Islam and Politics: Crash Course World History 216


Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
World History and today we’re going to talk about the Islamic state. A story ripped from
the headlines! Mr. Green? Wait. No, no, no, no this
is not history this is news and also for me it’s not even news – it’s the future.
Yeah, Me from the Past, it turns out that history is a continuous process, and that
even current events have a history. All right, let’s begin with the headlines. In 2014 ISIS – the Islamic State In Iraq
and Syria, also known as ISIL and Islamic State, and many other things. Anyway, they
declared a caliphate in the territory that the group controls, prompting many Americans
to wonder what a Caliphate is. Well, if you’ve seen our episode on the
emergence of Islam, the caliphate is an Islamic state, modeled on the original Islamic community
that was founded by the prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Now Muhammad was not a caliph, because the word means successor and they were the successors
to Muhammad. But the first four political leaders who led
the community and turned it into an empire have come to be known as the Four Rightly
Guided caliphs. And when groups like ISIS that are trying
to reestablish this kind of government look back on it they see it as being kind of the
golden age. That this was a time of not just of growth
for the Islamic empire but also of political stability and unity. Which as it happens it really wasn’t. Like
even under the Four Rightly Guided caliphs the Islamic world was tremendously diverse
and had huge disagreements. I mean of the Four Rightly Guided caliphs,
three were assassinated. But anyway, the ideal version of that type
of state is what ISIS and some other Islamists mean when they talk about reconstructing a
caliphate although what the boundaries of a modern-day Caliphate might be are far from
clear. I mean are you going to try to include Indonesia,
but anyway, according to historian Michael Cook, “the restoration of the caliphate
is a political ideal for many Islamists – and for some a political project,”
But I want to be clear, that is not the case for the vast majority of Muslims.
So when I use the term Islamism I mean something very specific. For me, Islamism is the idea
that Islam can be the basis of government; it’s not the same as fundamentalism, although
it’s often related to it. And it’s certainly not the same thing as
Islam – which is a diverse and complicated and world wide religious tradition.
Now, Islamism is a potent political force, but it’s a relatively recent one, and in
many ways it developed as a response to our old friend, Western-style nationalism.
That said, the idea that Islam can guide nation states or new kinds of states is much older
than, you know, 2001. But it became much more relevant to Americans then with the terrorist
attacks in New York and Washington. Since then there has been more and more attention
paid to the argument that Islam and Western civilization were at-best incompatible and
at-worst locked in a mortal clash of civilizations. That clash of civilizations idea has become
so ingrained that even though I don’t really agree with it i think we need to at least
acknowledge what we’re talking about when we talk about us and them.
Us, usually refers to European style nation states such as those which became dominant
in the 19th century. These states tend to value democracy or at least pluralism, and,
to varying degrees, they espouse political values such as egalitarianism and individualism.
National identity in these states has at least traditionally been in a sense ethnic – based
on some sense of shared language and culture if not exactly kinship – and it’s secular
rather than religious. And then the arguments goes that the Islamic
world is the opposite of this, but I am not convinced that that’s accurate.
For instance, there are lots of religious connections in European style nation states and
there are lots of conversations about strengthening those religious connections or even making
laws according to religious dictates. And in the Islamic world there are lots and
lots of nation states. But let’s start with the idea that the Islamists
are out of step with the modern political reality of the nation state. Let’s go to
the Thought Bubble. So Islam is a universal religion that is supposed
to transcend ethnic identity. According to the Quran, “The believers indeed are brothers.”
(Q49:10) The universal nature of Islam didn’t mean
that ethnicity didn’t matter at all of course; it did. Early on and for a long time Arab
ethnicity was privileged in the Islamic world and this was especially true during the period
of conquest. This was despite Muhammad saying “Truly the Arab has no superiority over
the non-Arab, nor the non-Arab over the Arab, nor the black over the white, nor the white
over the black, except in piety.” But their amazingly rapid and far reaching
conquest granted the Arabs huge prestige that lasted until the 18th century. Now, from the beginning being a Muslim meant
