History of Modern Art Crash Course


Modern art is an art that was
created in the late 19th century. Apart from modern art, there are other
arts that took the form of modern art. And, they include painting, sculpture,
architecture and graphic arts. These are a few forms
of arts that have become popular in the
20th and 21st century. Basically, the modern art is power-packed
with theories, movements and attitudes as per the new age while
keeping the historical, traditional, and academic
forms of art at bay. Moreover, the modern art is being
updated as per the change in the economic, intellectual and
social conditions of the country. You can observe the modern
art paintings to be portrayed the current
situation of the world, thus giving the art
lovers a clear picture of what the artists want to
convey in the painting. The trend of modern art is being started in
French by a Frenchman in the 19th century. There are paintings that
are being done by the famous artists Gustave
Courbet, Edouard Manet, and other artists which shows rejection
towards the academic tradition and crave for portraying the world in a more natural way
for easy understanding of the people. Moreover, whenever a person looks
at the modern art, then he/she would be able to connect to what
the artist want to portray. You can observe rejection
of traditional techniques of art in the successors
of Impressionist. In these paintings, the
artist has expressed his opinion about the world
in his personal way. To be precise, the artist has drawn into
the painting in this personal vision. Their paintings are considered
to be more modern over the other painting that are drawn by the
artists of the modern era. From 1980, the trend of
modern art has started. The artists have instigated to come
up with new styles and movements of art and these arts represent
the western visual culture. There are different
modern art movements that took place in between
18th and 19th century. Few of them include neo-impression,
symbolism, fauvism, cubism, expressionism, constructivism, social
realism, abstract expressionism, etc. These different types of movements have
represented modern art in a unique way. In fact, these modern arts are considered
to be the best way to express a spiritual response to the change in
life conditions in the current era. In addition, you can notice the
technological changes in the art form, using of scientific knowledge, and
perceiving values and beliefs. Moreover, these arts are
creating awareness about the non-Western culture to the
people across the globe. Indeed, people can learn about the other
cultures through this modern art form. There is another art form
that is being developed in the 20th century
called abstract art. This art is painted with fingers
instead of brushes and this art portrays about the nature and
the existing physical world. In fact, advent of photography has also
had a greater impact on the modern art. Basically, photography shows the
pictures of the real world, whereas modern artists also paint the pictures
of the real world in a clear way. The modern architectural art has
kicked off all the old styles of art forms such as revivals,
classicism, and eclecticism. In fact, the modern architectural form would
utilize various forms and styles of art and technologies such as steel, glass,
concrete, and iron to build architecture. Ideally, before modernization,
the western buildings were not being designed with ornaments
and other decorative pieces. With the development of
modern architecture, people have started
using the modern styles to add aesthetic details to the buildings
and are using various geometric themes. This kind of modern architecture
is being embraced by the office building, commercial complexes
and residential buildings. Modern art movements that
everyone should know about Modern art movements
have already been the gray area as many people
are not aware of it. There are myriad types of modern art
movements, which the current crop of artists is failing to embrace
while drawing a beautiful painting. From cubism to postmodernism, the art
took different shapes and forms. Ideally, these movements are
crucial for the people who are interested to learn about
the history of modern art. In fact, this art gives a clear
picture about the culture and art. No matter whether you are a newbie or
possess little knowledge about art, but these movements will definitely
help you to understand and perceive the paintings that are showcased
in the galleries and art museums and understand the essence in
each painting like a pro painter. Impressionism This kind of modern art
movement was observed to be in between the
year’s 1860 to 1880. Ideally, this kind of modern art was
believed to be started in the year 1867. This is a crucial development
and in fact is the revolution in the field of modern art
and was started in France. This was defined as the
beginning of modern art styles. In this art, the impressionists
have portrayed the past and have used the broken brushstrokes of
colors which are not blended. When you carefully observe the
paintings of this era, you would find the broken
brushstrokes in every painting. The impressionists have used the
scientific knowledge of different colors to create eye-catching and
appealing effects in their paintings. This painting has been created with
different effects of lighting. In fact, many artists have used
this style of painting to paint the effect of sunlight in the ways that
