History of Technology – Crash Course

Many social theories are created by a
number of sociologists and anthropologists. These theories deal with social
and cultural revolution. Many of them consider technological
progress as a primary factor to drive human
civilization developments. Morgan divides social
evolution in three stages including savagery,
barbarism and civilization. These stages can be divided
using technological milestones. Fire is a great example of
such technological milestone. White suggested that
energy is a great measure to judge the human
Cultural Revolution. White strongly believed
that harnessing the control over energy is the primary
function of culture. According to him, there are five main
stages in the process of human development: Own muscles of humans are
used as energy source Domesticated animals serve the energy In third stage, energy is derived
from plants (agricultural revolution) Natural resources such as coal,
oil, gas are optimized for energy In final stage, nuclear energy is harnessed This theory was extrapolated by Nikolai
Kardashev, former Russian astronomer. Through this, Kardashev scale was
created that is used to distribute advanced civilization of energy
use in various categories. Approach of Lenski was mainly
focused on information. He stated that information and knowledge
of natural environment is the perfect measure for measuring development
and advancement of human society. According to him, there are four
stages in development of humans. Genes serve as a medium to pass information Sentience is acquired as human learn to
pass information through their experience In third stage, humans
discover / develop various signs and also
learn to develop a logic In fourth stage language
is developed ultimately triggering the development
of writing system Moreover, he also distributed
various societies into categories. These categories were
derived using technology, communication and economical
status as a base: Hunter / Gatherer Simple / Agricultural Advanced / Agricultural Industrial Special (including fishing societies) Upcoming is the main content divided
into various chapters that will cover history of technology based on the time
period and geographical locations. Prehistory This portion of technology history
involves following sections or stages: Stone Age The number of tools and permanent
settlements in most of the Paleolithic Stone Age were very
limited in human lifestyle. Most of the major technologies of that
period were meant to serve objectives such as survival, hunting and the
most important, food preparation. Most important technological
developments of Stone Age period are as following: Fire, Stone
tools and weapons and clothing. Stone and other tools have been used
by human ancestors since a long period even when Homo sapiens were not emerged
(approximately 200,000 years from now). Oldowan industry existed
almost 2.3 million years ago. It was the main industry
human kind ever known for developing and crafting stone
tools for several purposes. However, the earliest
evidence of the use of stone tool s found at Great
Rift Valley in Ethiopia. It dates back into 2.5 million years. This portion of Stone Age is known
as Paleolithic or Old Stone Age when stones were primary tools of humans
and agriculture was not developed. It came to an end 12,000 ago
as agriculture was discovered. In order to use a stone
as a tool, it required to strike the core of the hard
stone with hammer-stone. This core had special flaking properties
different for every stone type. Sharp edges were produced due to this
flaking making the stone a usable tool. Primary use of them was
chopping and scraping. Most of these stone-tools
were used by humans during their
hunter-gatherer lifestyle. They were involved in tasks such
as butchering carcasses, braking bones of animals (or each other
if required), chopping wood, cracking nuts, skinning
animal bodies, for forming other tools from stone,
wood, bones, etc. Crude are considered the earliest
stone tools ever used by mankind. It was more than a simple featured rock. These stones were simply
the impure form of hand axe and other such hand
tools of certain shape. Agriculture technology and
rudiments were developed in the last portion of Stone Age
known as Later Stone Age. This era is also known as Neolithic period. Unfortunately, human from Stone Age left
no written proof indicating their culture. All that we know about them
is derived from archeological sites, findings and written
records produced post Stone Age. Copper and Bronze Age Neolithic revolution developed
the Stone Age into Bronze Age. Technology faced a lot of
changes in this revolution as the agriculture was
developed, concept of animal domestication was introduced and
adoption of permanent settlements has begun. Metal smelting was soon developed too. It was introduced with
copper followed by bronze. Bronze was made by
smelting tin into copper. However, stone tools were
still being used until a noticeable period of
time in Bronze Age. Since crafters were lacking material
and stone tools were abundance when compared to hard to find
materials and metals such as tin. Fertile Crescent triggered
this technological trend which was constantly spread with
time and further developments. However, many of these
developments were not universal and neither
are they now, clearly indicating that three age system cannot
act as a measure for technology history. This statement specially applies for human
populations residing outside Eurasia. There are also some other isolated
populations including Spinifexa People and Sentinelese People that
cannot relate with such age system. These populations including Amazonian
