History of the World in 2 Hours – History Channel

what if we could tell you everything with the entire history of the world now what if we told you we could do it in just two hours we’re going to tell the whole story from the Big Bang to the present day how the planet prepared for the rise of man how the Stone Age led to the steam engine how the first seeds sprouted into cities and civilizations everything is connected to war and the path leads to you it took history 13.7 billion years to unfold we’ll show you everything you need to know in the next two hours [Music] this is our infant universe everything that will ever exist everything that will ever happen all begins here within this tiny bundle of energy smaller than an atom [Music] and right now history as we know it is about to mysteriously begin for reasons we may never know our universe suddenly erupts in a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a second it went from a size smaller than an atom to bigger than a galaxy whoosh what you’re seeing is energy and it’s one key to understanding everything that will unfold in the next two hours within a fraction of a second the Big Bang creates all the energy that will ever exist all the energy that will power the Stars that will fuel anything that ever lives all the energy that you will ever consume dates back to the beginning of time when you put gas into your car you’re tapping energy that was created during the Big Bang you’re tapping the energy of the universe itself we’re only a few minutes into our two-hour journey but already 380,000 years have passed you are about to witness the birth of your original ancestors the first atoms this is hydrogen the universe will use it to make everything in the world around us hydrogen is like a baseball team you say what player do I want to start my team with well if I want to start a universe I want to start it with hydrogen from that there’s a lot of heat and a lot of pressure you can build more kinds of atoms the first atoms blast through the early universe then luckily for us they don’t spread out evenly because in those tiny pockets with more atoms gravity the great sculptor of the early universe begins to work its magic the first galaxies are beginning to form revealing a timeless secret of the universe [Music] throughout history whenever more matter and energy can be drawn together in one place more complex things can emerge we have all of these urban centers around the planet where so much creativity so much art so much science so much culture came about because of all these opportunities for things that interact with each other really in a sense where there is stuff new stuff can develop and where there isn’t anything nothing much can develop 300 million years after the Big Bang inside of forming galaxies gravity continues to squeeze together clouds of gas and dust causing pressure and heat to violently rise when the temperature reaches 18 million degrees Fahrenheit hydrogen atom is slammed together creating a new element helium and radiating bursts of energy the first star is not born suddenly there were these new beacons of light shining forth pouring energy into the universe let there be light but something is missing from this early universe there are billions of stars yet not a single planet to form planets and eventually people to take the next leap that would make all of history possible the universe needs more to work with than just hydrogen and helium the complicated elements the heavier things that we build stuff out of for example iron ore life built out of carbon and things like that they actually manufactured and stars we may see stars like our own Sun as sources of light but there is something bigger happening deep inside stars our element factories they fuse hydrogen into helium helium into lithium forging 25 of the most common elements we’ll need to live in in carbon oxygen nitrogen and iron so more than twelve billion years ago stars are already creating the element that will spur the iron age allow for the building of cities and the creation of some of mankind’s most famous monuments but a look at the Statue of Liberty reveals the next challenge awaiting the early universe while the statues frame is iron her skin requires an element too heavy to be made in stars for Lady Liberty to have material for her skin for there to be gold for wedding rings or uranium for nuclear reactors some elements had to be created another way stars don’t have enough energy to do the job but if the element factory isn’t powerful enough how about blowing up the factory just a few million years after the first stars form some of them exploded Wow these explosions known as supernovas are the biggest blasts in the universe since the Big Bang providing the extra boost of energy needed to fuse heavier elements in the fiery blast of their own destruction stars create uranium gold all the rest of the elements that will fill our world including copper the periodic table of the elements is really sort of a library of matter in the universe those are your building blocks everything is coming out of that particular chemistry set supernovas are absolutely necessary for us to be here we have iron in our blood we have little bits of old supernovae if therefore just floating around through us we are all Stardust competent in bronze age without supernovas there’s no Bronze Age go to any supermarket and buy a multivitamin and go and look at the ingredients you’ll find copper you’ll find zinc you’ll find selenium you’ll find all sorts of elements that can only be made in a supernova the elements made by stars will become the seeds of life on earth and the drivers of human history but the journey has just begun before there can be life the universe has to build us a suitable home to build a proper house you have to assemble the right materials all in one place now on planets form is the same thing because the materials that you have at hand that’s gonna dictate the kind of house that your planets going to be to get enough of the right material in the right place all at once takes a very long time over the next eight billion years more than half of history as we know it the element factories continue their work the stars explode and are reborn each generation with more heavy elements than the last until 4.6 billion years ago finally there are enough materials gathered for the next step on the path to us a new star is born this is our Sun it’s so massive that it’s gathered up 99.9% of the gas and dust in the solar system but there’s still just enough left behind for gravity to build some other things like planets the third one out from this star will be our home by the time earth emerges just over four and a half billion years ago two thirds of the history of the universe has already passed the first sunrises sweep across a foreboding alien planet a world spinning so rapidly that a day lasts only six hours when you go back to the early Earth right after the planet formed you really have to think of the earth as another planet the Sun