you observe in the nature every day. In this painting, colors are being
crucial to create the shimmering sunlight effect or other effects
of the nature over the line. Ideally, impressionism gives high priority
to the effects over attention to detail. And, the artists who embraced
this style of modern painting have tried to
recreate the effects of what they have captured
by the eyes about the nature rather than just recreating the
same subject of the nature. In this kind of paintings, you can see
the nature in a different perspective. To be precise, in this type of art,
the artist’s perception is portrayed rather than recreating the same
art that is found in the nature. In fact, this art has influenced and gave
rise to many other new art movements. In fact, there are a few artists who
define impressionism to be something that is captured by the artists by taking a
glimpse over the nature or some object. You can observe the
impressionism paintings to be bright, bold and have
very little details. Few of the famous artists who created
impressionism paintings and have won the hearts of many art lovers include Edgar
Degas, Camille Pissaro, Alfred Sisley, etc. Pointilism This is another modern art movement
which was defined during 1880s. This follows the impressionism movement. This kind of painting is created by
the artists where he/she captures the glimpse of an object or nature and
recreates it in their own perspective. The artists put a new perspective about
the object or something that he/she has identified in the nature in a new angle
as he saw at the particular moment. You can observe broken
brush marks in the paintings that were
painted during this time. But, this movement has taken impressionism
a step ahead where the paintings are created with miniscule dots or the points
that are made with different colors. You would be amazed to see the
paintings of this movement. Though, this movement was
being developed from impressionism, but the
painting, Grande Jatte, was developed with the state of the art
technique and with careful planning. In fact, this painting
is the contrast of both the impressionism and
pointillism movement. The advantage of creating the
painting with small dots is to add shimmering and
catchy effect to the painting. In fact, when you observe this
painting from a certain distance, it looks like all the points
are getting joined together. The theory that was embraced by the
Pointilism artists is divisionism. This style of modern art has made use
of different colors to create the art. This was the new discovery that was
made by the pointillism artists. Art Nouveau Movement This is another wonderful
modern art movement that was being created
in late 1880s. This was a decorative style of
art that was started at the end of 1880s and had a huge craze
until the First World War. This art was named after the famous shop in
Paris called La Maison de l’Art Nouveau. The reason for taking the name of
this shop as an art is that, this art shop has helped the artists to get new
ideas to produce unique paintings. This modern art movement has
accentuated the historical paintings. This art is called by different names
in different parts of the world. Ideally, in Germany, it is called
with Jugendstil, in Austria it is called with Sezessionstil, and in
Spain it is called with Modernismo. Moreover, this art movement has its
grass roots in the United Kingdom. William Morris has represented
this art movement by adding romanticism and
symbolism in the paintings. Also, you can notice leafs,
vines, flowers, long flowing hair of females and ornamental
motifs in the paintings. You can notice the different
ideas that are taken from the decorative arts across the globe
in these kinds of paintings. The paintings were added with exotic
details and the focus on decorative pattern gave rise to the new
form of art called abstract art. Ideally, paintings was not the only motto
of this painting, but this kind of style is also used in jewelry designing,
glass designing and interior designing. Apart from painting, this art
was quite famous in graphic arts such as poster designing
and illustrations. The artist who has won huge
accolades by the art lovers in this type of the modern art
movement was Gustav Klimt. In the Art Nouveau style of paintings,
the artist has created the painting in international style, which has
portrayed the trend of the modern age. And, the change in the elements of
this developing period blend with the spirituality, fantasy and mythology
have given rise to a new style of art. Though, this kind of paintings has used
latest techniques and new materials, but they have retained the uniqueness and
beauty of the traditional craftsmanship. Few of the renowned artists who have
created waves in this kind of art are Gustav Klimt, Walter Crane, Antonio
Gaudi, Louis Sullivan and Louis Tiffany. Post Impressionism As the name suggests, this form of art
is the development of Impressionism. This was started in the early 1889. This kind of art has great
concern regarding the light and color effects that were used
in impressionism paintings. However, the post impressionism
movement was very much keen about expressing personal and
spirituality in the art. Ideally, this art has
rejected the short strokes of colored paint that were used
in impressionism movement and encouraged the artists to take
impressionism a step further and lay a strong foundation for the discovery
of modern art for the coming years. This term was proposed by the