being part of a political community, because unlike Jesus or the Buddha, Muhammad was also
a political leader in addition being a religious one. But at least to an extent the tight connection
between political and religious identity really ended with the assassination of the Fourth
Rightly Guided Caliph Ali. According to the writer Tamim Ansary, “After Ali’s death,
the khalifate was just an empire.” But as the empire grew and became more diverse, it became
impossible to hold it together as a political unit. So, even though the idea of a caliphate doesn’t
square so well with western notions of ethnically homogenous nation states, ethnicity has always
mattered in the Islamic world, as we can see if we go to Turkey, or Egypt, or Pakistan.
In each of those places, the experience of being a Muslim is affected by the experience
of one’s ethnicity. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So this idea that the
Islamic empire wasn’t always a caliphate for much of its history, was just an empire
is really important. Because it gets to how not-different ways
of organizing people are when it comes to like us and them.
Now I’m not trying to make a false equivalence or say that all people are the same or whatever
But like let’s look at a defining western political value – egalitarianism. In its earliest
incarnations, Islam was unusually egalitarian, especially for its time.
The religion structurally avoids hierarchy except perhaps based on piety. The Quran (49:13)
states: “the noblest among you in the sight of God is the most godfearing of you,” and
there’s a quote from Muhammad that “people are equals like the teeth of a comb.”
To which I say. What’s a comb? Also, Islamic law, unlike, say Hammurabi’s
code, doesn’t make class distinctions among Muslims, only between Muslims and non-Muslims,
and Muhammad is quoted as saying that the blood of believers is always of equal value.
In fact, that Islam lacks caste and formal aristocracy was noted by many Europeans, who
thought it was weird. Now this canonical idea egalitarianism is
not the same thing as equality – at least the equality that we’ve come to think about
in the present day. Like in the Quran, and in the sayings of Muhammad
called Hadiths, Women and men are alike in the performance of prayer and their obligation
to pay the alms tax and their expectations of eternal life in paradise
And women did have some inheritance rights in the early Islamic community that they did
not enjoy in pre-Islamic Arabic communities. And that they also wouldn’t have had in
Byzantium or, god forbid, Rome. And then there’s the inequality between
Muslims and ‘unbelievers’ which is pretty well known; like other “peoples of the book”
Christians and Jews, could live and work in Muslim empires provided they paid a special
tax called the jizya. Which was far better than the life of a Muslim
under Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain. And then there’s the issue of slavery, which
the Quran accepts. In general Muslims have avoided enslaving other Muslims, showing that
there is a sense of brotherhood and solidarity among believers, but overall to quote a historian
“Islamic egalitarianism was … limited to free Muslim males.”
Of course, if you’ve watched our US History series you may remember that early American
egalitarianism was limited to like land-owning Christian males.
My point here, is that if you look for historical precedents, you can generally find them. That’s
true in the Islamic world, it’s also true in the rest of the world. Now today, in Europe and the United States,
most citizens expect their states to be, in at least some degree, democratic, and republican,
and constitutional. So when people in the west look at the early
Islamic empire we have a way of imaging Caliphs as kings because, like, you know, we had kings.
But Caliphs were important in different ways, for starters, they were the successor to the
prophet. Now, maybe that’s similar to what the Roman
Catholic papacy became over time but it’s not like a king – except for the king of England.
King Henry VIII, founder of my church, who was like “I need to be the head of the church
so that I can get divorced.” But this combination of religious and political
authority is important as is, at least initially, there was no hereditary succession of caliphs.
And then there’s the concept of bay’a which is a kind of political allegiance, like
according to Michael Cook, “an agreement is made between the future caliph and the
future subject whereby each party is to have specified rights and duties.”
A closely related theme is shura, “the duty of the caliph to consult with others before
making his decision.” Like, according to tradition, when Abu Bakr
accepted the role of the first Caliph he claimed that Muslims had no duty to obey him if he
disobeyed God and the Prophet. Now that’s not democracy, but it is limited
rule and it gives people some participation in the government.