would have looked out over a hellacious scene of just molten lava and places you would see rafts of black volcanic rock within the liquefied Rock the elements are all in a jumble something has to bring order out of this chaos and once again that something is gravity lighter material drifts toward the surface then forms a solid crust while heavier material sinks toward the center forming a molten iron nickel core this churning liquid metal creates a magnetic field that reaches out into space like a force field it will protect our future home from the sun’s deadly charged particles soon this magnetic field will allow for life to grow and later guide the explorers who will connect two halves of the world but for all this to unfold the earth will need a critical partner four and a half billion years ago an object the size of Mars smashes into the planet at 25,000 miles per hour earth swallows up much of the impacter but a spray of molten debris is whipped off into space within as little as a year gravity gathers this debris into a secondary sphere in orbit around the earth where it has been ever since the formation of the moon was an incredibly important event in Earth’s history and in fact its creation over four billion years ago is really important to the Earth’s climate today the moon keeps earth steady its gravitational pull prevents the planet from wobbling saving us from wild climate swings and the collision that formed the moon leaves earth tilted on its axis giving the planet a key ingredient to life seasons having seasons is very very important for the evolution of life on the earth and having some stability in the tilt of those axis that’s very very important also for maintaining life on the earth the moon’s gravity also begins to slow Earth’s rotation which will eventually lengthen our days from 6 hours to 24 [Music] 4.4 billion years ago it’s too hot on earth for liquid water to exist but there’s water vapor steam in the atmosphere the trick is how to get it out of the sky onto any world where you hope to have life a little rain must fall for millions of years as the planet cools rain pours down forming puddles lakes and eventually our oceans by 3.8 billion years ago our planet has a moon and permanent oceans but it hardly resembles the place we now call home to become the stage for all of human history earth needs an oxygen-rich atmosphere fertile continents for people to discover and develop who will create our modern world there’s a trillion of them crawling on your skin right now we’re telling the history of the world in two hours from the Big Bang to the present day and our modern world holds important clues to the story in fact structures like this hide a mysterious link to the first life on earth 3.8 billion years ago beneath the surface of our primeval oceans a revolution is taking place six simple elements including hydrogen from the Big Bang and oxygen carbon and nitrogen created by stars have combined to form the key substances that will make up all life including us the most spectacular is DNA within its spirals hide the secret codes of life 700,000 years after the planet first formed life on Earth begins we stand not on the shoulders of giants but of tiny organisms bacteria [Music] we’re very egocentric we think that we animals run the world but in fact we are very late entrance it was an empire of bacteria long before animals animals come along and we like to think that we wiped out that Empire well we would be dead if we wipe out that Empire I have within me an entire zoo of bacteria in fact each one of us has more bacteria living in our bodies than there are people on the planet for billions of years microbes like these will have Earth’s to themselves like our infant universe the first life is small simple and full of possibilities the secret of how it explodes into all the incredible forms we see today including us goes back to the beginning of time as we’ve seen all the energy that will ever exist was created in the Big Bang all creatures need to grab their share of this energy to survive the more we harness the more efficiently we use it the more complex we can become and almost all of our share of the Big Bang’s energy is beamed to us by the Sun two and a half billion years ago some very special bacteria figure out how to consume the sun’s energy to live in doing this they also create the most important waste product in the history of the world oxygen soon oxygen will remake our world but first it has another important job to do births ancient seas are full of iron particles and everyone knows what happens when oxygen meets iron here I’m a little bacterium I’ve produced this oxygen molecule and here’s a big piece of iron clump I rusted this rusted iron collects on the sea floor billions of years later these huge deposits will be raised up to become major sources of the world’s iron and steel was these iron deposits that later on drove the Industrial Revolution in this way the Brooklyn Bridge and the other early landmarks of the Industrial Age are a direct link to some of the first life-forms on earth once there’s no more iron left in the sea to rust these ancient bacteria have a mission to complete they create so much oxygen that it fills the oceans and escapes into the atmosphere and from then on we have a very different planet from all the other planets in the solar system now life takes a giant leap for the first time some bacteria learned to live on oxygen every human breath is a ritual two and a half billion years old life tends to stick with what works even over the course of billions of years oxygen is a game changer by taming its power life has found a better way to energize itself 20 times more efficient than anything used on earth before what life does with all this new energy will be the story that leads to us over the next two billion years life becomes more complex skies become blue and so do the oceans that reflect them large solid continents appear earth is beginning to look more like the place we now call home [Music] five hundred fifty million years ago as the planet celebrates its for billions birthday oxygen levels in the atmosphere have risen from next to nothing to as much as 13% take a deep breath because life on earth is about to go wild [Music] this is the Cambrian explosion biology’s version of the Big Bang right after you have abundant oxygen you get size and complexity and oxygen lets you do that it’s in this breathtaking span of roughly 30 million years that most of the major animal groups evolve by 500 million years ago the first bony fish have evolved in the seas these fish are our direct ancestors though they look nothing like us they evolved the body parts that will make our own bodies possible including a spine and a mouth with jaws and teeth we owe a great deal to our fish ancestors in fact all vertebrates today really represent modifications of the original fish body plan for the first 4 billion years of Earth’s history plants and animals have stuck to the Seas but that all begins to change with oxygen comes