famous English art critic Roger Fry after going through the artwork
of various artists including Vincent Van Gogh, Henri
de Toulouse-Lautrec, etc. This movement does not have a set
of artists from one region, but the artists who embraced this style of
art were dispersed geographically. The artists, whoever was interested
in this movement of modern art have started creating arts using the
techniques and style of the arts. Paul Gaugin has migrated
to Tahiti to create a beautiful and colorful
painting of Tahitians. Many of the artists who wanted to try
this movement of art have moved from their cities to the rural areas to
create a wonderful piece of artworks. Van Gogh, one of the artists in this
period have closely worked with the peasant community and portrayed their
emotions and hardships in this artwork. He was a great painter who has
created the painting with short strokes of lights into curvy lines
that are made of amazing colors. Fauvist movement The word fauve means wild beasts. It means you could imagine
how wild and vibrant the paintings of this
movement would be. This kind of movement took place at
the end of the nineteenth century. In this type of paintings, the
artists have used vibrant and intense colors to portray the
paintings in a non-naturalistic way. This kind of movement allowed
the artists to express their imagination about the landscapes
and people in their perspective and by using a wide variety
of colors by expressing something beyond the image
painted in a vague manner. This movement was originally
started in 1905 and these kind of paintings were
showcased first in Paris. The name for this painting was coined
by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles. He gave this name as the classical
sculpture was being exhibited in between the fauvist paintings called to be
“Donatello au milieu des fauves”. These paintings are found
to be like wild beasts. This movement is a step
further to impressionist and post-impressionists where
short brush marks were used. However, in this painting you find bold
distortion forms and vibrant colors. This Fauvist painting has no
three dimensional space, but has two dimensional surface with
vibrant colored brush marks. Few of the famous Fauvist
artists include Georges Rouault, Maurice de Vlaminck,
Andre Derain, etc. There is another great artist
who use to paint a Fauvist painting is a professor in
Paris, and he is Gustave Moreau. By thinking out of the box
about the modern art has made the artists to give
birth to Fauvist paintings. Expressionism This art style was started in 1910
and has traces of international modern art, including cinemas,
literature, theatres and dance. So, you can observe all these elements in
the paintings of this kind of artwork. Basically, expressionism
is something where the emotional aspects of humans
are expressed clearly. You could find the same emotional
effect in the paintings. Ideally, impressionists have
portrayed whatever they have observed from the real
world in their perspective, but in this kind of movement, the
artists will embed his own emotions, feelings and personality in the
paintings to depict the world. The artist is giving his/her
emotional response to the world on what they have observed
from their surroundings rather than just painting
what they saw in the world. You can see the artist’s
reaction to the situations of what is
happening around the world. This is the best way to
express your thoughts about a particular situation that has
shaken the entire world. This movement was coined
in the year 1910 in Germany, i.e., in the beginning
of the 21st century. You can find the roots
of this German artist in impressionist and
Fauvist movement. Ideally, the roman artists in the
nineteenth century used to express their emotions on the real situation
that had happened in the world. This is like manipulating the reality by
adding the ingredient called emotions. In this type of art style, the
artists have used vibrant and unnatural colors to express the
emotional effect in a better way. You can observe the paintings of
Van Gogh to identify the colors, brush marks and shapes that were
used to express the emotions. The paintings of this
artist were spellbound. German artists have an important
place in the expressionism movement. Apart from these artists, the other
group called the bridge (also called as Die Brucke) has also
a meaty role in this movement. Few of the artists who have
contributed to this art style include Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff,
Max Pechstein and Emil Nolde. There is another expressionism group
that was formed by Wassily Kandinsky. The main objective of Die
brucke is to cement the gap between the past Germany
and future Germany. The artists took the essence
from the medieval art and sculptures of a bygone era
to create unique paintings. The elements extracted from the painting
of previous periods have helped them to add a new lease of life to the
insipid and unemotional paintings. In fact, the artists who
embraced this style of art have also taken inspiration from
the other famous artists, especially Van Gogh, who have worked on the
paintings that are loaded with emotions. Many of the artists took
vows that they will not paint the artwork
of the imaginary things such as women knitting something and
men doing reading or other works instead they decided to show the pain,
love, feel and breath of the people. After Nazis came into power
in Germany, the work of many artists was seized