Tribes still use Stone Age tools and technology and live without
agricultural and Metal Age technology. Iron Age The adoption of iron smelting
technology is one of the major and most important
components of Iron Age. In Iron Age, tools of bronze
were simply replaced by another metal which allowed making
stronger tools compared to bronze. Tools of Iron were also whole a lot cheaper
comparing to equivalent bronze tools. In most of the Eurasian culture, Iron
Age is considered the most important step in the technology until the writing
systems (languages) were developed. However, it wasn’t a universal case. High furnace temperatures were
required when manufacturing steel making it comparatively harder
to produce it on mass scale. However, it was also possible
to produce steel by forging bloomer iron, ultimately reducing
carbon content under control. Compared to copper and tin,
iron ore were much famous since they were strong
and noticeably cheaper. There were many hill forts in European
countries, built in order to use as shelter in war periods or sometimes they
are used as permanent shelter as well. Sometimes, these forts (built in
Bronze Age) are expanded / enlarged. More farmland for growing
populations was achieved by making land clearance more effective
using stronger iron axes. Ancient Developments Some of the greatest technological and
engineering developments and advances were produced thanks to significant growth of
mankind in ancient period civilizations. Many societies around the globe were
heavily influenced with these developments ultimately simulating them to adopt
advanced lifestyle and governance. Egyptians Egyptians gave birth to and were
used to a number of simple machines. Ramp is a great example
of such innovations. Ramps were heavily used by Egyptian
people for aiding constructions. Indus valley civilization was famous for
city planning and sanitation technologies. It is noticeable that this civilization
was located in a content rich area exactly knowing how the resources
can be optimized at fullest. Ancient India too witnessed a golden age
in forefront and seafaring technology. There were panels found at Mohenjo-Daro
that depicts with a sailing craft. India is also famous for their early
construction and architecture technology. It is described in famous
literature Vaastu Shastra. Various aspects related to construction
and architecture is described broadly in it such as materials,
hydrology, sanitation, etc. Mesopotamians Mesopotamia was home to Sumerians,
Assyrians and Babylonians. Past sometime, people
from these societies were said to have invented wheel
(THE WHEEL actually). However, it is often
challenged by new findings. They lived in well organized
cities since 4000 BC. Throughout these years,
a well developed and sophisticated architecture
was developed by them. Mud, bricks and stones were their main
construction engineering components. True arch was also a main element
in their constructions techniques. Walls developed by
Babylonians were massive enough to be recorded
as wonder of the world. Advanced water systems were
developed by Mesopotamian people in term of transport, irrigation
and catchment systems. These water bodies were up to
ten kilometers long sometimes. Hilly north region is great
example of such engineering. Sophisticated drainage systems
were used in their houses. Writing system was also
developed in Mesopotamia. Earliest form of that system
was cuneiform script. There are found many clay tables and
stone inscriptions in their region. Bronze technology was adopted
by these civilizations for tools, weapons and
statuary art as well. By 1200, they advanced
enough to be able of casting an object 5 m
long in a single piece. Jerwan Aqueduct that dates
back in 688 BC is the biggest proof of their
technological advancements. It is crafted with stone arches
and waterproofed with concrete. Astronomical diaries of Babylonians
are around 800 years long. Their astronomers could plot
the motions of planets. They were capable of
predicting eclipses as well. Chinese A significant number of
first known discoveries and developments are in
the accounts of Chinese. Following is a quick glance at their
contribution in technological development: Seismological detectors Matches Paper Sliding Calipers Piston pump with double action capabilities Cast iron Iron plough Seed drill with multiple tubes Wheelbarrow Suspension bridge The parachute Natural gas and fuel Compass Raised relief map Propeller Crossbow South pointing chariot Gunpowder Block printing Phosphorescent paint Movable type printing Chain drive Clock escapement mechanism There is no doubt why they
are one of the most advanced nations of present time
and a superpower as well! Gunpowder was a significant
invention as it provided base for discovery of
solid fuel for rocket. China managed to achieve this
goal in the year of AD 1150; almost 200 years from
invention of gunpowder that was later used as
solid fuel in rocket. Here is a simple demonstration
of how advanced Chinese were: Emperors from Ming dynasty
sent large fleets to discover farther lands, some
of them reached Africa. This happened decades before
western exploration age! Roman Intensive and well managed
agriculture was developed by romans. A great contribution
was made by existing Iron Age technologies
in these developments. They implemented laws for
ownership of individuals. Some of their major technological
advancements are as following: Advanced stone masonry technology Road-building technology
(in 19th century though) Military engineering Civil engineering Spinning machine Weaving machine Gallic reaper All these technologies heavily
