Hunting for dinosaurs showed me our place in the universe | Kenneth Lacovara

How do you find a dinosaur? Sounds impossible, doesn’t it? It’s not. And the answer relies on a formula
that all paleontologists use. And I’m going to tell you the secret. First, find rocks of the right age. Second, those rocks
must be sedimentary rocks. And third, layers of those rocks
must be naturally exposed. That’s it. Find those three things
and get yourself on the ground, chances are good
that you will find fossils. Now let me break down this formula. Organisms exist only during certain
geological intervals. So you have to find
rocks of the right age, depending on what your interests are. If you want to find trilobites, you have to find the really,
really old rocks of the Paleozoic — rocks between a half a billion
and a quarter-billion years old. Now, if you want to find dinosaurs, don’t look in the Paleozoic,
you won’t find them. They hadn’t evolved yet. You have to find the younger
rocks of the Mesozoic, and in the case of dinosaurs, between 235 and 66 million years ago. Now, it’s fairly easy to find rocks
of the right age at this point, because the Earth is, to a coarse degree, geologically mapped. This is hard-won information. The annals of Earth history
are written in rocks, one chapter upon the next, such that the oldest pages are on bottom and the youngest on top. Now, were it quite that easy,
geologists would rejoice. It’s not. The library of Earth is an old one. It has no librarian to impose order. Operating over vast swaths of time, myriad geological processes
offer every possible insult to the rocks of ages. Most pages are destroyed
soon after being written. Some pages are overwritten, creating difficult-to-decipher palimpsests
of long-gone landscapes. Pages that do find sanctuary
under the advancing sands of time are never truly safe. Unlike the Moon —
our dead, rocky companion — the Earth is alive, pulsing
with creative and destructive forces that power its geological metabolism. Lunar rocks brought back
by the Apollo astronauts all date back to about the age
of the Solar System. Moon rocks are forever. Earth rocks, on the other hand,
face the perils of a living lithosphere. All will suffer ruination, through some combination
of mutilation, compression, folding, tearing, scorching and baking. Thus, the volumes of Earth history
are incomplete and disheveled. The library is vast and magnificent — but decrepit. And it was this tattered complexity
in the rock record that obscured its meaning
until relatively recently. Nature provided no card catalog
for geologists — this would have to be invented. Five thousand years after the Sumerians
learned to record their thoughts on clay tablets, the Earth’s volumes remained
inscrutable to humans. We were geologically illiterate, unaware of the antiquity
of our own planet and ignorant of our connection to deep time. It wasn’t until the turn
of the 19th century that our blinders were removed, first, with the publication
of James Hutton’s “Theory of the Earth,” in which he told us that the Earth
reveals no vestige of a beginning and no prospect of an end; and then, with the printing
of William Smith’s map of Britain, the first country-scale geological map, giving us for the first time predictive insight into where
certain types of rocks might occur. After that, you could say things like, “If we go over there,
we should be in the Jurassic,” or, “If we go up over that hill,
we should find the Cretaceous.” So now, if you want to find trilobites, get yourself a good geological map and go to the rocks of the Paleozoic. If you want to find dinosaurs like I do, find the rocks of Mesozoic and go there. Now of course, you can only make
a fossil in a sedimentary rock, a rock made by sand and mud. You can’t have a fossil in an igneous rock formed
by magma, like a granite, or in a metamorphic rock
that’s been heated and squeezed. And you have to get yourself in a desert. It’s not that dinosaurs
particularly lived in deserts; they lived on every land mass and in every imaginable environment. It’s that you need to go to a place
that’s a desert today, a place that doesn’t have
too many plants covering up the rocks, and a place where erosion is always
exposing new bones at the surface. So find those three things: rocks of the right age, that are sedimentary rocks, in a desert, and get yourself on the ground, and you literally walk until you see a bone
sticking out of the rock. Here’s a picture that I took