And then there’s another Western value that is often bandied about as something that isn’t
part of the Islamic world – freedom. Islam, as you may know, means “submission.”
And a Muslim is a person who submits to God. And to some Westerns that seems like the opposite
of freedom. But the tradition within Islam, is that by
releasing people from domination by other people, and making them servants of God – there
is freedom. Freedom is a famously abstract concept, but
if we think of it as the opposite of slavery, then being free from having to serve other
people is freedom. That said, in contemporary Islamism, political freedom
is not generally held in particularly high esteem. Which is one of the reasons why Islamists
were less relevant in the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011 than people tend to think.
But in at least one way, the caliphate can be thought of as enshrining republican (with
a little “r”) values; Islamism emphasizes the rule of law and that even the caliph is
subject to it. Since ultimate sovereignty belongs only to God, men to quote Michael
Cook, “are not entitled to exercise lordship over each other.”
And the much talked about Shari’a law, coming from a source outside the political process
(whether that’s God or religious scholars) acts as a huge check on rulers becoming dictators.
Right. like Iran’s government has many problems, but its president is not a dictator.
But that same complete sovereignty of God over the people makes it difficult for Islamists
to embrace democracy, because it’s based on the idea that the people themselves are
sovereign. And the most radical Islamists, like Ayman
al Zawahiri of Al-Qaeda really do hate democracy. He called democracy, “a new religion that
deifies the masses.” And the completely extreme and absolutely horrifying Boko Haram
in Nigeria have exclaimed that they, “will never accept any system of government apart
from one stipulated by Islam,” and will, “keep on fighting against democracy, capitalism,
socialism and whatever.” Yes, the “and whatever” is a quote. If
you belong to a group that is fighting blank, blank, blank, and whatever – you need to leave
that group. So it’s easy and relatively common for people
in the West to say that Islam is inimical to political values like freedom, equality
and democracy. And when we talk about certain groups of radical
Islamists, that’s true. But in the West we also really, really struggle
to see the other complexely, and to understand the incredible diversity in response to the
revelation of the Quran. In my opinion, the clash of civilizations model
oversimplifies the world into this group and that group, and imagines that this group sees
the world only that way and that group sees the world only this way. In fact, it’s complicated.
For one thing, modern Islamism itself, is a very recent phenomenon, and in large part
it’s a reaction to western imperialism and nationalism, and it doesn’t always reflect
the ideas of Islam OR Islamic history. Humans have a storied tradition of calling
upon certain facets of our history to inspire us toward what we already kind of want.
And those seeking to recreate the caliphate want a more powerful and unified Arab world,
if not, an Islamic world. And so they look toward history for inspiration,
taking parts and leaving many others. What really happened, is that for the most
part European style nationalism took hold in the Islamic world at the same time it rose
in Europe, as the creation of Turkey shows quite clearly.
But in trying to understand the allure of the caliphate it’s important to understand
that Islam is not just a religion. From the beginning, it was a civilization.
As the historian Tamim Ansary wrote: “Islam might just as validly be considered as one
item in a class whose other items include communism, parliamentary democracy, fascism,
and the like, because Islam is a social project like those others, an idea for how politics
and the economy ought to be managed, a complete system of civil and criminal law.”
But it’s also a very diverse system shaped by everything around it and everything inside
of it – like any civilization. So when we try to discuss a topic as complex
and charged as contemporary Islamic thought and practice and political worldviews, we
don’t just need to be sure that we have some sense of history. We also need to be
sure that we’re all talking about the same thing.
There is nothing bright about the lines between politics and religion and history and nation.
Thank you for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is filmed in the Chad and Stacey Emigholz studio here in Indianapolis. It’s
made possible thanks to the hard work of all of these people. And also your subscriptions
on Subbable. Subbable is a voluntary subscription service
that allows you to support Crash Course directly so we can keep it free for everyone forever.
You can also support Crash Course by buying some of our awesome merch like t-shirts or
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awesome.”