supported Roman economy. Following architectures were
built across Roman Empire by various engineers first
time ever in the world: Monumental Arches Aqueducts Public baths Amphitheatres True arch bridges Harbors Reservoirs and dams Vaults and domes Concrete, glass blowing and book
(codex) are some most important contribution of Roman in the field
of technologies and innovations. The concrete developed
by Romans was durable since it was located
on volcanic peninsula. These areas are full of sand and
suitable for crystalline grains. There are several roman buildings
that lasted from 2000 years to present date, providing proof
to their concrete quality. Inca and Mayan Inca and Mayans are famous for
their ancient engineering which matched standards of
today’s advanced engineering. They were so good with weighing
and stone works that not even a blade could fit in the cracks of
their stone walls till the day. Agricultural activities were
made efficient by implementing proper irrigation canals and
drainage systems in their villages. Inca people are said to be the
inventors of hydroponics. However, it is quite
uncertain since their agricultural technology
was still soil based. There was no metallurgy or wheel
technology known to Mayan civilizations. However, complex writing and astrological
systems were developed by them. They have given the world heritage
of sculptural stone and flint works. Agricultural and construction
technologies were greatly advanced in
both the civilizations. In ancient period, most
of the buildings and structures developed by
Mayan people were built by women since they believed that god has
appointed women for creation of new things. Aztec rules contributed
a lot in communication took place with
conquered cities. Similar to Inca and Mayan civilizations,
roads were designed for travelling on foot in Mesoamerica since there were
neither transports nor wheeled vehicles. Greek Myriad inventions and improvements
in existing technology was kind of favorite activity of
Greek and Hellenistic engineers. Technological enhancements were at their
peak during the Hellenistic period. Following were some great men
from this region and era: Archimedes Philo of Byzantium Heron Ctesibius Archytas Medieval to Early Modern Technology Islamic World In technological terms,
medieval Islamic empires were much similar
to earlier empires. Muslim caliphates managed
to unite trade large areas that were never involved in
large scale trades before. The conquered areas were
required to pay a little bit lower taxes compared to
their earlier independence. People were so in favor of
technological developments that ideas were spread more easily around
the empire compared to goods. They made peace more frequent and
long lasting than it used to be. Due to increasing facilities and
conditions, many technological developments including agriculture
witnessed quite a boost. During this period many scientific
concepts were adapted and developed from Greek, Roman and Persian
Empires in their improved forms. Medieval Europe European technology was in the golden
phase of development in medieval ages. This phase is also known as tradition
of innovation and inventions. It is certain that medieval
technology is quite a bit slower and backtracked compared to development
of western technologies. There have been multiple authors
criticizing and denouncing the church as antagonistic for scientific progress
(who can forget myth of flat earth). However, it is certain
that Europe contributed significantly in development
of global technology. Some of their major
contributions are mechanical clocks, spectacles and
vertical windmills. There were also some seemingly
inconspicuous items developed in medieval Europe such as
watermark and functional button. They also contributed a significant
amount of effort in triggering the age of exploration with some useful navigation
innovations by introducing followings: Pintle and gudgeon rudders Lateen sails Dry compass Horseshoe Astrolabe Talking about military
technology development, there were some
magnificent results too! Medieval Europeans developed
plate armor, steel crossbows, counter weight
trebuchets and cannons. Most of the agricultural advances
were achieved in early middle ages. Inventions such as rib vault and pointed
arch triggered Gothic style agriculture. Age of castles was triggered as ubiquitous
medieval fortifications were established. Papermaking technology was
developed in 2nd century. It was carried into
Middle East as a group of Chinese papermakers were
captured in 8th century. As Umayyad conquered
Hispania technology of paper-making spread was all
over in European empires. First European paper mill was located in
Sicily, which was built in 12th century. In Europe, linen and cotton
rags were used as a source to acquire the fiber pulp
required to make paper. Lynn White believes that
spinning wheel is an important technology for
rise of printing technology. Wheel made it easy
to supply rags where required; ultimately
reducing producing costs. It was a major contributing
factor in rise of printing press. Renaissance Technology Following are some significant
technological advancements of this era: Linear perceptivity Double shell domes Bastion fortresses Dome of Florence cathedral is a
great example of such technology. Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci
have left behind a number of books related to Renaissance
technological advancements. They are considered a great resource
for acquiring broad details about mechanical technology
available and used in that period. Architects and engineers
were heavily inspired with structures such