in Southern Patagonia. Every pebble that you see
on the ground there is a piece of dinosaur bone. So when you’re in that right situation, it’s not a question of whether
you’ll find fossils or not; you’re going to find fossils. The question is: Will you find something
that is scientifically significant? And to help with that, I’m going to add
a fourth part to our formula, which is this: get as far away from other
paleontologists as possible. (Laughter) It’s not that I don’t like
other paleontologists. When you go to a place
that’s relatively unexplored, you have a much better chance
of not only finding fossils but of finding something
that’s new to science. So that’s my formula
for finding dinosaurs, and I’ve applied it all around the world. In the austral summer of 2004, I went to the bottom of South America, to the bottom of Patagonia, Argentina, to prospect for dinosaurs: a place that had terrestrial
sedimentary rocks of the right age, in a desert, a place that had been barely visited
by paleontologists. And we found this. This is a femur, a thigh bone, of a giant, plant-eating dinosaur. That bone is 2.2 meters across. That’s over seven feet long. Now, unfortunately,
that bone was isolated. We dug and dug and dug,
and there wasn’t another bone around. But it made us hungry to go back
the next year for more. And on the first day
of that next field season, I found this: another two-meter femur, only this time not isolated, this time associated with 145 other bones of a giant plant eater. And after three more hard,
really brutal field seasons, the quarry came to look like this. And there you see the tail
of that great beast wrapping around me. The giant that lay in this grave,
the new species of dinosaur, we would eventually call
“Dreadnoughtus schrani.” Dreadnoughtus was 85 feet
from snout to tail. It stood two-and-a-half stories
at the shoulder, and all fleshed out in life,
it weighed 65 tons. People ask me sometimes,
“Was Dreadnoughtus bigger than a T. rex?” That’s the mass of eight or nine T. rex. Now, one of the really cool things
about being a paleontologist is when you find a new species,
you get to name it. And I’ve always thought it a shame
that these giant, plant-eating dinosaurs are too often portrayed as passive,
lumbering platters of meat on the landscape. (Laughter) They’re not. Big herbivores can be surly,
and they can be territorial — you do not want to mess with a hippo
or a rhino or a water buffalo. The bison in Yellowstone injure
far more people than do the grizzly bears. So can you imagine a big bull,
65-ton Dreadnoughtus in the breeding season, defending a territory? That animal would have been
incredibly dangerous, a menace to all around, and itself
would have had nothing to fear. And thus the name, “Dreadnoughtus,” or, “fears nothing.” Now, to grow so large, an animal like Dreadnoughtus
would’ve had to have been a model of efficiency. That long neck and long tail help it
radiate heat into the environment, passively controlling its temperature. And that long neck also serves
as a super-efficient feeding mechanism. Dreadnoughtus could stand
in one place and with that neck clear out a huge envelope of vegetation, taking in tens of thousands of calories
while expending very few. And these animals evolved
a bulldog-like wide-gait stance, giving them immense stability, because when you’re 65 tons,
when you’re literally as big as a house, the penalty for falling over is death. Yeah, these animals are big and tough, but they won’t take a blow like that. Dreadnoughtus falls over,
ribs break and pierce lungs. Organs burst. If you’re a big 65-ton Dreadnoughtus, you don’t get to fall down
in life — even once. Now, after this particular
Dreadnoughtus carcass was buried and de-fleshed by a multitude
of bacteria, worms and insects, its bones underwent a brief metamorphosis, exchanging molecules with the groundwater and becoming more and more
like the entombing rock. As layer upon layer
of sediment accumulated, pressure from all sides
weighed in like a stony glove whose firm and enduring grip held
each bone in a stabilizing embrace. And then came the long … nothing. Epoch after epoch of sameness, nonevents without number. All the while, the skeleton lay
everlasting and unchanging in perfect equilibrium within its rocky grave. Meanwhile, Earth history unfolded above. The dinosaurs would reign
for another 12 million years before their hegemony was snuffed out
in a fiery apocalypse. The continents drifted. The mammals rose. The Ice Age came. And then, in East Africa, an unpromising species of ape