Comments 100

  • I don't like islom

  • Muslim And proud 🙏🙏👳👳💙🌷👏From Egypt city Aswan

  • He might as well just join Isis lmao.

  • It's unlikely to find unbiased videos on Islamic Political Thought… Thank you Mr. Green!

  • Great explaining 🖒

  • Religion is a type of mass insanity. Getting people to line up and follow the invisible leader. The oldest CON JOB in the worLd. Use punishments and rewards for promises that can't be fulfilled…

    —— poison of mankind ———–

  • ISLAM IS A CULT

  • I'm looking up the world history 2 playlist and I couldn't help myself but check this video- well at least comment section. I was scared of seeing few hateful or religious comments but everyone seems to view this topic objectively. It's nice to see a community like that.

  • 4:15 where did Muhammad say this?

  • 7:10 comparing the treatment of women in Islam to Christianity is just wrong. In all the gospels the first witnesses of the empty tomb of Jesus were all women… in a time where female testimonies were not trusted. The New Testament says “there is no male or female, neither Jew nor Greek, but we are all one in Christ Jesus” Galatians 3:28 “Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her” Ephesians 5:25
    The Bible even says this about women. “Husbands, love your wives and do not be harsh with them.” Colossians 3:19

    In Islam men can have 4 wives, can women have 4 Husbands? Under Islamic law a man can beat his wife Quran 4:34 a woman’s testimony is worth half of a mans. In Quran 2:282
    Islam permits a man to have sex slaves along with his 4 wives Quran 4:24

    How can you compare this between Islam and Christianity? There is no comparison.

  • The Buhari's jihadist government of Nigeria is carrying out ethnic cleansing against none Muslims in Middle Belt and Southern Nigeria, the Fulani Jihadist herdsmen and Bandits under Miyetti-Allah have overtaken Boko Haram in killings, they terrorize communities, seize political power and they are backed by Buhari regime,
    Tomorrow the Muslim people claim that Islamist convert people peacefully

  • Please don't confuse the original islamic state with the contemporary terrorist group ISIS. This group has nothing to do with Islam and its history. It has geo-political objectives and vicious designs. On the other hand, original Islamic state from the 7th century onwards based on the priniciple of tolerance, coexistence, rule of law, freedom, human rights.

  • When talking about nationality, you say they are all equal except in piety. In a Religious State piety is everything. So in saying there is no one above another is actually a lie.

  • Democracy gives you leaders like Trump

  • and it was Raden Saleh Syarif Bustaman's Painting about Javanese war

  • One might find it no coincidence that both Islam and Christianity's moderates are essentially considered such specifically because they have rejected their own religious teachings.
    The more you ignore God, the more "moderate" a Muslim or Christian, and so on, you become. So I expect that atheism will be the end game of all religions seeking moderate practice as they tread away from their [sometimes] violent teaching texts.
    After all, if the only thing that makes you as an individual or a group, more tolerable to be around, is rejecting parts of your own religion to the point where the less moderate may attack you or seek litigation against you, then why not just be an atheist at that point? You are already halfway there.

  • From a student in AP World History, I must thank you for your existence. Your voice haunts me every night.

  • Watching videos like this is not how to learn about Islam. If you want to know about Islam, read the Quran.

  • So where did it go so horribly wrong?

  • For a group of people who claim to be submissive, their agenda isn't…..

  • Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Three Brothers who have been fighting for centuries. They don’t have to. They don’t need to. The people who follow them will use them as an excuse for war. They do not want it.

  • lmao another white liberal washed version of history

  • Can u make a video related to the muslim scholars and inventors?

  • The west for the most part managed to seperate religion from government which gave people the freedom to be what they want to be , which I think is a good thing .

  • You sound like a self-hating liberal.
    The goal of Islam is to conquer the world

  • Damn you

  • الإسلام يشرفك ويشرف أمك البقرة 🐄

  • Do you have a sore throat in this video?

  • Your video sucks, Ikhwan. Learn something real

  • Don't call Isis Islam they are far from it Islam Translate to two piece or the word salam and also means surrendering to the will of God isis they are murdering people
    Killing innocent women and children they are just terrorists nothing more it pains me for some people calling Isis Islam Islam is forgiving Mercy and Hope the terrorists are not showing any of those three things

  • You have the best study about Islam.👍

  • As a student of knowledge, I would like to make an objection to the caliphs being "successors to muhammed"

  • ALLAH IS MADE FROM NOOR AND NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR. THE FAMILY MEAN CONECTION OF BLOOD AS DAUGHTER AND DAUGHTER HUSBAND AND DAUGHTER CHILDREN.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR IS OWNER OF ALLAH WORDS.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR IS OWNER OF ALLAH PROMISE.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR IS OWNER OF EVERY THING, UNIVERSE, ISLAM, JANAT, QURAN, NAMAZ, KABA, KHYBER, FADAK.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR HAS POWER OF ALLAH.
    ALLAH POWER IS NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR IS MANIFEST OF ALLAH.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM NOOR IS NEVER THINK, NEVER SLEEP, NEVER DIE AND NOT NEED FOOD TO EAT.
    NABI THE LORD OF UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR AND HIS FAMILY IS MADE FROM ALLAH NOOR NAME IN QURAN.
    QURAN IS WORLDS OF ALLAH AND QURAN IS NOT MAKE FROM NOOR.
    NABI THE OWNER OF BIG EID AND HIS SON IS NABI THE OWNER OF BIG EID MAKE KABA. KABA IS NOT MAKE FROM NOOR.
    ALLAH IS MADE FROM NOOR AND ALLAH HAD ENIMIES THAT CANOT DEFEAT AND KILL ALLAH AND ALLAH NOT NEED TERITORY FOR ISLAM.
    ALLAH IS AGREED THEN razitala anho because razitala anho are not owner of ISLAM, JANAT, QURAN, NAMAZ, KABA, KHYBER, FADAK, UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING.