as of ancient dome. Dome of Florence cathedral
was developed by such an inspired architect-engineer
Brunelleschi. He was some of the very first persons who
were issued with patents over their assets. He patented his ingenious crane
that he developed and used to raise large masonry stones
to the top of the structures. Military technology too
developed during this era. Their military was so advance
compared to others that use of powerful artillery and cross
bows was common to them. This advancement was certain
since most of the Italian states have been constantly involved
in conflicts with each other. There were families like Medici with strong
knowledge of art and sciences as well. Mutual advancements were
followed in science and technology known as
scientific revolution, still a great contribution of renaissance
science in global technological development. Olive screw press was developed in AD 1441. Pressing mechanism of this press
was also adopted for inventing cast metal type printing press,
which was a movable machine. Number of books and number
of publications were greatly increased thanks
to this invention ultimately giving a boost to spread of the
technological and other news worldwide. Age of Exploration and
Industrial Revolution Age of exploration was triggered as Europeans
began to colonize American regions, exploring more and more
land into the west thanks to improved sailing
ship technologies. New Atlantis by Francis Bacon served
as epitomizer of the process or era. Before the age of
exploration, land routes were more famous compared with
much faster water routes. In this period, world was constantly being
explored more and more by multiple people like Cabral, Vasco da Gama, Magellan,
Christopher Columbus and many more like them. These people were involved
in this activity since they required establishing new
trade routes for their goods. On the other hands, they were also
discovering water routes to decrease travel time, establishing connections
with Africa, India and China. As results, water routes soon
become more popular over land routes since the conceded
less time and resources. New maps, charts, etc accessories
were produced in order to encourage future mariners to explore the
world till the end is found, since there were many
problems including longitude and there were no
accurate chronometers. These limitations made
navigation comparatively difficult than it became after
the age of exploration. Ancient Greeks developed
the concept of civil codes, which was lost into
the pages of history. European powers reestablished /
rediscovered these systems (as it was essential), since their colonies were
expanding constantly with new findings. Industrial Revolution Following are the major
developments that took place in the era of
industrial revolution: Textile manufacturing Mining Metallurgy Transport All these areas witnessed massive
scale technological advancements and developments thanks to a
single invention of steam engine. This revolution was triggered thanks
to the optimization of coal, which was capable of producing significant amount
of energy at a comparatively cheap cost. In Britain, it was produced
in the largest amount ever during the era of
industrial revolution. Techniques like blast furnace and
cast iron produced resources in massive amounts using coke,
a form of coal as a fuel. Major structures could be created
thanks to this technique. The iron bridge is a great example of
results achieved from this technique. Cheap coal allowed the industry
to escape from the restriction of water resources used as primary
fuel for mills before this era. Despite of coal being the
major resource, industry did not neglect the power and
usefulness of water energy. Even during industrial revolution, it
remained as a major secondary power source used in smaller units where using coal was
not possible or comparatively expensive. Here is a demonstration: Water was essential for
running steam engines. Steam engines were essential
for draining mines, allowing access to more
and more coal reserves. As soon as this technique was developed,
most of the major mines implemented it for increasing coal output since it was being
used as primary fuel in most of the industry. Since water energy was essential
for increasing coal produce, it managed to remain a valuable resource
during industrial revolution. With time steam engine technology
was tweaked and evolved, producing high pressure
steam engines as an output. These high pressure engines were
used in developing locomotives, ultimately triggering revolution
in transport revolution. Technology in 19th Century Some historians refer 19th century as
second industrial revolution since this period witnessed some fascinating
developments in the field of construction, manufacturing and communication
technologies as well. Most of these technologies
were originated in Europe. Steam engine was developed
in early 18th century. However, it was never
involved in transportation. In 19th century it was practically applied
in steamboat and railway transportation. First purpose railway line was built in
1830 by Liverpool and Manchester railway. First working locomotives were rocket
locomotive and Robert locomotive. Telegraphy was also developed
in 19th country making its practical application possible for
running railways more safely. These were the technologies that
existed before 19th century. However, in 19th century,
they were developed to make their practical use
efficient and widespread. There were also some technologies
that were developed / discovered for the first time
in the period of 19th century. Incandescent light bulb
could be most famous example of inventions