an ozone layer protecting us from dangerous radiation [Music] plants make the move first [Music] around 400 million years ago animals are ready to take the leap among the first ashore are the amphibians whose descendants will include us the most amazing thing about animal evolution ever for me personally is that moment that first amphibian walks out of the primeval ocean onto land and takes a big gulp of air kind of like great-great great-great-great-great grandpa coming out of the ocean and seeing this fantastic world it’s like hey I can live here look at those trees look at those bugs there’s food here I can do this [Music] eventually humans will conquer every imaginable terrain but before we can do that our ancestors must first cut their final tie to the water mating season like modern frogs they have jelly-like eggs that would dry out on land but some amphibians eventually solve the problem they evolve a new form of egg with a shell that keeps the moisture in this allows us to carry the ocean with us onto land and signals the evolution of amphibians into reptiles you could be three four five hundred a thousand miles away from water and still have the water in that egg in order to birth that is the key it cuts that final tie to the ocean that way we could colonize the rest of the land [Music] 300 million years ago life flourishes in massive tropical swamps where planet Earth is cooking up a surprise as plants die here they are buried compacted and cooked energy created in the Big Bang and radiated by the Sun to plants on earth is now locked away underground as coal a gift to be opened by human beings millions of years in the future [Applause] 250 million years ago an apocalypse unfolds the biggest spike in volcanic activity since the early days of the planet the atmosphere is choked with carbon dioxide and the diversity of animal life spawned and the Cambrian explosion is stopped dead in its tracks more than 70% of all species on earth go extinct in the worst mass die-off in history the Permian extinction extinction is a recurring character in the story of planet Earth five times in the last 500 million years some Cataclysm wiped out the dominant species it’s a reshuffling of the deck that allows new creatures to take hold new creatures like the dinosaurs dinosaurs will reign for the next 100 60 million years during that time the first hardwood forests appear [Music] and after more than four billion years the moon’s gravity finally settles earth into a 24-hour day at the start of the dinosaur era the continents are clustered together into a single landmass we call Pangaea but now they start to break apart Africa separates from South America the vast Atlantic Ocean opens up creating what will become one of the defining barriers of human history the gulf between the old and new worlds the undisputed stars of the dinosaur era are animals like Triceratops and t-rex but there are some important creatures scurrying around their feet if we were to trace our lineage back far enough we would come to really small shrew-like mammals surrounded by these titans of reptile life during that time mammals we were living on the fringes you’re maybe stealing dinosaur eggs maybe just eking out an existence so the dinosaurs kind of held us back the biggest headline of the history of dinosaurs which is 160 million years is that we lost bamas lost we couldn’t get much bigger than a small cat for a hundred and sixty billion years all the medium-sized medium big big gigantic new stupendous animals for dinosaurs for that whole time they beat us fair and square but the deck is about to be reshuffled [Music] sixty-five million years ago a six mile wide object likely an asteroid slams into the earth a dust cloud blocks out the Sun temperatures plummet every creature on land weighing over 50 pounds goes extinct the reign of the dinosaurs is over the greatest gift that the dinosaurs ever gave us was dying when they went extinct it gave the mammals time to rise it doesn’t take long after the disappearance of the dinosaurs for the first true primates to appear like their later versions including us these mammals have evolved forward-facing eyes allowing for accurate depth perception and flexible hands with five digits they have my fingers just like us which means we can grasp things if you think about other animals that don’t have digits organized the way ours are their ability to hold things to manipulate objects is much more limited [Music] 50 million years ago our primate ancestors are evolving on a planet that is warming it’s so hot there are jungles of the poles [Music] as the continents drift the Americas and Africa have almost fully taken shape but in northern Africa modern-day Egypt is submerged beneath an ancient sea on the floor of that sea lift small shelled creatures called nummulites their shells made of calcium and carbon pile up on the sea bottom over millions of years where they form into limestone limestone that will be used to build the Great Pyramids if you look closely at the pyramids today you can still see evidence that these 4,000 year old monuments are in fact made of 50 million year old seashells [Music] [Applause] by 10 million years ago earth is morphing into a world most of us would recognize the Colorado River is carving out the Grand Canyon mountain ranges like the Himalayas have arisen they’re so tall they disrupt weather patterns setting the stage for a colder planet the Isthmus of Panama emerges to connect North and South America cleaving the connection between the Atlantic and the Pacific disrupting ocean currents and tipping the world even more towards an ice age with the planet getting colder our primate ancestors hang on in the tropics but a new creature is coming in that threatens to destroy them 7 million years ago our primate ancestors live safely in the trees but their neighborhood is about to be invaded this newcomer will have as profound an effect on human history as any other living thing on earth it seems almost impossible to believe but one of the most important things that will lead to the emergence of us is the emergence of grass the grasslands appear almost simultaneously around the world we get the African savannas we get the Eurasian steppe left we get the North American prairies we get the great grasslands of Argentina appearing simultaneously around the world in Eastern Africa grasslands invade the traditional woodland habitat of our ape ancestors with fewer trees and greater gaps between them our ancestors have to adapt apes noticed that there’s more and more apes in the same tree in less and less food increasing incentives for Apes to go from one patch of food to a different one separated by grasslands now one way to do it is to run like hell the other way to do it is to extend one’s food sources into the grasslands and seek out the foods that are available there and so some apes make the move down into this stark new habitat [Music] it’s a landscape better suited to primates that can walk on two legs keeping their heads up above the tall grasses