History of Mac OS X

Hey guys it’s Greg with Apple Explained,
and today we’re going to explore the history of Mac OS X. The first version Mac OS X was released back
on March 24th 2001 and marked the death of its predecessor; Mac OS 9. Steve Jobs actually
held a mock funeral for Mac OS 9 on stage during the 2002 worldwide developers conference.
[funeral clip] The release of Mac OS X began a new era for the Macintosh. One that was
a bit… furry. Since the title of every Mac OS X release was named after a cat. It all started with a public beta that Apple
codenamed “Kodiak.” Well, technically Mac OS X’s development goes all the way
back to NeXt, the computer company Steve Jobs founded after being forced out of Apple, but
that’s a story for another time. Kodiak, the Mac OS X beta, was released to the public
on September 13, 2000 for $29.95. This was a big deal for Apple since their previous
attempts at a Mac OS overhaul were failures. This release proved that Apple finally had
a new, workable operating system that wasn’t just vaporware [ding! Show definition of vaporware.] Something worth mentioning about the public
beta is that the Apple logo you see centered on the menu bar had no functional purpose
at all. It was only there for looks. The public beta enjoyed about six months of
life until Mac OS X Cheetah was ready to ship on March 24th, 2001. Cheetah was the first
major release of Mac OS X and retailed for $129USD. It was a huge departure from Mac
OS 9. The most noticeable change was the glossy user interface Apple called Aqua. Steve Jobs
famously said [We made the buttons on the screen look so good you’ll want to lick them.]
And he wasn’t wrong. The Aqua interface set a new standard for just how appealing
a computer interface could look. The Dock was another big change from Mac OS
9. It was a new way of organizing your applications and a welcome change from the classic Application
launch menu. The Terminal in Mac OS X allowed access to the Unix core, something that was
never possible on previous versions of Mac OS. Mac OS X also featured a native mail client,
Address Book, and a new native word processor called TextEdit (which replaced SimpleText
in Mac OS 9.) With all the good Mac OS X brought, also came
the bad. Thing like… missing features. You couldn’t play DVDs or burn CDs and there
were a lot of hardware drivers missing for external devices like printers. Mac OS X was
also vulnerable to kernel panics which would crash the system, leaving users feeling like
the operating system wasn’t stable. Another issue was speed. You’d think an operating
system named after the fastest land mammal would be quite snappy, but It was sluggish
at best and painfully slow at worst. This was mainly due to the new Aqua interface that
favored form over function. All the criticism of Mac OS X ultimately resulted
in Apple offering users a free upgrade to the next version of the operating system;
Mac OS 10.1 Puma. This upgrade addressed many prior complaints by including an Apple DVD
Player application, support for CD burning, and support for 200 printers out of the box. Although version 10.1 Puma was a more efficient
operating system than its predecessor, it still received its share of criticism. Puma’s
system performance was deemed ‘not enough’ for many users to adopt Mac OS X as their
main operating system. And while it did contain some important improvements, many users complained
that the leap from Cheetah to Puma was not large enough. The user interface had barely
changed at all, and significant bugs still existed, including the kernel panics that
caused systemwide crashes. On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up Puma
with Mac OS 10.2 Jaguar. It retailed for $129USD and brought much-needed performance improvements,
a sleeker look, and over 150 user-interface enhancements. It also introduced an instant
messaging client called iChat, Address Book, Inkwell for handwriting recognition, and an
apple logo upon startup instead of the happy Mac icon featured in previous versions of
the operating system. Jaguar was generally well received by Mac users as a big step forward
in stability, speed enhancements, and compatibility; but critics of the operating system were not
afraid to speak out, claiming that speed issues with the user interface existed and that,
everything considered, the operating system was still a big step down from Mac OS 9. Mac OS 10.3 Panther was released on October
24, 2003. This was the biggest update yet to Mac OS X’s user interface. Panther retailed
for $129USD and included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including
an updated Finder, a brushed-metal interface, fast user switching, a window manager called
Exposé, FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat),
improved PDF rendering, Font Book, and better Microsoft Windows compatibility. Panther was
an important release for Apple since it served as a true first class desktop operating system.