and not recognized. Few of the artists who have
contributed to expressionism movement include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner,
August Macke, Franz Marc, etc. Der Blaue Reiter This art movement was started
in 1911 and was ended in 1914. Basically, Der blaue
reiter is another group of expressionism artists of
the twentieth century. The name of this movement
was taken from the painting which was drawn by Wassily
Kandinsky featuring horseman. This horse became pretty
popular and in fact has become a group name for
Kandinsky and Franz Marc. Alike to that of Die Brucke,
another group of artists, i.e., Der blaue reiter who brought
a sea change in the artwork. In fact, this group has conducted
exhibitions for the artists who want to express their
thoughts in the form of art. And, this art group was formed
by three famous artists. There include Wassily Kandinsky,
Franz Marc and Gabriele Munter. All these artists have the common
belief towards art that has expressed their thoughts in
art and color their emotions. Wassily Kandinsky wrote
about the art theories which have thrown
light on abstraction. The most commendable and brilliant work of
him is concerning the spiritual in art. The Der Blaue Reiter group has
conducted their first art exhibition in the year 1911, in which 14
artists have showcased their work. Out of those 14, there are
prolific artists Wassily Kandinsky, August Macke,
Franz Marc, and many others. This artist group has conducted
their second art exhibition in the year 1912 and this is pretty bigger
than the first art exhibition where 30 artists have exhibited
their artwork to the crowd and out of those 30 artists, there
are Pablo Picasso and Paul Klee. However, this art was being ended
in the beginning of First World War and after the death of the
Franz Marc and August Macke. In fact, the Der Blaue Reiter group
was marked as a breakthrough in the expressionism art movement and in
promoting the artwork of expressionism. This movement has helped the artists
realize that art is the best way to express emotions and in fact, this paved
a path for the abstract art movement. In fact, this is said to be a
revolution in the field of art. Cubism This movement was started
in 1908 and ended in 1920. History says that this artwork
was invented by Pablo Picasso. This brings a phenomenal transformation
in the artwork and this art clearly indicates that it was influenced and have
roots of African and primitive art forms. This piece of artwork has romanticism
in the art work, where the faces of the people are masked and are
made with sharp angular forms. In fact, you observe that the
entire image is distorted. However, the name of this art
style was given after the painting that was done by
the artist, Henri Matisse. In one of his paintings,
Georges Braque’s ‘Houses, the entire art work
was with small cubes. After this painting has been exhibited in
the art exhibition, this term has become popular in the artwork
and artists started followed this art style
to portray their art. This is considered to be the most
modern art among other movements. In fact, this art has
brought a sea change in the artwork and have totally
changed the meaning of art. This art style has reflected the work
of a great artist, Paul Cezanne. In his paintings, you can observe
the structure that is broken into small forms while accentuating
the important area in the art. The key trait of this
art form is that, the art is shown single
viewpoint from where you can notice the different subject and perceive
each subject in a different perspective. In fact, the cubism artists took a
step ahead and portrayed the objects in the art as if they are visible
on all sides simultaneously. Futurism This art style was started in the
year 1909 and ended in 1914. This kind of art has roots
of Italian country. You can notice the Italian
taste in this kind of artwork. Ideally, the other art
movements were started from the ideas taken from the
previous artistic work, but this futurism art style is a brand
new idea of art where ideas of an artist are put on the painting board
to create appealing visual arts. In fact, this technology has all
important elements of modern art, i.e. technology, violence,
speed, youth and modernization. It is the one that has driven
for the growth of fascism. This art was developed by
the famous poet, Filippo Marinetti’s Futurism
Manifesto in the year 1909. This artwork was very passionate,
but was disrespecting the old things that are expressed
especially in arts and politics. The main aim of this artwork is to amaze
people with the wonderful artwork. This artwork has covered all the
fields such as architecture, ceramics, theatre, films,
literature, textiles, etc. In fact, this artwork has pulled the
eyes of the young artists to convert their ideas into visual arts that
are appealing and eye-catching. However, the young artists took a
lot of time to put their ideas in the form of art and come up with a
beautiful and meaningful painting. This futurist art has taken Divisionism
theory as a reference to create wonderful images that are full of dots and
strips using a wide variety of colors. After the futurist artists
attended the exhibition that was conducted by the cubist artists
in Paris in the year 1911, they started to embrace
the techniques that were used by the cubist artists
to paint the pictures. In fact, the futurists
considered this to be the best way to analyze the