evolved the odd trick of sentient thought. These brainy primates were not
particularly fast or strong. But they excelled at covering ground, and in a remarkable diaspora surpassing even the dinosaurs’ record
of territorial conquest, they dispersed across the planet, ravishing every ecosystem
they encountered, along the way, inventing culture
and metalworking and painting and dance and music and science and rocket ships that would eventually
take 12 particularly excellent apes to the surface of the Moon. With seven billion peripatetic
Homo sapiens on the planet, it was perhaps inevitable that one of them would eventually
trod on the grave of the magnificent titan buried beneath the badlands
of Southern Patagonia. I was that ape. And standing there, alone in the desert, it was not lost on me that the chance of any one individual
entering the fossil record is vanishingly small. But the Earth is very, very old. And over vast tracts of time,
the improbable becomes the probable. That’s the magic of the geological record. Thus, multitudinous creatures
living and dying on an old planet leave behind immense numbers of fossils, each one a small miracle, but collectively, inevitable. Sixty-six million years ago,
an asteroid hits the Earth and wipes out the dinosaurs. This easily might not have been. But we only get one history,
and it’s the one that we have. But this particular reality
was not inevitable. The tiniest perturbation
of that asteroid far from Earth would have caused it to miss
our planet by a wide margin. The pivotal, calamitous day during which
the dinosaurs were wiped out, setting the stage
for the modern world as we know it didn’t have to be. It could’ve just been another day — a Thursday, perhaps — among the 63 billion days
already enjoyed by the dinosaurs. But over geological time, improbable, nearly impossible events do occur. Along the path from our wormy,
Cambrian ancestors to primates dressed in suits, innumerable forks in the road
led us to this very particular reality. The bones of Dreadnoughtus
lay underground for 77 million years. Who could have imagined that a single species of shrew-like mammal living in the cracks of the dinosaur world would evolve into sentient beings capable of characterizing
and understanding the very dinosaurs they must have dreaded? I once stood at the head
of the Missouri River and bestraddled it. There, it’s nothing more
than a gurgle of water that issues forth from beneath a rock
in a boulder in a pasture, high in the Bitterroot Mountains. The stream next to it
runs a few hundred yards and ends in a small pond. Those two streams — they look identical. But one is an anonymous trickle of water, and the other is the Missouri River. Now go down to the mouth
of the Missouri, near St. Louis, and it’s pretty obvious
that that river is a big deal. But go up into the Bitterroots
and look at the Missouri, and human prospection does not
allow us to see it as anything special. Now go back to the Cretaceous Period and look at our tiny, fuzzball ancestors. You would never guess that they would amount
to anything special, and they probably wouldn’t have, were it not for that pesky asteroid. Now, make a thousand more worlds
and a thousand more solar systems and let them run. You will never get the same result. No doubt, those worlds would be
both amazing and amazingly improbable, but they would not be our world
and they would not have our history. There are an infinite number of histories
that we could’ve had. We only get one, and wow,
did we ever get a good one. Dinosaurs like Dreadnoughtus were real. Sea monsters like the mosasaur were real. Dragonflies with the wingspan of an eagle
and pill bugs the length of a car really existed. Why study the ancient past? Because it gives us perspective and humility. The dinosaurs died in the world’s
fifth mass extinction, snuffed out in a cosmic accident
through no fault of their own. They didn’t see it coming,
and they didn’t have a choice. We, on the other hand, do have a choice. And the nature of the fossil record
tells us that our place on this planet is both precarious
and potentially fleeting. Right now, our species is propagating
an environmental disaster of geological proportions
that is so broad and so severe, it can rightly be called
the sixth extinction. Only unlike the dinosaurs, we can see it coming. And unlike the dinosaurs, we can do something about it. That choice is ours. Thank you. (Applause)

