Los Incas de Vilcabamba


With the imposition of the Spanish state by the European invaders, various modifications were made in the lives of the inhabitants of the Inca empire, in the Tahuantinsuyo. However, the Inca lineage remained alive in the blood of the successors of Huayna Cápac, the same who opposed stubborn resistance to the destruction of their culture and to the constraint of their freedom. Panaca Project presents in this video: The incas of vilcabamba, the resistance of the children of the sun MANCO INCA: Young noble son of the Inca Huayna Cápac and the Coya Mama Runtu. Having learned of Atahualpa’s death in Cajamarca, receives the invader Francisco Pizarro to claim his succession right and be named Inca of the empire, achieving his goal on November 16, 1533, thus agreeing, a military political alliance between both forces. Manco Inca attributed a divine nature to the Spanish and having suffered the atrocities committed by the Atahualpista general Apo Quizquiz against the cusqueña nobility in favor of Huáscar during the fratricidal war, he did not doubt that the new viracochas would restore the order destroyed by Atahualpa and they would act in favor of him and the Tahuantinsuyo. Thus, he sent his troops to fight alongside Francisco Pizarro against General Quisquis, falling defeated in the battle of Anta. Over time, Manco Inca would realize that the foreigners to whom he gave his support They were not the viracochas that he imagined, but invaders that due to their greed they looted the sacred precincts of the imperial city indiscriminately, violating the Acllahuasi or house of the chosen women and a series of systematic abuses, being all of them, sufficient reasons why it would break the covenant alliance and would lead him to lead a rebellion against Spanish domination. In 1534, Manco Inca was captured by Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro, who tortured him trying to get him to confess where they could find more treasures and riches. This torment against the Inca would last until 1536, when he gets Hernando Pizarro to release him under the promise of obtaining and delivering several gold statues from all over the territory Now free, and with the help of the Huillac Umu (high priest of the Sun) manages to gather an army of approximately 40 thousand warriors to take Cuzco and attack the city of Lima, where the invader Francisco Pizarro was already. On May 3, 1536, Cuzco would dawn surrounded by the Manco Inca army ready to face the army of brothers Juan, Gonzalo and Hernando Pizarro who had under his command approximately 200 Spaniards and thousands of allied Indians, belonging to the ethnic groups: cañaris, chachapoyas, huancas, chancas, etc, as well as the help of Pascac Inca and Paullo Inca, brother and son of Huayna Cápac respectively, who added their armies to the invading forces. This attack, known as “the site of Cuzco” It was so overwhelming that the Spanish believed they would lose the city, Manco Inca’s army made their pututos sound and he had managed to capture the Sacsayhuamán fortress. Cuzco burned in the heat of battle attacked from all four sides and it was then that Hernando Pizarro decided to break the fence in which Manco Inca had placed them, escaping into the open ground and managing to attract the Inca warriors, whom he made fall under the legs of his horses. Following the counterattack, Juan Pizarro seeks to recapture Sacsayhuamán, Nevertheless, he is knocked off his horse by a stone shot by a sling on his bare head, dying days later. Hernando Pizarro then uses stairs to climb the walls of the fortress, making the Manco Inca soldiers leave their posts suffering from food, water and reinforcement shortages remaining only those who were in the turrets, those who stayed in the fight until the end. Such is the case of Cahuide, also called Cullash, who defended the tower of Mullucmarca, one of the three towers of Sacsayhuamán, with such courage and courage that he would rather die than fall prisoner into invading hands, throwing himself from the top of the keep, since it was known that the Spanish soldiers wanted to capture him alive. Sacsayhuamán was recaptured by the invaders on May 16, 1536 and later destroyed by them, Currently only rocks that could not be moved remain. Aware Francisco Pizarro of the battle carried out in Cuzco, decides to send reinforcements to aid the besieged invaders, Nevertheless, Manco Inca decides to send his experienced captain Quizu Yupanqui (who was the son of Túpac Inca Yupanqui) to hinder such aid. Between May and July 1536 the Inca army managed to destroy up to 4 expeditions sent by Pizarro. Determined to move towards Lima, Quizu Yupanqui had an army made up of Cusco, Huancas, Yauyos, Angars and other ethnic groups. He camped on the slopes of a hill previously captured by his army and destroyed a cross that was nailed there. He entered the main square fighting against the Spanish army and the allied towns, until the spear of Pedro Martín de Sicilia manages to cross it and kill him. Fallen Quizu Yupanqui, the Inca army began to disintegrate, further confused by the treason of the Huancas, those who did not attack according to the ordered strategy because they had been forced to fight for the Inca cause. In November 1536, the survivors decided to retreat to the central highlands. The day Quizu Yupanqui fell, the Spanish placed, as a sign of victory, a huge cross at the top of the hill where the first cross had been destroyed, naming it “San Cristóbal” Pizarro then manages to successfully send an expedition to Cuzco to aid the invaders who were still fighting against the Manco Inca army. Alonso de Alvarado and his contingent manage to quell the