power of paintings. The artists are able to
extract the force lines of paintings to draw
wonderful artworks. Though, the futurists have learnt a lot
of new techniques from the cubists, but still their artwork was completed
different to that of Picasso and Braque. Though, the futurists did not produce the
artwork that is something different, but have mostly produced the
paintings that are full of urban communities and
vehicles in motion. The movement and focus of
cubists drastically contradict. Constructivism Constructivism is another
form of art style that was started in 1917 and
ended in the year 1921. This kind of artwork has its roots
from the Soviet Union, Russia. Though, it is not considered to be an art
movement, but was a new trend of art that has grabbed the eye of the artists to learn
the trend and produce the paintings. However, this artwork
was closely related to manufacturing, applied arts,
industry and architecture. However, the constructivism has
spread its wings to other parts of the country apart from Russia,
such as Paris, London and USA. In addition to Russia, this
kind of art was mostly encouraged in one of the
art schools in Germany. In fact, many of the artists who have
contributed their valuable paintings in this art movement have come
from different parts of the world. There are a few Russia
artists who have introduced this art movement
in other countries. Those artists include Naum
Gabo, El Lissitzky and Antoine Pevsner, dutch Theo van
Doesburg and many others. However, this art was born from the
Russian futurism art movement. You can notice the stylistic signs of
earlier art movement in the sculptures. Vladimir Tatlin who saw the work
of great Picasso and Braque in the art exhibition that
was held in Paris in 1913, have taken the ideas from their
paintings and implemented the same in the construction work
when he had returned to Russia. This is when the constructivism
art movement has come into force. Alike to that of futurism, even
constructivism is something that has completely accepted
the modernity in the artwork. The artwork that was
produced by the artists was totally of geometric shapes
and sheer experimentation. Ideally, this kind of
artwork was optimistic, but did not portray
anything emotional. However, the artwork was portrayed as per
the preferences of the individual artist. The best trait of this artwork is that
the entire artwork was simplified that any art lover can understand the meaning
that is portrayed in the painting. This artwork has come into force
after the First World War. This art movement wants to
wipe off all the art styles that were before and that
had to lead to the war. The new artwork has promoted
peace, harmony, and unity. Also, it portrayed about
the economic and social issues of the countries
in a diplomatic way. This kind of art movement
was started by the two famous artists, Naum Gabo
and Antoine Pevsner. This artwork was highly
influenced by the political situation during
those times in Russia. In fact, the government of Russia
has thought of teaching this new form of art in their art
schools to the budding artists. The chairman of this art school
at that time was Wassily Kandinsky, but he was very
much interested in mysticism. Ideally, constructivism was
considered to be the piece of art that was made of different
materials and spatial presence. The first constructivism art had
three dimensional constructions, but later it has spread its wings
to two dimensional constructions including posters, books and graphic arts. Few of the famous constructivist
artists include Naum Gabo, Vladimir Tatlin, El Lissitzky,
Alexander Rodchenko, etc. Dadaism This kind of art movement was the
outbreak of the First World War. Similar to that of the other art movements,
this kind of art movement was also the reaction against the elements that
are being established in the past. This artwork has strongly protested the
colonial attitudes and nationalist who are believed to be the main
reason behind the First World War. The colonial attitudes have triggered
the people to go to the war. However, many of the poets, artists, and
musicians were spellbound by seeing the capability of the people who
participated in fighting the world war. Ideally, the data movement
was against the traditional logic, since this logic is
what triggered for a war. The Dadaists have worked against the
traditional logic and reason and fought against the irrationality by
portraying the same in the artwork. Ideally, this kind of art style was
considered to be an anti-art movement, since this does not anything that a
traditional art piece possesses. Moreover, this kind of
art has totally rejected the aesthetic details
added to the art rather the artists who
embrace this form of art style has made the paintings
visually appealing. In fact, this art was being
embraced by the artists to disdain and trigger the
aggressiveness in people. However, not any of the
artists could clearly tell about how the Dadaism
movement was started. People believe that this theory
was started by the Romanian artists, since these people use
the words da, meaning yes. There is another belief that the name for
this art was given by the group of Zurich artists and the poet named Tristan Tzara and
picked an apt name from the dictionary. Ideally, in French the word Dada
means, child’s hobbys horse. Basically, this art was
being started in Europe, US and later was spread
to the other countries. But, this art form was humors in American