Comments 100

  • @Ted would you even be willing to give your stage to a Creationist? Doubtful.

  • If younger rocks are on top and older rocks on bottom why can`t you just dig to the age rock you are looking for? And your saying rocks millions of years apart aren`t on top of each other but rather side by side? No where on earth do these time lines stack up as you have in your poster… Why?  Paleontologist may learn one day it is far more than what they think it is. Keep looking.

  • not a ounce of proof the earth is millions of years old. Nothing but hocus pocus

  • Too bad these primates created burocracy and elected a even dumber primate to rule over them.

  • Sadly humans would rather continue digging their own grave

  • …don't worry, humans will be wiped out either by an asteroid or a pandemic. Then someone/something else can dig us up 🙂

  • He said the dinosaurs hadn't evolved yet…..LOL…..HAHAHAHAHAHAHA! EVOLUTION IS A MYTH propagated by atheist scientists looking for ANY explanation other than God! All these decades later the science doesn't add up

  • What a BOMB presentation.

  • 0:14 yes , It is impossible

  • Dinosaurs are fake , a hoax to make you believe in the crazy theory of Evolution

  • Fossils: I am inevitable
    Me: And I…Am…Stupid…

  • Incredible presentation. Who needs religion when you have science and facts.

  • Interesting. Just not buying the monkey part

  • dinosaurs lol, no one believes in that nonsense anymore

  • This is my favourite ted talk.

  • I know, yeah

  • No prove that human evolve from apes I do believe that my father was Adam came from haven

  • I like this guy. He's well spoken.

  • Wow that was so fascinating

  • What are you on about?

    If you want to find a dinosaur – just visit your mother-in-law.

  • Pushing the man made climate change bs. One belch from one volcano overrides all of mankinds total greenhouse gas from the time we first started the first fire. And the first 10 minutes of the volcano that errupted in Hawaii negated all of our efforts for the last 100 years of emission restrictions. And here's a little known fact. Dinosaur farts! They were a WHOLLLE lot worse for climate than all of our cows and cars combined. It is pretty arrogant for humans to think we can either control climate change or prevent it since the world has been going through cycles during its whole existance. The whole global warming thing is a hoax brought on by one world government pushers. Margerate thatcher even said so. Oh and the ice is actually growing in polar regions despite what we have been told.

  • These incident aren't mentioned in any holy books, may be evolution isn't as important as praying. 😂

  • "an asteroid hit the earth wiping out the dinosaurs" Unfortunately he can't prove this is what killed the dinosaurs. There are NO fossils in the ash layer. None. All the fossils occur BEFORE the ash layer. I wish such learned people quit passing along this bit of BS. And just like the meteor killing the dinosaurs is BS, this global worming CULT is just out of control. Just a bunch of #libtard lies. Wish this cult would be exposed for what it is.

  • Is he trying to say at the end that climate change is our "asteroid"? That's funny, I thought actual asteroids were still our "asteroid extinction level threat that we can do nothing about".

  • Absolutely brilliant

  • absolutely phenomenal, I'm just speechless. Someone please give this man an award

  • I can’t stop watching/listening

  • Why are the egyptian pyramids the most obvious ones ? because they are in deserts.

  • It probably had really thick bones.

  • Absolutely one of the most wonderful presentations I've ever had to pleasure to listen to. It enables one to grasp viscerally, the meaning of the word, humility. Just, wow!

  • I watched this while high. What a great choice.

  • This is the best ted talk I’ve ever seen.

  • The theory of evolution doesn’t exist.
    Which of these has evolved from a primitive life form?–2-

    I encourage you to let the Bible speak for itself.

  • This stuff is the reason I no longer watch TV.

  • Sooooooo good

  • We need a bigger Ark!!

  • Hard rock and classic rock are my two favs….

  • Behind the "green mask" This guy is spreading lies!!

  • Assuming we "evolved" from apes.