indigenous resistance, ending the “site of Cuzco”, the Inca retiring to his headquarters: the fortress of Ollantaytambo, from where he would continue his harassment and siege of the invading forces but this time already with Hispanic armor, horses and weapons. It is in this situation that Diego de Almagro “El viejo”, Pizarro’s partner and participant in the invasion, returns to cuzco from the south, current Chile, after a failed expedition to his new government in search of riches and treasures (which would later start civil wars between the Spanish invaders). Manco Inca, aware of this and also when realizing that the empire’s food warehouses were empty, decides to end his siege of Cuzco after almost 9 months of fighting, and retreat to Vilcabamba, an area located northwest of Cuzco, where he remained from 1538 directing actions from Huánuco to Collao against the invaders and their allies. In 1542 he granted asylum to a group of Almagrista soldiers, who fled the Spanish crown for having rebelled against it by the hand of its leader Diego de Almagro “El Mozo”, Almagro’s son “El viejo”, defeated in the battle of Chupas, in the so-called “Border War” who pitted the invaders against each other, for the possession of Cuzco and its riches. However, this decision would cost the first Inca of Vilcabamba the life, since Alonso de Toro, Lieutenant Governor of Cuzco at the time, offered to refugee almagristas forgiveness for his insurrection if Manco Inca was killed. It was so without hesitation, in 1545 and during a game game called herrón that they shared with the Inca, 7 almagristas unloaded on him their daggers, knives and swords, leaving the Inca, who was unarmed, very badly injured, dying three days later. This fact was observed by his son Titu Cusi Yupanqui, who was saved from the attack by escaping to the mountains. And why did Manco Inca agree to receive these almagristas as refugees? For the fight he fought in the past with Diego de Almagro against the general atahualpista Apo Quisquis. The memory of bleeding together in battle cost him his life. and to the Quechua people the hope of expelling the invaders from Tahuantinsuyo. SAYRI TÚPAC Son of Manco Inca and Culchima Caype. After the death of his father, he assumed control of Vilcabamba. For this moment, the war resistance in the Tahuantinsuyo had disintegrated but without disappearing, reason for which the Spanish were still looking for a way to end the bastion that Vilcabamba had become, por ello, buscaron negociar con el Inca, Sayri Tupac agreeing to meet with the then viceroy of Peru, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza. As a result of that negotiation and in exchange for a promise of peace, Sayri Túpac received a palace in Cuzco, land in the Yucay valley, money and a coat of arms. Sayri Túpac died poisoned by Francisco Chilche, Cañari chief, who disputed to the Inca the lands of the Yucay valley, located in the province of Urubamba, northeast of Cuzco. TITU CUSI YUPANQUI Son of Manco Inca, assumed the title of Inca de Vilcabamba on the death of Sayri Túpac, in 1562, attacking the encomiendas and the foreigners who were approaching the fortress, until the viceroy Diego López de Zúñiga, count of Nieva, he wanted to restart the negotiations to end these warlike actions, accomplishing this task his successor, Governor Lope García de Castro, who signed with the Inca the so-called “Peace of Acobamba”, the same that established that the son of Titu Cusi, Quispe Titu, he would marry Beatriz Clara Coya, daughter of Sayri Túpac, inheriting the land from his late father-in-law, in addition to staying in Vilcabamba without carrying out warlike actions against the Spanish. Titu Cusi, would be baptized with the name of Diego Castro by the Augustinian friar Fray Marcos García. The Acobamba agreements were not fully complied with since in 1570 the situation became more tense with the arrival of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, that coincided with the death of Titu Cusi, it is said, at the hands of the priests who indoctrinated him, being named then like new Inca, Túpac Amaru. TÚPAC AMARU Last Inca of Vilcabamba. Brother of Titu Cusi Yupanqui, Túpac Amaru broke with all negotiations carried out by its predecessors and the Spanish invaders, closed the borders and roads to Vilcabamba and declared war on the Spanish state, ready to fight to the death. In response, in 1572 Viceroy Toledo declared the Vilcabamba area a war zone and carried out military campaigns to destroy the Inca bulwark Túpac Amaru could not contain the attacks of the Spanish and he retired towards the jungle, leaving the Vilcabamba fortress, the same one that was empty when the invading army arrived. It was Captain Martín García de Loyola who would capture Túpac Amaru and his family, transferring them to Cusco, where Viceroy Toledo sentenced them to the death penalty, the Inca was beheaded at the age of 28, on September 24, 1572, his head being placed in a pillory and his body was buried in the Santo Domingo church. With his death, 40 years of war resistance would end exercised by descendants of the Inca lineage but the myth would be born: the rebirth of the dead Inca, the arrival of a savior that would restore the chaos caused by the Spanish invaders, INKARRI’s resurgence: the body and the head will unite under the ground and when that moment comes, the Inca will rise, also their gods, then the Spanish will be defeated and a new order will emerge and the Indians will return to their rightful place. 200 years later, the myth would take shape in another descendant of the Inca lineage: José Gabriel Condorcanqui, called Túpac Amaru II

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