in 19th century. This invention was important
for manufacturing industries since these
bulbs allowed various factories to run second or even third shift
regardless to their geographical location. The production rate of factories using
this technology was tripled as a result. Pulley blocks were developed at Portsmouth
block mills by various ship manufacturers. All these inventions triggered age
of mass productions, since each and every field received quite a
boost in their production rate. In the first half of
the century, various manufacturing tools were
developed by engineers. These tools made it efficient to craft
or manufacture various machinery parts. Richard Roberts and Joseph
Whitworth were of those engineers who firstly developed and
used these kinds of tools. 19th century was also the
period in which manufacturing and development of
interchangeable parts begun. Nowadays, it is known as the standard
American system of manufacturing. It was triggered with its
implementation by U.S. Federal arsenals in their firearms
manufacturing system. It took place early in the
first half of 19th century. By the end of the century,
it had become widely used manufacturing system
in entire United States. In the middle of the 19th century,
there were two major enhancements or improvements took place in manufacturing
activities in textile field. First one is that production of
shoe was mechanized in that period. Second one and the bigger
one is that sewing machines were introduced in middle
period of 19th century. In the period of mid to
late 19th century these sewing machines were
produced at a massive scale. Along with the sewing machines, a
number of agricultural machinery was too developed at high production rate
in that very same period of time. In early 1880s, this attraction
turned towards bicycles. In this entire decade of 1880s,
production of bicycles was at its peak with sufficient demand as well that
was even encouraging manufacturers. By this time, most of the factories
around United States had already adopt steam powered
mechanism and functionalities. However, it is noticeable that
England has implemented such water powered factory system
much before United States did. However, they still failed to bead U.S.
in terms of developments despite
of this advantage. Iron-clad techniques were implemented
in steam power based ships soon. These ships played important role in
opening trade routes with Japan and China. This was the first time
western and eastern worlds connected directly without
any intermediate. Ending period of this 19th century
is considered the second industrial revolution thanks to major rapid developed
in various fields of production. During that period following fields
were developed rapidly also connecting them with technological research
with well developed structure: Chemical Electrical Petroleum Steel It is quite uncertain how
longer this period lasted. However, most of the historians refer
to second industrial revolution for last third portion of the 19th century
to the beginning of World War 1. Certain are that the development boost
in field of various technologies was even greater and impactful compared
to first industrial revolution. Technology in 20th Century Rapid developments were made
in technology in 20th century. There were a number of achievements
acquired both in science and technology. Scientific methods were
taught and implemented on a broad scale
during this century. Moreover, scientific researchers were
increased thanks to the encouragement and contribution which eventually
lead to significant achievements. Impact of those achievements can be
still in modern science and technology. Technical understanding was spread worldwide
on a massive scale thanks to significant improvements and
advancements achieved in communication and
transportation technologies. Many high tech technologies
including automobile became efficiently
accessible for a mass level of global consumers
thanks to the large scale production rate
going up day to day. Significant development and
research was conducted for military resulting as electronic
computing and jet engines. Radios and telephony technology was
improved at the point it become available globally for most of the
populations of worldwide users. However, it was still not possible
to provide near-universal access. That too eventually
became possible as mobile phones were developed
and became affordable. In begging era of mobile phones,
they were quite expensive and not accessible for everyone
residing in developing world. However, by the end of 2000s
and early 2010s mobile phones were developed enough to be
cheap for everyone to use. Talking about Asian countries
like India you can get a basic functional mobile phone as
cheap as 25 USDs or even less! However, you will have to
spend much more for using modern technologies such
as camera, GPS, etc. Developments were followed in energy
and engine technology as well. While discovering improvements in
these fields, nuclear power was eventually developed in Manhattan Project
ultimately triggering Atomic Age. With the great energy source
found, rocket technology began to develop and establish
new discoveries rapidly. As a result, sputnik was launched in
1950s triggering the first space age. This era lasted till 1980s
until more advanced results were achieved in
this technological field. In 20th century, like any other technology
electrification was at its peak. When electricity was firstly developed for
household applications, it was available in limited cities only such as major
cities like NY, London, Paris, Tyne, etc. Moreover, they were accessible and