  • He deserved that standing ovation. One of the best on TED.

  • yea that was pretty good, I read the subtitles absolutely great writing

  • ''we dug and dug and …dug….and only found one …bone..'' so the ''jurassic period'' which went on for apparently, 120 million years…we have found only a few bones..?

    these animals were in their trillions, upon trillions…and we find, virtually nothing until the late 19th century, when the famous ''bone wars'' ..came along..
    this man presents huge theories due to no bones being found in a complete fabrication…in a huge story that he makes up…

    Everyone should look up the Bone Wars'' and think why wasnt there any mention of ''dinosaurs'' before this period and two men in particuliar..
    No First Nation, no egyptian no culture EVER..has mentioned in ANY document, book in ANY language ever mentions anything about discovering giant bones in ANY text anywhere..

    until the Bone Wars…

    Brontasaurus never existed, it was completely made up..from multiple ''bones' or just fossilised..wood..

    Prove the enormous amounts of bones that should be in existence, and why there is NO mention in our entire history, until mid 19th centuryand explain why ALL ''exhibits'' are complete models made from small singular bones and no complete skeleton has EVER been found in 120 million years of trillions upon trillions of ''dinosaurs'' running over the earth..

    prove existence, with actual COMPLETE skeletons or refer to this as complete speculation, as it is..
    Until we find millions of complete skeletons all over the world..this is all a complete story..nothing more..
    ''dinosaur bones'' because they are so bizarrely rare, impossible if they existed, are worth literally millions..kaching

    Amphicoelias fragillimus

    Once hailed as the “biggest dinosaur in history,” it’s looking more and more like Amphicoelias fragillimus might be so small it doesn’t even exist. When a vertebral bone fragment of a massive sauropod was discovered by diggers outside of Cañon City, Colorado in the late 1800s, it was just one of many fossils from the area. But when it was catalogued by paleontologist Edward Cope, he hypothesized that it belonged to the largest reptile to ever walk the Earth, a 150-foot long beast that weighed in at over 100 tons. Only one problem, though: somewhere in transit, the bone fragment was lost and never seen again, leaving many wondering if it had ever existed at all or was simply a hoax, especially as no other bones from a creature of that size have ever been excavated.


    The piecemeal nature of fossil finds creates an environment where enterprising hoaxsters can certainly bend the rules a little bit to make impressive “finds.” One of the most notorious is Hydrarchos, a massive sea serpent dinosaur discovered by Albert Koch in the mid-1800s. On display at the Apollo Saloon in New York City, this great beast stretched 114 feet long and was quickly sold to King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, who exhibited it in Berlin’s Royal Anatomical Museum. Unfortunately for the King, the swimming serpent was actually a jigsaw puzzle of bones harvested from at least six prehistoric Basilosaurus whales, along with some ammonite fossils thrown in for decoration. Amazingly enough, even after the first fraud was discovered Koch tried to manufacture and sell another Hyrdrarchos skeleton!

  • The moon is not dead, it is lifeless. Common mistake but a mistake nonetheless.

  • Excellent presentation.

  • Phony Global Warming Propaganda disguised as Dreadnoughtus vid. The left ruins everything they touch.

  • Thank you, thank you, thank you!
    Edit: I had to watch this again and I noticed this man´s remarkable ability to through storytelling transform every person in that audience into a child. I hope it had the same affect on you as it did on me, and I hope this talk can be a reminder of how important it is to tell stories, because through them comes change. 

    Absolutely epic presentation, such a different and sorely needed viewpoint. A prime example of how to change the world through one´s interests and passions. Really can feel this mans passion and wow Im lost for words. Truly astonishing. 

    Thank you for sharing these important words. 
    I will also definitely go searching for dinosaurs in the next desert I come across. 
    Peace and love and may the force be with you all, lets go.