to watch for predators standing on two feet is a revolutionary advance because it frees up our hands hence we will need to shape human history 2.6 million years ago early proto-human x’ or hominids walk and earth whose rocks are loaded with the element silicon [Music] created in the cores of stars billions of years before silicon is the second most abundant element in Earth’s crust one of its chemical quirks is the ability to bond with oxygen to form crystals that combine into solid rocks rocks that can be chipped and shaped without shattering hominids started doing this 2.6 million years ago breaking crypto crystalline silicates to make sharp edges and people use them for millions literally 2.6 million years [Music] simply having a modified stone with a sharp edge on it now suddenly you have a hammer you have a crude cutting edge a simple modified stone means a human can suddenly do a thousand more things than you could do previously [Music] that little extra bit of technology enabled our ancestors to persist and eventually turn into us [Music] silicon launches the first technological revolution the Stone Age [Music] millions of years after it cowers our first handheld devices another chemical quirk of silicon will make it the height of technology once again the next leap towards becoming truly human relies on a little-known secret of our home planet in the known universe it turns out Earth’s may have a rare and special power of all the planets and moons in the solar system we think that earth is unique in the ability to sustain fire other planets and moons have lightning and lava but only on earth do we have the two critical things we need for fire to burn a vast fuel supply in the form of plants and trees and an atmosphere full of oxygen to fan the flames if fire wasn’t the possibility you’d have nothing like like us running around Homo sapiens they made a world with fire our ancestors have fire firmly under control by eight hundred thousand years ago it’s a skill that connects us back to the very beginning remember that all energy was created in the Big Bang and all life is in a competition for our share of this energy [Music] using fire to cook is like having an external stomach to break down foods releasing more calories giving us more energy which in turn allows us to support bigger brains fire is also the ultimate gateway technology we will soon use it to turn clay into pottery metal into weapons water into steam power if you don’t have fire you can’t have the internal combustion engine no fire no metal no fire no rubber it’s a technology that opens a world of possibilities for creatures that know how to use it 200,000 years ago the modern human has fully taken shape the larynx or voice box which is high up in the throat in our ancestors descends more complex sounds are now possible we begin to speak for the first time information can be shared between individuals and across generations humans have gained a critical advantage over every other creature on earth you can tell my grandfather said that when the elephants didn’t show up we often have two zebras you know my aunt told me that her cousin found this water hole on the other side of that River and we can all benefit and we can all understand what they mean when they’re describing what they found out on that landscape language changes humans from being like standalone computers to being networked computers where you can share information one doesn’t need to depend on one’s own personal experience one can borrow the personal experience of anyone with whom one can communicate that’s a powerful advantage no other creature has that as a species humans become exponentially smarter the global game board has been set and we are now ready to play 100,000 years ago man can move we have agile hands and primitive tools we can communicate and control fire we are finally ready to expand out of our African home on a path millions of years in the making shifting continents have linked Africa and Eurasia into the largest contiguous land mass on earth afro-eurasia 33 million square miles more than twice the surface area of our entire moon for early humans this means more than half the land on earth can be reached on foot human dispersal was a crucial game changer we are one of the few primates that they live on more than one continent simultaneously so that means is that we’re better insulated from the kinds of things that cause big mammals to become extinct than other primates are its extinction insurance dispersal is extinction insurance but just as the world begins to open itself up to man the planet turns on us an ice age begins now the planet will test us like never before by 50,000 years ago glaciers begin to advance down from the North Pole at the same time humans continue their conquest of the globe arriving in China and Australia by 30,000 years ago Homo sapiens reach Europe for the first time by 20,000 years ago with the ice nearing its most extreme the march of man reaches the frigid Tundra of Northeast Siberia despite the trials of the Ice Age man endures and develops the last skills we will need to be truly human [Music] the clues lie in these symbols we have taken an intellectual leap to think beyond the here and now beyond what is simply needed to survive we can only start saying we have an organism that is human that is the same as us when we start seeing evidence of symbolic thought it’s when we start seeing a picture of a cow that everybody will recognize as the picture of a cow because only when we start seeing all of those things can we say that is a human people or creatures that think like us that see the world in the same way as us and from that moment on human history was marked to be radically different to any other species on this planet now with huge amounts of the planet’s water locked up in ice sea levels plummet by three to four hundred feet the last great barrier to the spread of man is erased we come across the Bering Land Bridge from Siberia to North America we are telling the history of the world in two hours and in just one hour more than 13 billion years have already passed these years of preparation have allowed man to finally emerge and spread out across the planet and human history as we know it can truly begin our history of the world began with the beginning of time the Big Bang it has taken us on a journey of nearly fourteen billion years now as humans take center stage it’s important to remember just how small a slice of history we actually occupy to make things simple imagine compressing 14 billion years of history down to just 14 years on this scale the earth would have existed only for the past five years so that’s about a third of the history of the universe large complex creatures would have developed seven months ago on this scale dinosaurs went extinct only about three weeks ago the entire recorded history of humans would span only the last three minutes modern industrial societies the Industrial Revolution effectively six seconds ago what this shows me is that we humans