form over the European art form. However, this humorous form of the
art was produced by Marcel Duchamp. In fact, the beautiful and
the unbeatable creation of Duchamp is Mona Lisa has
a moustache and beard. However, apart from this, there
is another famous artwork that is being produced by
Duchamp, i.e., Fountain. This kind of artwork looks alike
to that of a urinal basin. However, this piece of art was being
taken and exhibited in the gallery. This artwork was submitted
to the Society of Independent Artist
exhibition in the year 1917. As per the exhibition policy
this artwork was being hidden, since this is
considered not to be an art. This was the decision taken
by the exhibition committee. However, this committee
decides on whether or not to showcase the piece
of art in the gallery. Duchamp has submitted this artwork
under the name R Mutt, where the exhibition committee is unaware
that he is a famous artist. As and when the exhibition committee
rejected his art to be exhibited in the gallery, then he resigned the board of
independent artists, as a kind of protest. However, this piece of
fountain is an art, but is something that has been
physically created by an artist. Few of the famous artists who
have contributed in the Dadaism art movement include George Grosz,
Otto Dix, Hans Richter, etc. De Stijl This kind of art movement was started in
the year 1917 and ended in the year 1931. This is a Dutch kind of artwork. This kind of artwork lets the
artist understand on how to produce the painting that is as per
their aim in a simple approach. This artwork was taken from
the roots of mysticism. In fact, this artwork has a
great influence from the Parisian cubism and believed
that Picasso and Braque have failed to go further
more to portray the emotions or landscapes or nature
in the abstract form. In this kind of movement, you can notice
the artwork that is full of straight lines, planar surfaces, geometrical
figures, colors and other neutrals. In fact, by embracing various forms
of art techniques, the artists were able to portray the laws of
equilibrium for life and art. This movement has poets, artists,
typographers, sculptors, and architects who were able to
extract the crux of the movement. Surrealism Surrealism is another art
movement that has its roots in Dadaism and was
founded in the year 1924. In this art form you can find the artists
portraying the culture and rationalism. In this art movement, the artists
have embraced thoughts rather than focusing on the aesthetic
details of the paintings. This is the quite famous
artwork in the modern era. And, this art movement
has become famous with the painting produced
by Salvador Dalí. This surrealism art was famous for its
eye catching and appealing images. In the paintings, both the
dreams and the things happening around the world are portrayed
and so got the name as surreal. Few of the surrealism artists
include Jean Arp, Max Ernst, etc. Ideally, surrealists have
worked in various fields such as literature,
sculpture, poetry and films. Though, many artists are
embracing the new artworks, but they are still using the
techniques of surrealism. This kind of artwork was
being used by the surrealist to represent the world that
is with dreams and reality. However, this piece of art is away from
violence, romanticism, decay and scatology. Abstract expressionism This is the first art
movement that was coined in the United States having
its roots in the 1940s. This kind of movement is also called
by another name, i.e., action painting where emotional content
was portrayed in a better manner. Few of the famous artists who have
contributed their works in this kind of art include Clyfford Still, Jackson
Pollock, Helen Frankenthaler, etc. Minimalism After the astounding success of abstract
expressionism, minimalism is an art movement that has portrayed the physical
relationship of people with the artwork. Few of the famous artists
who have portrayed this kind of art include Tony
Smith and Donald Judd. The above mentioned are a
few types of art movements that have created waves
in the past few decades. However, even today, the artists are using
the techniques that were embraced in the preceding periods to produce unique,
eye-catching, and appealing artwork. How modern art is different
over the other art forms Here are a few characteristics that
define the uniqueness of modern art Different types of arts: The modern art form has gave
life to different art forms such collage, photography, animation,
land art, and performance art. Using various materials: In the modern art, the artists have
started using various materials to create unique piece of art that
is meaningful and eye-catching. In fact, few painters are using
newspapers, glass pieces, steel, and fragments of
other items to create art. There are a few artists, one among them
is Duchamp who has created junk art. This form of art was created
with the everyday debris such as wood boxes, suitcases,
clocks, old cars, etc. Use of wide variety of colors: There are a few famous art movements
such as Fauvism, Expressionism, etc. have started using colors in a unique way. Embracing new techniques: Chromolithography is a technique
that was being developed by Jules Cheret, who is
a famous poster artist, automatic drawing was being
developed by Frottage, a surrealist painter while there are other
forms of art techniques that are being developed and
are in use by the artists.

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