  • There is nothing such as islamist or radical Islam or moderate muslim this are mere western definition to try to corrupt islam.

    Islam is simple
    The sources of Islam on which all beliefs, principles and rulings are based are represented by the two Revelations: the Qur’aan and Sunnah. This is what is implied by Islam being a divinely-revealed religion: its pillars are based on infallible texts that were sent down from heaven, which are represented in the verses of the Holy Qur’aan and the texts of the saheeh Prophetic Sunnah. 

    Imam al-Shaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

    No view is binding unless it is based on the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Everything other than them should be based on them. End quote. 

    Jimaa’ al-‘Ilm. 

    From these two sources the scholars derived other principles on which rulings may be based. Some scholars called them the sources of sharee’ah or the sources of Islamic legislation. They are: ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) and qiyaas (analogy). 

    What is politics in islam?

    The word siyaasah (translated above as political outlook) comes from a root (saasa) meaning to become in charge and take care of something, which means looking after something in a manner that maintains its well-being. The phrase sawwasahu al-qawm refers to people appointing someone to run their affairs.

    See: Lisaan al-‘Arab (6/107); al-Qaamoos al-Muheet (p. 170).
    Al-Bukhaari (3455) and Muslim (1842) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The Children of Israel were ruled by the Prophets (tasoosuhum al-Anbiyaa’); every time one prophet died, another prophet would succeed him.”

    An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

    “[They] were ruled by the Prophets” means the Prophets took care of their affairs as rulers who are in charge of the people do. Thus siyaasah means to take care of something in a manner that maintains its well-being and serves its interests.

    Ibn Nujaym said:

    Siyaasah refers to an action taken by the ruler as he sees fit, even if there is no partial evidence for the action he takes.

    Al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (5/11).

    Ibn Khaldoon defined as-siyaasah ash-shar‘iyyah [siyaasah on the basis of Islamic teachings] as follows: [It means] to lead the people in accordance with shar‘i guidelines, in a manner that serves their interests in the hereafter as well as in this world, for their interests in this world are connected to and may serve their interests in the hereafter, because the Islamic guidelines concerning the life of this world are connected to what serves people’s interests in the hereafter. 
    Thus as-siyaasah ash-shar‘iyyah, in reality, means acting in the stead of the Messenger in guarding religious affairs and taking care of worldly affairs. End quote from Muqaddimat Ibn Khaldoon (p. 97)

    Based on that, siyaasah is an indivisible part of Islam, and there is no separation between siyaasah (politics) and deen (religion).

    This is also how the Rightly Guided Caliphs and leaders of guidance after him ran the affairs of the ummah.

    See also: at-Turuq al-Hukmiyyah by Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 17-20).

  • What do islam say about the democracy of the west?

    Democracy is not an Arabic word. Rather it is derived from the Greek, and it is a composite of two words: demos, meaning the masses or the people, and kratia, meaning rule. So what is meant is the rule of the masses or the rule of the people. 

    Secondly: 

    Democracy is a system that is contrary to Islam, because it gives the power of legislation to the people or to those who represent them (such as members of Parliament). Based on that, in democracy legislative authority is given to someone other than Allah, may He be exalted; rather it is given to the people and their deputies, and what matters is not their consensus but the majority. 

    Thus what the majority agree upon becomes laws that are binding on the nation, even if it is contrary to common sense, religious teaching or reason. In these systems legislation has been promulgated allowing abortion, same-sex marriage and usurious interest (riba); the rulings of sharee‘ah have been abolished; and fornication/adultery and the drinking of alcohol are permitted. In fact this system is at war with Islam and its followers. 

    Allah, may He be exalted, has told us in the His Book that legislative authority belongs to Him alone, and that He is the wisest of those who issue rulings and judge. He has forbidden the association of anyone with Him in His authority, and no one is better than Him in ruling. 

    Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “So the judgement is only with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great!”