have been around for only a very brief instant in the recorded history of the universe mankind has waited billions of years for our brief instant to shine as the Stars and our evolving planet carried out the slow work of organizing the elements in a way that would make human history possible it’s 10,000 BC less than 100,000 years after expanding out of Africa man has reached South America humans have met the adversity of the ice age head-on and rather than die off we have adapted become even more intelligent and now we have colonized the entire globe from coast to mountaintop from tundra to desert humans are there our closest living ancestors chimpanzees live in the tropics they only live in the tropics humans have managed to colonize the entire globe ice age land bridges allowed man to spread around the world but now the ice begins to melt and sea levels rise again humans are trapped and separated in two vast and unconnected hemispheres each pocket of humanity left to make the best of what it has been given as the glaciers recede they carve out lakes rivers and bays the map as we know it emerges in Africa increased rainfall causes Lake Victoria and Lake Albert to overflow and form Egypt’s Nile River in Eurasia other rivers emerge the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq the Indus in modern-day Pakistan and China’s yellow and Yangtze these river valleys become critically important for how human history will now be played out following the retreat of these ice sheets these are the river valleys whose waters and fertile soils will allow the first seeds of civilization to be planted with temperatures warming after the Ice Age plants and animals are more plentiful and man can finally choose to stop moving permanent settlements begin populations grow with more mouths to feed our ancestors have to get clever they had to find a way to increase the amount of food they could get from the surroundings now one discovery forever changes the planet and the path of mankind we learn to plant seeds and the seeds we sow come from the same plants that millions of years earlier spurred our evolution from ape to man the unheralded hero of human history grass the grass seed is tiny right it’s no food I can hunt a bison or I can take grass on a bison right ironically grass seeds become the most important food crops in the world but they’re the things that are ignored by hunter-gatherers for thousands and thousands of years people don’t start using until they absolutely have to use them some of the species of grass that we are most familiar with includes sugar cane it includes wheat and rye and barley all of the cereal crops are types of grass so it’s not just that beautiful green lawn that we measure our middle-class success from it’s also the staple crop upon which civilization depends it is the majority of our calorie intake once again it all goes back to the Big Bang central to the story of all life is our competition for that energy created at the beginning of time just as oxygen gave us an edge just as fire allowed us to consume more calories switching to farming is an energy revolution a hunter-gatherer needs 10 square miles of territory to provide himself with enough sustenance enough energy in the form of plants and meat to survive a farmer can harvest the sun’s energy so efficiently he can fulfill his needs using only 1/10 of a square mile of land [Music] in the warming after the last ice age farming begins to take hold in a half-dozen places around the globe but by the fortunes of geography no place in the ancient world has a better concentration of plants and animals that can be domesticated than the Middle East’s Fertile Crescent in the Middle East we have this remarkable convergence of species that seemed to have been susceptible to domestication both plants and animals in terms of animals we’re talking about cattle pigs sheep and goats terms of plants two varieties of wheat rye barley lentils figs all in this very small part of the world unlike the Fertile Crescent and the rest of afro-eurasia places like sub-saharan Africa and the Americas have very few wild species that can be easily domesticated it’s a critical difference people blessed with the right mix of plants and animals will become more powerful and get a massive head start on the road to the modern world [Music] one animal that gives any human who containment an almost unbeatable edge is the horse [Music] it’s a little-known fact that although horses first evolved in the Americas they died out there along with many other large mammals around 10,000 BC there was at least three species of Ice Age horses in North America maybe more some as small as ponies summons biggest clients tales they had revolved in North America for 40 million years they’re part of the whole history and then they’re gone these powerful potential allies disappear before they can be used by the first North Americans fortunately before that happened large numbers of horses escaped back across the Bering Strait land bridge and spread out across the great grasslands the steppe lands of central Eurasia a narrow escape that had a profound effect on human history around 4000 BC nomadic people in Central Asia learned to tame them for the first time domesticated horses will be harnessed across Eurasia advancing everything from work to warfare perhaps no other animal has had a bigger influence on the course of human history and the circle wouldn’t be complete for another 5,000 years when Christopher Columbus would bring horses with him on his second voyage to the Americas his horses would be the first to set hooves in the Americas since the great die-off over 10,000 years earlier 6,000 years ago domestication of animals and plants sets the stage for the next phase of human history like clouds of interstellar dust gathering in material to form stars a type of gravity is at work as places like Sumeria located in part of the Fertile Crescent known as Mesopotamia draw in people support large populations and spin up into centers of power and innovation by 3,000 BC some of these Sumerian settlements can truly be called our first cities one of them Warrick has around 50,000 people living in less than one square mile a population density that rivals modern-day New York City humans have become so efficient at deriving energy from domesticated food that this land area which would have supported only a single hunter-gatherer now can support thousands but a change in diet also triggers a new dependence [Music] once you move to agriculture you are depending for 80 90 percent of your calories on perhaps one or two species in the case of the Middle East wheat and barley in the case of wheat and barley they both ripen at about the same time humans have to gather the seeds at the same time so now we have our food for the year that has arrived in one hit it’s like getting your salary paid once a year you need to record it you need to plan because if inevitably your crop fails you have famine and you’re not going to have another go for another 12 months in these