  • You now bear witness to coming of the dawn of the human church, a church I would attend. A church that’s devoted to finding answers and holding no particular doctrine that would assuage our beliefs one way or the other. This! This is the sermon I would show up to on Sunday morning dressed in tie with fresh coat of Old Spice.

  • What a great talk

  • If this is true then humans are in the process of evolving at least five more senses, our intellect is increasing, our abilities are becoming more varied and in the future our evolution will be many times greater than the gap between a one called organism and what we are today.

  • One of the best TEDs I have seen! Well written, well delivered, and 100% true. Brings me hope to see people that just get it. Refreshing talk man. also, great name 😉

  • Wow. What a speaker. What a mind. How thought-provoking. Thank you, Doctor.

  • On the contrary are blinders haven’t been removed the government drip feed us tiny snippets of what they know because it is continuously seen that mankind is afraid of what we don’t know this is why we are kept in the dark so mankind doesn’t pannic

  • A great presentation was somewhat spoilt by the unscientific certitude of Lacovara's future predictions. It is reasonable to predict that the Earth will have future mass extinctions but it is unreasonable to predict with any certitude what, where, who, how and when they take place.

  • Such a great talker

  • This guy clearly loves his job and that makes me love to listen to him talk about it.

  • I think the major problem with science today is people thinking we know everything.

  • The earth is alive at the moment……….might be joining the moon 🌙 soon

  • It's easier to find a dinosaur fossils than WMDs in Iraq. Oh wait, it's because there weren't any WMDs in Iraq.

  • He said "we evolved from apes"……lol. He's not only a liar, but an idiot.

  • Unreal presentation

  • That’s the amazing thing about our species is that we can dream the dream but when you then involve authorities backed up by military and greed they will clap after you have finished your well put together speech with all its aspirations and say utter crap as you are then trampled into the dust……

  • The Second Intelligent Species The Cyclical Earth

  • I'm gonna go kill myself

  • I wasn’t expecting that ending! Brilliant presentation.

  • Very interesting but you lost me on Asteroid – No matter how huge, an asteroid impact would not wipe them ALL

  • Watch the documentary titled : A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Moon. Aka "the moon movie " by Bart Sibrel.

  • I wonder if these 65-ton animals must be living the ocean or lake since their weight would crush themselves to death on land. If we bring large whales to land these large animals would die from bone fracture by its own weight.

  • This gentleman deserved every ounce of that standing ovation. Fantastic speech. 🥣

  • I do believe dinosaurs existed before or after coming of Adam and Eve but maybe god destroyed them in flood of Noah .

  • He was interesting until the last 3 mins. We have no choice when another asteroid hits. LOL

  • Dinosaurs are fake

  • Not a single stumble. Awesome. Then next up on my playlist some flat earthers. The contrast in intelligence is scary.

  • Ever wonder how religious people contemplate these FACTS that PROVE their beliefs wrong ?

  • Those dinosaurs were all killed by the flood

  • yeah, that last part… umm… NO.

  • Absolutely brilliant….Best talk on youtube 👏👏👏

  • Damn. Imagine going through life without being able to fall over for fear of death. you would have to be careful where you stepped. One small crumbling cliff edge or soft patch of ground and you could be done.

  • No, the fact is we have no choice, even if some of us can see it coming.  The overbearing force of human nature to reproduce and consume will culminate in a global ecological disaster. The only real question is; will the human race survive?

  • did he ever get to our place in the universe cause I gave up on that Banton fadder

  • WOW ! Stunning performance. That man can present his ideas !

  • every one knows that the asteroid DIDN'T kill off the Dino's , every know that now.

  • I was offended when he emphasized the word "dead" when he called the moon and stoped watching. The moon is a dear friend of mine, and he is not dead. Now, he is angry. You watch it bub. It will come for you bub. It will come for you. Bub.

    Go Sanders

  • That was amazing presentation.