    [Ghaafir 40:12]

    The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not”

    [Yoosuf 12:40]

    Do they then seek the judgement of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allah for a people who have firm Faith?”

    [al-Maa’idah 5:50]. 

    It should be noted that in many countries this system has changed into something that has no reality behind it, and it is mere slogans by which people are deceived; in fact the real ruler is the head of state and his helpers, and the people are suppressed and have no say in anything. 

    There is nothing more indicative of that than the fact that when this democracy produces results that do not suit the desires of the rulers, they crush it underfoot. Cases of election fraud, suppression of freedoms and silencing of the voices of those who speak the truth are well known to everyone and do not need further proof. 

    Many people think that the word democracy means freedom! But this is incorrect because freedom is one of the by-products of democracy. What we mean by freedom here is freedom of belief, freedom of decadence, and freedom of expression, and these also have many negative impacts on Muslim societies, because matters have gone so far that aspersions are cast upon the Messengers and the messages, and upon the Qur’an and the Sahaabah, on the grounds of freedom of opinion; and wanton display and uncovering are tolerated, and indecent images and movies are propagated on the grounds of freedom. Many such things are happening, of which there is a long list, all of which are playing a part in the corruption of the ummah, morally and spiritually.

  • What is khilafah ?

    Khalif means as a successor of the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

    And his chosen and elected by the decision makers (ahl al-hall wa’l-‘aqd). For example, Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq became caliph when he was elected by the decision makers, then the Sahaabah unanimously agreed with that and swore allegiance to him, and accepted him as caliph. 

    Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) became caliph in a similar manner, when ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) delegated the appointment of the caliph to come after him to a shoora council of six of the senior Sahaabah, who were to elect one of their number. 

    Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf consulted the Muhaajireen and Ansaar, and when he saw that the people were all inclined towards ‘Uthmaan, he swore allegiance to him first, then the rest of the six swore allegiance to him, followed by the Muhaajireen and Ansaar, so he was elected as caliph by the decision makers. 

    The four rightly guarded are not the only successors but there were many caliphates after them such as the abasidds and ummayyads and the ayubis, the ammawis, the murabitun, also the beautiful state of andalus and many others.

  • Islam was civilisation only if lack of civilisation is civilisation. As you have just demonstrated in the video.

  • What happen to your throat sir??

  • British: WE HAVE THE BEST EMPIRE!!

    Caliphates: Hold our zamzam

  • I just wanted to say how much I love your videos. They are always very informative and objective, which I love! I actually use them a lot while studying for a better understanding. Keep up the good work!

  • All I’m gonna say is they invaded an converted land by force in there beginnings…. that lead to the crusades please at me

  • What I learned is that Koran forbids slavery so I dont know if it's true that slavery is accepted by koran

  • Even if slavery not forbid in islam , Emancipation of slaves was made the act of expiation for many types of sin

  • In 4:28 , u said rashidun califs concurred those regions . Thats not right . Only the first three califs did that . The 4th of them ( Ali ) actually stopped those wars and focused on justice , convincing non_muslims to convert to Islam & etc .

  • I HOPE YOUR THROAT IS OKAY

  • Freedom… Unless you want to leave.

  • Hadith about slaves:" Choose for your slaves what you like for you and don't put burden on them that they can not bear". Also freeing people from bondage is considered on of the best use of money. There is also a hadith that states that if a slave does not obey you, don't physically hurt them but free them. Migration to Medina, made each and everyone brothers irrespective of slaves or tribal leader.

  • I'm Muslim but i respect Islam and Muslims even tho i'm Muslum myself

  • Shaytaan be like "What the Heaven?" LoL

  • I don't think u r right 100%

  • Who watching this in 2019???

    I am

  • Hi John Green,
    Will you'll be able to to do a crash course Writing ?????????

  • You should read "Why we hate you and why we fight you" that ISIS published, because they will tell you. No need for obscurantism

  • I would like to clarify, that the sharia law the actual legal code of conduct was developed by the caliphs, it is like a tradition that islamic states carry on, there is no force to do so, they can be islamic and not implement sharia or implement parts of it like zakat, for instance, Turkey: it is a muslim majority secular country and practices some sharia related traditions like zakat but it does not form part of their constitution. In no way is islam a political ideology, islam itself is a religion and the quran does not mention the use of sharia law to govern people nor do the hadis(sayings/practices of the Prophet pbuh) mention anything of the sort.

