History of the Internet (Historie Internetu – CZ titulky)

the Internet in the year 2009 we send emails make calls over the Internet and discuss topics we take an interest in even our banking is going virtual but what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago in order to understand how we got this far let’s go back to 1957 when everything began before 1957 computers only worked on one task at a time this is called batch processing of course this was quite ineffective with computers getting bigger and bigger they had to be stored in special cool drums but then the developers couldn’t work directly on the computers anymore specialists had to be called in to connect them programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs wasting time and frame the developers nerves the e in 1957 marked a big change a remote connection had to be installed so that the developers could work directly on the computers at the same time the idea of time sharing came up this is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users on October 4th in 1957 during the Cold War the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union the fear of a missile gap emerged in order to secure America’s lead in technology the u.s. founded the Defense Advanced Research Project agency in February 1958 at that time knowledge was only transferred by people the DARPA planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research this network would become the ARPANET furthermore three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the Internet the concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England and the scientific Network Cyclades in France the scientific military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet let’s begin with the ARPANET the most familiar of these networks its development began in 1966 universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers therefore small computers were put in front of the mainframe this computer the interface message processor took over control of the network activities while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files at the same time the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe since only the imps were interconnected in a network this was also called imp subnet for the first connections between the computers the network working group developed the network control protocol later on the NCP was replaced by the more efficient transmission control protocol the specific feature of the TCP is the verification of the file transfer let’s take a short detour to England since the NPL network was designed on a commercial basis a lot of users and file transfer were expected in order to avoid congestion of the lines the sent files were divided into smaller packets which were put together again at the receiver packet switching was born in 1962 American Ferris aircraft discovered middle and long-range missiles in Cuba which were able to reach the United States this stoked fear of an atomic conflict at that time information systems had a centralized network architecture to avoid breakdown during an attack a decentralized network architecture had to be developed which in case of loss of a node would still be operative communication still used to work through radio waves that would have caused problems in case of an atomic attack the ionosphere would be affected and the long-wave radio waves wouldn’t work anymore therefore they had to use direct waves which however don’t have a long-range a better solution was the model of a distributed network thus long distances could be covered with a minimum of interference another milestone followed with the development of the French Network Cyclades since sook ladders had a far smaller budget than ARPANET and thus also fewer nodes the focus was laid on the communication with other networks in this way the term internet was born moreover sue Clara’s concept went further than our pers and the MPL during communication between sender and receiver the computers were not to intervene anymore but simply serve as a transfer note cicadas protocol went through all machines using a physical layer that was implemented into the hardware providing a direct connection with the receiver an end-to-end structure inspired by the cicadas Network and driven by the incompatibility between the networks their connection gained in importance everywhere the phone companies developed the X point two-five protocol which enabled communication through their servers in exchange for a monthly basic charge of course darpa transmission control protocol was to connect the computers through gateways and the International Organization for Standardization designed the OSI reference model the innovation of OSI was the attempt to standardize the network from its ends and the channels division into separate layers finally the TCP assimilated the preferences of the OSI reference model and gave way to the tcp/ip protocol a standard which guaranteed compatibility between networks and finally merged them creating the internet by February 28 1990 the ARPANET Hardware was removed but the internet was up and running you

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