first cities crops are king to keep track of them our ancestors developed the first writing to protect them the first armies and to administer them the beginnings of politics when you have hundreds or thousands of people who are living together there’s simply too many people to sort of run around and create a census it creates a need for government it creates a need for some form of social and political hierarchy planting seeds has set man on a new path settlements have grown into cities but to take the next epic step from city to civilization will need the help of a very surprising creature 5,000 years ago after wandering the earth for more than a hundred thousand years mankind has begun to settle down we cluster near rivers along the Tigris and Euphrates the Nile the Indus the yellow and Yangtze civilizations are about to take off but first they must all master one thing trade the more they exchange goods and learn from other lands the faster they grow it seems that long-distance trade and communication is a necessary precursor to allow urban civilization as we know it and surprisingly the first civilizations arise on the back of a creature with a lowly reputation in the modern world the donkey the donkey Caravan is the interstate highway and high-speed Internet of its day their routes will lay the groundwork for the modern world moving not only goods like timber and bronze but ideas and stories the civilizations they connect will be some of the first described in the Bible the caravan routes converge at the Persian Gulf where they link up with ships that carry goods to India it essentially brought these civilizations together into great cultural and material exchange and really was the beginning of the trend towards globalization it is a key to understanding how our world works to this day just like the first civilizations we trade and form networks these networks form hubs and throughout history being at that hub has meant one thing the amount of ideas the amount of cargo that passes through a region seems to have a direct correlation to how powerful and important layer by 2,000 BC humans have gone from humble huts to massive monuments in Africa great pyramids arise on the banks of the Nile the first stages of Stonehenge rise up in ancient Britain and back in Sumeria artificial temple mounds called ziggurats climb ever higher toward the heavens to cement these massive structures together the builders of Sumeria turned to a substance that oozes from sea pitches along the Euphrates River it’s called bitumen used as asphalt in the modern world it is the first petroleum product to be exploited by mankind while bituminous highly priced the lighter thinner substance using from the ground along with it is considered a nuisance by the ancients because it catches fire so easily the ancients call it naphtha we call it gasoline and it’s one of the first indications of the fast oil fields that will one day turn the cradle of civilization into a center of wealth and warfare the legacy of these first civilizations can be seen in surprising ways the Sumerian counting system was based on the number 12 rather than 10 which is why we divided our days into two 12-hour blocks our hours into 60 minutes and our minutes into 60 seconds the Sumerians also likely invented the wheel which eventually leads to another innovation that will change the course of man but chariot thus bringing together the Sumerian invention of the wheel with the the domestication of the horse that had occurred amongst these nomadic peoples into this some reform middle piece of military technology around 1200 BC a chariot driven Clash of Civilizations cuts off trade routes for copper and tin the metals we need to make bronze tools and weapons but luckily the Stars have made us an alternative iron now metalsmiths make a crucial discovery by working at higher temperatures they can release the power of this ancient metal easier to sharpen and 700 times more common on earth than copper it is a game-changer humanity enters the iron age as we reach the first millennium BC history has taken us on a wild ride from the initial blast of the Big Bang to the formation of Earth’s and its first creatures and the rise of man we’ve seen the Ice Age create bridges to spread mankind around the world then strand us on different continents leaving us to survive on what we have at hand so by 1000 BC the world remains a divided place the trade network that connects much of Eurasia and North Africa doesn’t yet penetrate the planets driest deserts across the vastest oceans cut off by geography are people in places like sub-saharan Africa and the Americas with few easy to domesticate plants and animals of their own they remain tied to more ancient ways of life 600 PC the cavalry have arrived humans ride into battle on horseback for the first time we’ve seen the just taming a horse gives man a massive advantage now pairing him with iron weapons makes him nearly unstoppable these advances in technology they don’t just make a fighting ability possible they make empires possible and that is the story of the next several millennia with new technology and improved logistics empires spread uniting massive land areas under a central control as empires grow so do new beliefs one interesting phenomenon we see with the rise of these empires is this idea of monotheism this idea of a universal God that develops over time and it’s just a phenomenon Judaism emerges from which we eventually get Christianity and Islam Buddhism and Hinduism also arise the five major religions today are all rooted in this remarkable era although empires spread some great powers remain isolated the rise of the Himalayas 50 million years earlier has left China cut off from trading with the rest of the world but that is about to change around 100 BC a Chinese emperor sends an envoy to the west in search of alliances the routes he travels will become the Silk Roads a massive trade network that connects China across Central Asia to the Roman Empire China has joined the world as far as we know no Chinese trader ever met a Roman no Roman ever met a Chinese trader at least during this first period of the Silk Roads but this vast trade then began to explode between about 100 BC and about 200 AD we have three centuries of trade and cultural exchange on a level that has not been seen before in human history but this new human Network also unleashes hidden dangers by the beginning of the Common Era great empires have risen and a massive trading network connects most of Europe and Asia but the trade routes also carry an invisible threat disease massive epidemics that some blame for taking down both the Roman Empire and China’s Han Dynasty but these networks also lead to the spread of religion [Music] in 312 ad the Roman Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity paving the way for it to become the dominant religion of Europe and the West [Music] three centuries later Islam also emerges a religion that will for a time unify a territory two and a half times larger than Rome