  • This is by far the most unbiased video made on this topic. Great job.
    But shouldve added ZAKAT which is kind of jizya for the muslims.

    Coming from a muslim.

  • Eat pork and bacon in breakfast and piss on Quran.

  • I heard about my country mentioned lol

  • Don't match Islam and terrorist please please

  • Islam is evil
    Remove Islam from the world

  • Someone said: 'The koran is a work of fiction by people who poorly invented mohamed as the star of their masterpiece. The haddith and sunna were invented to back up the gory mistakes they made highlighted by progress'

    Press 'Read More' to hear my reply to them, you will not regret it:

    That is not true. Do you have any proof of this? Can you explain then why Muslims all around the world are following this fiction? There are no mistakes or errors in the Quran! I, as a well-informed Muslim, have come to find that 80% of the Quran is based on science and facts and the other 20% is ambiguous (neither right nor wrong). You might use the fact that 20% is ambiguous as proof that Islam is fake but people have just not come to figure this out, yet! (Please do read on, it's not as boring as it might seem!)

    There are lots of things in the Quran that suggest that a mighty power beyond human possibility has created this. Things like: the big bang theory, the fact that the earth is a sphere, talks about different planets and space and how astronauts will be able to travel out of this atmosphere, the 2 seas that don't mix of the Gulf of Alaska, etc… Also, the Quran talks about our world, mentions many parts of history and geography, quotes about other religions and how they do exist with their many books, which were also sent by God.

    Islam is a source of peace and a path of guidance and light. There is nothing wrong with being nice to your neighbors, helping orphans and controlling your anger as the Quran advises humans. Also, Allah clearly states in the Quran, that this religious text is not only for Arabs or Asians or Europeans or just one group of people. God's messenger (Prophet Muhammad S.A.W) brought his message to everyone, the entire world.

    Anyone who thinks otherwise is ill-informed and biased. If you really wanted to learn about Islam you would open the Quran with an open mind and understand that whoever or whatever gave this view is wrong and wants to spread rumors about Islam being a violent, terrorizing religion for whatever horrifying reason. If you would like to learn the truth then do your own research from a reliable source.

    Islam comes from the root word 'Salaam' which means peace and therefore Islam means peaceful submission to Allah (God).

    Please do not be ignorant and listen to the hate speech of the world around you, if everyone educates themselves then there will be no conflict as everyone can see from a different perspective and other's point of view. Just so you know, I am only 12-years-old but someone who truly believes in heaven and hell. I can tell right from wrong and always ask repentance for my sins. I am just like any other child who's going through change but has people who care about them and help them along the way.

    Just like any other child, I have doubts about myself but long for change in our world. I want to help stop animal cruelty and climate change. I want to make sure people hear my story and can relate. I want… I long for… I need… I hope for… CHANGE! In people's minds and people's actions. I 100% know that I have my own shortcomings and mistakes which is what differs me from arrogant, misguided people who say but don't do, who are hypocrites.

    All these reasons are why my comment is this long… So others can hope and believe that one day will be THE day. So we can all be ready when the time comes! Open up your heart and mind! I am a Muslim and, if you choose to, you can be one too. And together, all us humans, we can all tackle any problem that comes our way…

    (I could have said more but I bet you've probably looked at the first few lines and thought this person is a complete time-waster! LOL!)

  • hi ! I want to let u know the "Zazia" u mentioned for non Muslim tax is actually a different name for tax that every Muslim also hav too pay. which is call "Zakat". which is goes to the poor of the community who can be non Muslim as well. the 4 leader u mentioned, it was one of them noticed that it is unfair that only the Muslim pay the tax. which is the "Zakat" and which goes to the poorer or less fortunate in the community. so he ask the non Muslim to pay tax. which is call "Zazia"

  • May the Lord make the truth always easy for you to admit…
    its rare to see a brave truthful man….

  • Islam and the west are incompatible. Truth and falsehood never mix. Anyone who says otherwise is lying

  • Really like the video. Great point about Islamism Scary

  • forget doctors man, Crash Course is the real hero

  • A beautifully balanced and mostly accurate video. Wonderful job.