  • great words no proof given, just words & empty science

  • There's no scientific reason to save the dumbass human species anyway. Save humans for what? To do what of objective value? Human beings are just selfish, narcissistic, evil motherfuckers. They're all a disgusting tribalistic animal that laughs at each other's suffering. Even atheists are disgusting sadistic lunatics. No reason to save the human race.

  • Seen the title and here I was expecting him to tell me the meaning of life… Its nice what he said but, it has been said many diferent times by many people already, it is no news

  • I just clicked to make sure Ray Troll was credited for the art.

  • we never choose to be in earth and u have no choice to do anything about it Every soul will taste death. Then to Us will you be returned.

  • So the ice age goes on for 11000 years.. thousands of dinosaurs bone are found from 100' of millions of years ago
    But NONE showing the order of evolution dog, chicken, cow, pig, horse or duck.
    If you believe you came from an ape.. then you really are a baboon!

  • Rubbish

  • Absolutely rubbish.

  • Our ancestors. Rubbish

  • His description of the geological processes that informally mapped our world's history was an exceptional description. Nothing on earth is his equal – a creature without fear…

  • Never seen this many adults so interested in a fictitious story it's wonderful like returning to kindergarden!! Dinosaurs LOL

  • This is a global warming hoax propaganda video. I should have known… What else do you expect from T.U.R.D. ?
    I mean… TED…

  • The class “Dinosauria” was originally defined by “Sir” Richard Owen of the Royal Society, and Superintendent of the British Museum Natural History Department in 1842. The existence of dinosaurs was first speculatively hypothesized by a knighted museum-head “coincidentally” in the mid-19th century, during the heyday of evolutionism, before a single dinosaur fossil had ever been found. The Masonic media and mainstream press worldwide got to work hyping stories of these supposed long-lost animals, and then lo and behold, 12 years later in 1854, Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden during his exploration of the upper Missouri River, found “proof” of Owen’s theory! A few unidentified teeth he mailed to leading paleontologist Joseph Leidy, who several years later declared them to be from an ancient extinct “Trachodon,” dinosaur (which beyond ironically means “rough tooth”).

    Firstly, it should be needless to say that it is impossible to reconstruct an entire hypothetical ancient animal based on a few teeth! But even more importantly, it is dubious that a myriad of ancient reptile/bird and reptile/mammal transitional forms necessary for the blossoming theory of evolution, would be hypothesized and then conveniently “discovered” by teams of evolutionist archeologists purposely out looking to find such fossils! And it is even more dubious that such fossils have supposedly existed for millions of years but were never found by or known to any civilization in the history of humanity until evolutionism’s Masonic renaissance in the mid-19th century!

    According to the book, “The Dinosaur Project,” paleontological journalist Wayne Grady claims the period following this, from around 1870 to 1880 became “a period in North America where some of the most underhanded shenanigans in the history of science were conducted.” In what was known as “The Great Dinosaur Rush” or “Bone Wars,” Edward Drinker Cope of the Academy of Natural Sciences and Othniel Marsh of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, began a life-long rivalry and passion for “dinosaur hunting.” They started out as friends but became bitter enemies during a legendary feud involving double-crossing, slander, bribery, theft, spying, and destruction of bones by both parties. Marsh is said to have discovered over 500 different ancient species including 80 dinosaurs, while Cope discovered 56. Out of the 136 dinosaur species supposedly discovered by the two men, however, only 32 are presently considered valid; the rest have all proven to be falsifications and fabrications! None of them once claimed to find a complete skeleton either, so all their work involved reconstructions. In fact, to this day no complete skeleton has ever been found, and so all dinosaurs are reconstructions.
    All the museum displays, models, mannequins, cartoons, and movies of prehistoric monsters you have ever seen are all imaginative reconstructions based on incomplete skeletons arranged in a manner paleontologists believe to be most realistic. Furthermore, the skeletons exhibited in museums are all admittedly intricate fabrications made of plaster, fiberglass, various epoxies, and other animal bones and not even fossils.

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