affordable for wealthy people only. Birth control was a widespread and
major global issue in 20th century. In late 1970s electron microscopes were
the most powerful ones in their category. They contributed whole a lot in
order to increase understanding and knowledge in the field
of genetic engineering. In 1978, a major success in genetic
engineering was achieved as Louise Brown; the first test tube baby
was born with any dependencies. Soon in 1985, first gestational surrogacy
pregnancy was successfully conducted. Eventually after six
years in 1991, first pregnancy by ICSI was
achieved successfully. In ICSI, a single sperm is
implemented in an egg (by artificial process, not
natural one of course). In 1989, experiments began with
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis resulting successful births within
a single year in July, 1990; clearly indicating how rapid the
development was in that period of time. These procedures are
constantly being developed and reached
to common populations. These concepts have changed the
meaning of being a parent. In order to keep transatlantic
research programs running, major data analysis
resources were essential. Human Genome Project and the
large electron-positron collider are great examples
of such large scale projects. These projects required advanced
distributed communications, resulting researchers to adopt internet
protocols at a massive scale. Tim Berners-Lee developed the practical
concept of World Wide Web in order to satisfy the requirements
of major data analysis resources. Neither did these requirements exist,
nor did we have internet today. In developing world,
Vaccination was spread on a wide scale on global
level 1980s onwards. There were many reasons behind this; most important being a number of successful
humanitarian initiatives, reduced childhood mortality in poor countries
with limited medical resources, etc. Following is a list indicating top 20
technological developments of 20th century. This list has been prepared by national
academy of engineering, United States. Ranking in this list have been
defined according to debate between various experts from
related technological fields: 1. Electrification 2. Automobile 3. Airplane 4. Water supply and distribution 5. Electronics 6. Radio and television 7. Mechanized agriculture 8. Computers 9. Telephone 10. Air conditioning and refrigeration 11. Highways 12. Spacecraft 13. Internet 14. Imaging technology 15. Household appliances 16. Health technology 17. Petroleum and
petrochemical technologies 18. Laser and fiber optics 19. Nuclear technology 20. Materials sciences Remember that these ranks are
according to their importance and not according to the timeline
in which they were invented. Technology in 21st Century We are currently living in quite
early phase of 21st century. However, development and technological
advancements achieved in this short time span can easily beat
researches done in entire 19th century. Following is list giving quick
glance at technological developments and fields achieved
in 21st century until now. Quantum computers have been introduced Research are going on in gene therapy
that was introduced back into 1990 AD 3D printing has touched
new heights like never before, original concept
was introduced in 1981 AD Nanotechnology Bioengineering and biotechnology Nuclear technology Many advanced materials are
introduced / discovered like grapheme The scramjet and drones are
being used by military since they can be equipped with high
energy laser and rail guns Conduct of superconductivity
has been introduced The memristor Development of green technology
and alternative fuels such as fuel cells, self driving electric
cars, plug-in hybrid cars, etc. Augmented realty devices and wearable
electronics have been developed Who can forget the artificial
intelligence in the list? Powerful LEDs Solar cells IC technology for computers
(integrated circuits) Wireless power devices Electronic / fuel engines Portable and powerful batteries All this achieved in time span
of barely one and a half decade! Large Hadrons Collider is
considered the greatest (both in technique and size as well) research
tool built in 21st century. It is the largest machine
ever in entire human history. It is expected that instruments
such as larger particle accelerators such as LHC
and neutrino detectors will help to increase our understanding
and knowledge about particle physics. Underground detectors
are constantly involved in the activity of
sought-ing dark matter. On the other hand, observatories
such as LIGO are working in order to detect and understand
about gravitational waves. Like 20th century, genetic
engineering achieved some useful results
in 21st century too. Importance of epigenetic has
greatly increased in the field. Inheritance is a well developed
and known concept nowadays. Astronomy is going through
a large scale revolution with invention of spacecrafts
such as Orion and Dragon. These inventions have given a spaceflight
technology a new point of view. Space telescopes are greatly developed
compared to old-traditional telescopes. These telescopes are constantly
being developed and improved. In 2000s, international space
station was successfully completed. It is estimated that NASA
and ESA are going to launch a manned mission to mars
in 2030s in collaboration. In 2015, VASIMR (variable specific impulse
magneto-plasma rocket) was tested. It is an electro-magnetic thruster in order
to be used with spacecraft propulsion. First manned commercial spaceflight
took place in 2004 when world saw Mike Melville crossing the boundary
of space on the 21st June of 2004.

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