  • Muslims are from Abraham's first born Ishmael to his wife's servant Hagar The Egyptian. God told Abraham that His covenant will be through Isaac but Ishmael's descendants will also be mightily blessed……and so they are, they have owned lands rich in oil to the envy of other Nations The British wanted Iraq , Rommel wanted Egypt. It's just a shame that Muhammad had to write in The Koran a hundred times to put Jews, Christian's and unbelievers to death. These passages are unfortunate. Muhammad was a warlord. Gays are tried in court and put to death. Sure The Christian Bible states that gays should be put to death let alone preach on the pulpit but at least the western governments have laws which agree with The Commandment 'Thou shalt not kill ', something you will never find in The Koran.

  • This has helped me so much in AP world.

  • Hate Islam ☪️

  • 7:20 actually Quran spoke very clearly against slavery (banning taking any new slaves and promising rewards for freeing existing slaves) and many sins are forgiven if you feed a number of hungry people or free a number of slaves (of your own, or buy them from their owners to set them free) … just to be fair and accurate here

  • Me: "focus , you have an exam tomorrow do not look at the comments!"
    Also me 10 seconds later: "Here we go again:"

  • wait somethings wrong wheres the open letter

  • Islam has not a privilege of specific ethnic group of people over other. Muhammad pbuh is buried in Medina and it's his city, after makkah quran 47:13. Abraham married Egyptian woman his son Ishmael married an Arab woman. Rightly guided caliphs 2 were father in laws of the prophet and 2 son in laws. His companions were Arabs Africans Persians Europeans etc. He taught against racism no one can be a follower of him and racist.

  • Har har mahadev 😍😍😍😍

  • No real connection between Islam and ISIL, I am a Muslim and I say it, also I disagree with you in the point about "to be a Muslim in Egypt is different from being a Muslim in Turkey or Afghanistan, this is not ethnicity, this is culture, that is a proof that Islam maintained and respected culture and customs,unless these customs are against islam"

  • Please read The history of Jihad from Mohammed to ISIS by Robert Spencer.. it's amazing. Also, we've been massively lied to about our history.

  • Increase my subscriber for sadiy jariya

  • Why are majority of the comments made to trigger people??????!!!!?

  • Read the sentence of the Prophet at 4:22 and get introduced to the first anti-racist human being in the whole history….

  • John sounds like such a bro in this one

  • Islam is enjoying 1st Amendment religious protections that should have never been established.

  • Is this the guy who wrote the fault in our stars? Lol

  • Still haven't explained the trurh

  • an UNSC Spartan Noble team reference in 5:47. I see what you did there, thought bubble

  • John is Anglican.

  • Really going out of your way to make Islamic rule as good as western civilization

  • This was nice. Thanks for being objective.

  • "Whataboutism" still relegates women to 2nd class status. What about as we grow, we make the right decisions?

  • Okay nevermind. By 4 minutes in I realized you have not read the Quran. Because the Quran quotes you are giving about other nations and religions is completely false. The Quran actually says all other religions but Islam are the losers

  • I like where the intro has my home in it
    BAGHDAD ❤️❤️❤️

  • And people view Sam Harris as an Intellectual smh,, this guy would run circles around Sam

  • Everybody who argues on Internet about religions should watch this video. Manytimes when they talk, they're not talking about the same thing.

  • Felt like islam apologetic ranting selective history…

  • Fundamentally there're 5 big questions that are…

    1, Where did I come from? (cosmological)
    2, How do we know everything? (epistemological)
    3, Who am I? (ontological)
    4, Why am I here? (do I serve a purpose, do I have any intrinsic value, and what am I worth)
    5, When we died what's going to happen? (Eschatological)

       How you answer this questions determine how you see the world and how you treat the world. Because you are a part of the world, how you see the world also determines how you see and treat yourself. So, it's important that we resolve these fundamental questions. And it's important that we discover the honest truth. Wrong answers to important questions aren't helpful.

    Where do we begin in our search for the truth we begin at the beginning. Perhaps the most fundamental question is!does God exist? It's fundamental because I answers to the other “big questions” is actually hinge on how we answer this significant question.

    I'm offering a suggestion to all of you brothers and sisters that if you can try to read book of scripture like Holy Qur'an! Am very sure it can help us all out to these five must biggest or help us solve the ultimate problem regarding Where…, How…, Who…, Why…, and Eschatological?

  • Death to islam
    ​@t​

  • Death to islam
    ​@t​

  • ​@t​

  • Pretty good! I would just add that while the Quran allows slavery, it does also encourage minimizing slavery as much as possible and consistently encourages freeing of slaves.

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