There wasn’t much criticism surrounding this release since it addressed many of the
issues in Jaguar, the previous version of the operating system. On April 29, 2005, Panther was replaced by
Mac OS 10.4 Tiger and still cost users $129 to upgrade. Tiger contained more than 200
new features including a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari
web browser, Dashboard, and a new ‘Unified’ theme. Mac OS X Tiger shocked executives at
Microsoft by offering features like fast file searching and improved graphics processing,
features Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable
performance. Six weeks after its release, Apple had sold 2 million copies of Mac OS
X 10.4 Tiger, representing 16% of all Mac OS X users. Apple claimed that Tiger was the
most successful Operating System release in the company’s history. At the WorldWide Developers
Conference on June 11, 2007, Apple’s CEO, Steve Jobs, announced that out of the 22 million
Mac OS X users, more than 67% were using Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger. Apple announced a transition to Intel processors
during Tiger’s lifetime, making it the first operating system to work on machines with
Apple–Intel architecture. The original Apple TV, released in March 2007, shipped with a
customized version of Mac OS X Tiger branded as “Apple TV OS” that replaced the desktop
GUI with an updated version of Front Row. Tiger was succeeded by Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard
on October 26, 2007 after 30 months, making Tiger the longest running version of Mac OS
X. Leopard also sold for $129 and Apple called
it “the largest update to Mac OS X”. It brought more than 300 new features including a redesigned
Dock, Stacks, a semitransparent menu bar, and an updated Finder that incorporates the
Cover Flow navigation interface first seen in iTunes. Other features included support
for writing 64-bit graphical user interface applications, an automated backup utility
called Time Machine, support for Spotlight searches across multiple machines, and the
inclusion of Front Row and Photo Booth, which were previously only included with some Mac
models. Now, Apple has a reputation of being very
punctual, but Leopard’s release was actually delayed twice! In 2005, Steve Jobs said that
Leopard would be released at the end of 2006 or early 2007. But when the end of 2006 came,
the release date was changed to Spring 2007; but when spring 2007 came, Apple said Leopard’s
release would be delayed until October 2007 because of the development of the iPhone. Something unique about Mac OS X Leopard was
its retail packaging. It was significantly smaller than previous versions of Mac OS X
and it sported a lenticular cover, making the roman numeral X appear to float above
a purple galaxy. Mac OS 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August
28, 2009 and it was the first version of Mac OS X to be sold for $29 instead of the usual
$129. Because of the low price, initial sales of Snow Leopard were significantly higher
than its predecessors. Rather than delivering big changes to appearance and functionality
like previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focused on “under the hood” improvements,
like enhancing performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. The most
noticeable changes were increased disk space after installation due to the lighter operating
system, a more responsive Finder, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user friendly
disk ejects, improvements to the Preview application, and a faster Safari web browser. The Mac App
Store became available in Snow leopard with the 10.6.6 update and caused a problem for
Mac users when Snow Leopard was replaced by Mac OS 10.7 Lion on July 20, 2011. The issues was Apple initially didn’t sell
any physical copies of Lion. Instead, the operating system was available exclusively
as a download from the Mac App Store for $29.99. The only prior version of OS X that supported
the Mac App Store was Snow Leopard, which meant any machine running Tiger or Leopard
would first have to be upgraded to Snow Leopard, as opposed to upgrading directly to Lion. Apple remedied the situation a couple weeks
later by announced a USB flash drive containing Mac OS X Lion, priced at $69, available through
the online Apple Store on August 4, 2011. Lion brought developments made in iOS to Mac
OS X, like an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad, and
more multi-touch gesture use across the system. It also featured auto-hiding scrollbars, Mission
Control, full-screen applications, and system-wide autosaving. Mac OS 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on
July 25, 2012 following the release of Lion the previous year. It was the first time Mac
OS X was updated after one year instead of the usual two years. This allowed Mac OS X
updates to align with the annual iOS updates. The operating system featured Gatekeeper a
malware-blocker, integration with Game Center and iCloud, and the Safari web browser was
updated to version 6. As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications separate
from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS’s Messages.
Mountain Lion also added a version of iOS’s Notification Center, which groups updates
from different applications in one place. Integrated links allowing the user to quickly
post content to Twitter were present in the operating system from launch. Facebook integration
was also planned but not available at launch, it was released as a downloadable update later. OS X Mountain Lion received positive reviews,
with critics praising Notification Center, Messages, and speed improvements over Mac
OS X Lion, while criticizing iCloud for unreliability and Game Center for lack of games. Mountain
Lion sold three million units in the first four days, and became Apple’s most popular
OS X release at the time. The release of Mac OS 10.9 Mavericks on June
10, 2013 was unique in a couple ways. It was the first version of Mac OS X not named after
a cat. Instead, Apple announced they’d begin naming new versions of Mac OS X after landmarks
in their home state of California. Also, Mavericks was the first Mac operating system to be available
for free. And all versions after Mavericks would remain free to download. Mac OS 10.9 Mavericks emphasized battery life,
Finder improvements, other features for power users like improved external display support.
Mavericks also included deeper iCloud integration, reduced skeuomorphism, improved notification
center, and new apps like Maps and iBooks. The next version of Mac OS X called Yosemite
was released on October 16, 2014. It featured a major overhaul of the macOS user interface
by replacing skeuomorphism with flat design and blurred translucency effects, following
the aesthetic introduced in iOS 7. Other design changes included new icons, a dark color scheme,
and a new system typeface called Helvetica Noy-yay. The Dock also became a 2D translucent
rectangle instead of a skeuomorphic glass shelf. Many of Yosemite’s new features focused on
the theme of continuity, increasing its integration with other Apple services and platforms such
as iCloud and iOS. The Handoff functionality allowed the operating system to integrate
with iOS 8 devices over Bluetooth and Wi-Fi; and enabled Mac users to make and answer phone
calls, send and receive text messages, activate personal hotspots, or load items being worked
on in a mobile app directly into MacOS. During Yosemite’s lifetime Apple discontinued
iPhoto and Aperture and replaced it with the Photos app. This sparked some outrage among
Aperture users who pointed out that Photos was not a suitable replacement for Aperture
since it didn’t contain any of the advanced features that pro users needed. Mac OS 10.11 El Capitan was released on September
30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple said the released contained “refinements
to the Mac experience” and “improvements to system performance” rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built
into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco
as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection.
The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in El Capitan. macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public
on September 20, 2016. New features included Siri, Optimized Storage, auto-unlock with
the Apple Watch, night shift, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes. During Sierra’s
introduction Apple announced they’d be changing the name of Mac OS X to macOS. This change
made sense since it mirrored Apple’s other operating systems WatchOS, tvOS, and iOS. macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released on September 25,
2017 and focused on performance improvements and technical updates rather than new features.
Notable changes included the Apple File System, Metal 2, support for HEVC and HEIF, and updates
to Photos, Mail, Safari, Notes, and Siri. So that’s it guys, I hope you enjoyed this
History of Mac OS X. if you enjoyed the video don’t forget to leave a like, thanks for
watching and I’ll see you next time.

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