ever was Arab trade will drive innovation for the next thousand years and expand the global network to places it has never gone before the Arabs are sitting in the middle of every Eurasia there are Arab traders who are sailing off to China there are Arab traders who are traveling all the way to the Atlantic Ocean so they are sitting in the middle of the hub one secret to Arab trade the camel a creature whose ancestor like the horse escaped across the Bering Land Bridge out of North America a caravan of six camels can lug as much as two tons of cargo as far as 60 miles a day twice the load of a donkey Caravan in half the time [Music] for the first time camel caravans open up reliable trade routes across the formidable Sahara Desert leading to the formation of the first states in West Africa Arabic trade expands moving salt from the Sahara to Rome rice from eastern Asia to India the secrets of making paper out of China into Europe and countless other inventions and ideas around the world whereas I would feel lemon come from where does I word for coffee come from they’re all Arabic because the Arabs brought a huge number of food crops into Europe oranges citrus crops they come from South China yet they don’t make it to the west until the great age of the Arabs in Islamic North Africa one Italian merchant named Leonardo Fibonacci becomes well schooled in the ways of Arab traders he picks up on a simple but ingenious counting system that originated in India but is used extensively in the Arab world his writings will spread this knowledge to Europe and around the globe with everyone counting the same way business and trade will explode and because of Fibonacci people today still almost universally use the numbers known as Arabic numerals but there is another idea Arab traders will spread something even more influential it originates in China around 800 AD a Chinese alchemists in search of an elixir for long life instead stumbles upon chemistry that can bring sudden death he combines carbon and sulfur with saltpeter a compound made of potassium nitrogen and oxygen forged in the stars these elements now come together to make gunpowder the recipe for gunpowder eventually moves west across the Silk Roads to the Islamic world where Muslim warriors use it to fire cannonballs at Christian Crusaders Europeans pick up on the idea embracing and perfecting gunpowder weapons [Applause] 1492 ad there are roughly 400 million people in the world but it is still divided in two in the Americas the civilizations of the Aztecs Mayans and Incas have all arisen while halfway around the world in the aftermath of the fall of Rome Europe has cracked like an egg into individual states for italian-born Christopher Columbus this means he can appeal for funding from a succession of European rulers until he finally convinces the king and queen of Spain to back his expeditions it has taken all of Earth’s history to make Columbus’s journey possible for tacking into the wind he uses triangular sails a technology copied from the Arabs to guide him the compass an invention from China and guiding the needle a magnetic field formed with the core of the planet itself [Music] although Columbus is looking for a new way to sail to India what he does instead is finally and forever connect the two halves of the world the voyage is not just significant in American history as you’ll see it’s a pivotal event in all of human history nothing will ever be the same the end of the Ice Age marooned large pockets of humanity on separate sides of the globe for over 15,000 years now that’s all about to change the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 is taught as one of the most significant events in American history in fact it’s one of the most significant events in all of human history prior to that voyage the great world zones had existed largely in isolation by crossing the Atlantic Columbus opens up the vast American world zone these two enormous continents of North and South America with the millions of people that are living there the resources that are available and for the first time people living in Eurasia become aware of this other part of the world until the voyage of Columbus these people may as well have been living on different planets so isolated were they a trade network that started with the first civilizations connected Europe Asia and Africa now reaches across the Atlantic in this vast new global network new hubs will form and once again power will shift for most of the last 2000 years Europe hasn’t been that important then we get the age of Columbus and what do you know this is exactly the time where we see the rise of the West this is when the West starts taking over when it gets itself smack bang in the middle of the biggest exchanger network the world has ever seen now foods that had been isolated on disconnected continents begin to move around the world maize from the Americas shows up in Egypt and China potatoes from the Andes prove perfectly suited to the soils of Ireland and Russia the old Fertile Crescent grains like wheat begin to feed the Americas new foods mean more calories more energy within three centuries of Columbus’s voyage the population of the world will more than doubled to 900 million but the unequal hands dealt to the two hemispheres now play out in a deadly climax European conquistadors inheritors of the agriculture and animals of the Fertile Crescent and the trade spread along the vast networks of the old world come bearing guns riding horses and carrying infectious diseases the result slaughter in the years following Columbus’s first voyage ninety-five percent of the native population and the Americas will die from European guns and germs [Music] once the hemispheres are connected nothing can ever be the same take the incredible story of sugar chemically it’s the only source of fuel for our brains a substance we are programmed to crave raw sugar comes mostly from sugarcane once again a grass will play a central role in the story of mankind first cultivated more than 6,000 years ago in Asia Europeans discovered sugar in the Middle East during the Crusades and carried it home Europe was hooked but there’s virtually nowhere in Europe where sugar can grow then we have Christopher Columbus and the discovery of the new world and the Spanish conquistadors yes they initially are very interested in the gold and the silver but really they just want to make it rich they don’t care how they’re going to make it rich and once the gold and the silver has been looted the next step is to open sugar plantations the Spanish themselves don’t want to work in the sugar plantations they start looking around for a new labor force head over on the other side of the Atlantic there is a place where they can buy slaves and if we look at the history of slavery the number one destination of slaves from Africa a sugar plantations so the history of sugar shapes the development of history through the Middle East through the Crusades through the conquest of Mesoamerica and even the history of slavery