  • I like the hypothesis that agriculture started after ancient humans discovered how to make beer. Once they learned they need fermented plant material they're all like "yea let's plant some grains and use it to make beer! Bread is cool too."

  • Boi your trash

  • This is great, aside trying to reduce humanity to being driven by rationalistic material factors. Of course the teacher says it's more complex than that, which is true, namely, that human beings to this day are driven and motivated by more than just material factors and rewards, and what of the evolved psychology of the creature that proceeds all material factors? Also. Despite all this talk on evolution, you forgot to talk about sexual selection and the powerful effects it has on species 😀

  • @ :18 Why is he playing Zelda with a box of tissues?

  • I love the educational content of this series, but man the jump cut/fast talk editing style is MASSIVELY annoying and distracting.

  • "kings with funny hats" that's all an alien sitting there lol

  • So Thanos is right

  • The most civilized comment section on youtube

  • best thing about this video is having Steven Gerrard as the "representation" of soccer

  • Oral traditions….tee hee…

  • I've never understood why the Hobbes/Rousseau debate is presented as if it were necessarily binary or dichotimous, because clearly it is not. There's no reason why it can't be a mixture, with some aspects of the State reasonably deliterious to human individuals and groups as compared to the "natural" state, and other aspects a clear improvement over living as animals adapting to their environment. Furthermore, this is obviously the actual case. Philosophers far too often oversimplify, and cast problems involving multifarious elements and complexities as either/or, black and white scenarios, which, incidentally, reflects the way humans think more than it does the way things are.

  • The way we humans live today by consuming resources and piling up our trash is not going to be sustainable in the long term.

  • We basically inherited the Sun, (survival abilities).

  • Great series but while you say that you are neutral on Hobbes vs Rousseau – you basically say that science supports Hobbes. I don't think this is true.

    Of course we need to harvest energy to survive because we will die is only to assert that the presence of breathable oxygen is essential – true but not very informative about how history unfolds.

    And then that concludes that its all about "carrying capacity" as if that's a given. Its terribly reductionist – and well Hobbesian.

  • There's a mistake in the closed captions around 5:11. It says "agriculture emerged in the Fertile Crescent IN Egypt." This is confusing to students who are trying to complete handouts for homework.

  • Those people in Crash course really REALLY inspire me to learn more and expand my horizons.
    Thank to you all!

  • When the UN meet they should be made to wear funny hats ..when P Trumps goes on about sorting the rest of the worlds troubles out,if he was to wear a teletubbies style hat,would be great to see,or Trump and Putin,shouting at each other,wearing baseball caps with a little propellor on top,,,

  • 4:26 is it just me or do those "cows" look like dalmatians with horns?

  • Quick question, was it Mount Tove that reduced the population to a few thousand? Hard to understand without good speakers/headphones

  • nice synopsis i am practicing buddhist working on a theory of capitalisms next transformation…. I posit that capitalism….often misaligned because folks tend to run of out of expletives and thoughtful words…… I tend to see capitalism as a ubiquitous "objective means of communication as developed by humans and is ubiquitously accepted by all 7 billion people world wide……

  • who else watched this in class

  • H&J imply the Mt. Toba bottleneck is a sure thing. The wiki page notes a lot of controversy about that. Not everyone agrees. Any consensus on this?

  • Props on the ending philosophy on this one!!

  • 1:48 two types of football..the real one and the American one.
    No likes, coz true.

  • What is "gender history"?

  • "If not for agriculture we never would've had funny hats". This is the most profound thing I've ever heard

  • "…the Mongols…."

    Be still my beating heart…

  • I enjoy the materialist view on history, I know y'all are liberals but this would've made Marx proud

  • “A tradition that started from there being too much poop in the water.” Hahaha I lost it

  • I know this is a super old video but my opinion of a perfect society is technically communist I think? Everyone is equal, as long as you are able to contribute to society in some way you shouldnt have to struggle to survive. You grow up, recieve free training if you want to go to a specialized field, you take care of those who took care of you when they're too old to. For example If a farmer gets sick a dr helps you no charge, if a machine breaks down on your farm it's fixed for free, in return you produce as much food as you're able which supports them. Everyone gets their basic needs met + a salary dependent on their work. For example a dr might get a bigger living space or more money they can use to buy nonessential items. The problem imo is that we can't be trusted to set up a system like this and there will always be people who will try to abuse it and be selfish taking more than they need.

  • 10:41 vs write down what they think in 2019 just what m doing currently

  • I want the crash course ringtone! Is it available anywhere?

  • Episode with a Zelda reference, funny hats & mongols – Mr Green goes good with green – great episode

  • I would argue that the underlying theme of human history is adaptation.

  • i take it Crash Course hasnt read any Graham Hancock

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