from Africa to the Americas [Music] in the year 1700 mankind has hit a wall most humans continue to live simple lives more like our ancient ancestors than our own when you think back into the world in 1700 most people were farmers most people practice small-scale subsistence agriculture most manufacturing was done in workshops in 1700 it takes over a year for cargo and information to circle the planet longer than it would take us today to get to Mars what’s holding us back is how we power our lives in Egypt of 2000 BC 90% of all work was done by human muscle with animals kicking in the rest by 1700 in Europe the majority of work 70% is still driven by human muscle muscle power alone can’t clear the path to the modern age but there’s a breakthrough hidden deep within the earth as our history of the world in 2 hours racist towards of clothes mankind has hit a wall human progress is stalled by the limits of our muscle to break through we’ll need a new way to power our lives and the entire history of the world remember that billions of years ago iron from exploding stars was gathered up into Planet Earth during its formation thousands of years ago men started using this iron for tools and weapons to keep our forges burning we began cutting down our forests now 300 years ago in Britain iron is in high demand and the trees are running out the British need a new source of fuel and thanks to the decayed remains of ancient ferns they have won coal but coal itself won’t power mankind into the modern world there’s one more fateful twist in the story as the quest for Cole takes miners ever deeper into the ground water begins flooding the tunnels to pump out the water a new invention is needed in 1712 Thomas Newcomen produces a pump powered by burning coal and driven by steam new Cummins machine is the first practical steam engine it is this combination energy and engine fuel and machine that will free man from the limits of his own muscle and change the world the Industrial Revolution begins along with political revolutions in America and later France this technological revolution forever transforms the landscape of the world and before long the Atlantic world has become the new economic therefore cultural therefore political therefore military leader and will utterly dominate global geopolitics from that moment it is [Music] trains Thunder across the countryside by the 1870s the internal combustion engine has arrived and the Germans invent its killer app the automobile oyel the substance which the ancients considered to flammable to be of any use becomes the most important commodity on the planet fueling even more innovation The Telegraph and telephone moved messages at lightning speed with electricity mankind reclaims the night from darkness the hub of power has shifted in 1800 Europeans and their descendants controlled 35% of the land on earth by 1900 they control 85% [Music] by the 20th century fossil fuels and the internal combustion engine have amplified everything including warfare that technology meant that military power and military conquest was something that could be international international in a way that it had never been before in the 20th century almost three times as many people are killed as a result of war as in the previous two thousand years of human history combined the application of the industrial skills industrial technologies of the 18th century reach their culmination I think with these extraordinary events and it’s all being driven again by the micro fossilized bodies of organic entities are disappeared into ancient swamps millions and millions of years ago the Industrial Revolution also allows the human population to explode it has taken two hundred thousand years of human history from the dawn of man to the year 1900 for the population to reach 1.6 billion now within the hundred years of the 20th century it nearly quadrupled to more than 6 billion the 20th century is the most extraordinary moment in human history never before have we seen change on such a scale [Applause] today humans number close to 7 billion we are the dominant players on the planet we have learned to harness fifty thousand times more energy than our ancestors just ten thousand years ago this energy drives our fastest lives and a literal world wide web a network that as we have seen has been in the making for as long as humans have walked the earth our to our story is coming to an end a story that really began 14 billion years ago with a tiny universe where everything was all in one place then the Big Bang all the energy that has ever existed created in an instant gravity sculpted our universe for billions of years stars and supernovas created all the elements we would eventually need then an extreme earth took shape and settled into just the right conditions to support life as the planet evolved life competed for energy and brew more and more complex eventually the conditions were right for our species to rise we mastered stone and fire when the ice age came we spread around the planet and when the ice melted we were stranded on different continents we learned to bend plants and animals to our will we built cities then civilizations we created a vast network that linked empires joined continents then crossed oceans just when it seemed we had reached our human limit we found the energy and technology to carry us into the future on earth the seeds of the past have bloomed into a present filled with energy and creativity the stories of billions of lives have played out against the backdrop of a universe almost too vast to comprehend in everything that we do in all that we are we remain living monuments to the past as we continue to make history every day

Comments 18

  • I was a victim of abuse so I don't remember most of my life.

  • This channel: I bet no one can do it shorter!

    Bill Wurtz: Iโ€™m about to end these peopleโ€™s whole career

  • God created the universe
    Because nothing create nothing

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    I like it

  • Over life is so mistirious

  • Excellent video. I loved it.

  • There is a legend.
    A man.
    Who can create the same thing.
    In 14 minutes.

  • Ito ba yung pinapapanood sa STS?

  • This documentary needs to do more research, Leiv Eiriksson travelled over the atlantic 400 years before Columbus

  • This video is false. Evolution is fake. Fish didn't grow legs and nothing can't come from nothing. God created everything in the universe.

  • History Class put me here

  • Ill stay with the story that God created Adam and Eve not apes created humans ๐Ÿ˜ค๐Ÿ˜ค

  • Hi, game changers! HAHAHAHAHA.

  • Actually that's not true I first ate a taco and took a shit and then this universe came out…

  • This is really great this really helped me in school

  • Skipped Ancient Greece skipped Eastern Roman Empire …WTF?There wouldn't be a Western Civilization without Ancient Greeks&The Byzantines

  • Awesome , bt too much assumption,deception and omission

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