History of Italy Documentary


Italy has been taken from the word
Italia which means calf land, which is probably because the Southern Italian
tribes had bull as their symbol. Italy is officially known as
‘Repubblica Italiana’and almost four-fifths of it is covered
with hills and mountains. The country comprises of
more masterpieces per square mile than any other
country across the globe. It is also home to one of
the oldest universities situated in Rome which
was founded in 1303 A.D. and is usually referred to
as ‘La Sapienza’, there are around 150,000 students
in the university. Italian history is one
of the histories that still have remembrances
from its way past. Besides wars and battles
there also has been time of peace and growth among
the people of Italy. Some of the world’s most
renowned and famous artists whose works are world
famous belong to Italy. This is the place where art and
literature is appreciated and it is here that you will find the preserved
treasures from the renaissance period. Every piece of art has a story
to say and the intriguing beauty never fails to capture
the heart of the beholder. Italy is now ranked among the leading
countries in world exports and trade. It has a huge agricultural
sector and it also happens to be the world’s
largest wine producer. The country has a thriving population
with a dense history as for its past. Geographical Layout The Italian or the Apennine Peninsula is
one of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian
Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), covering 1,000 km from the
Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean
Sea in the south. The peninsula is bounded by
the Adriatic Sea on the east, Tyrrhenian Sea on the west and
the Ionian Sea on the south. The internal part of
the Apennine Peninsula comprises of the Apennine
Mountains, from which it gets its name, the
northern part is mostly plains and the coasts
are lined with cliffs. Italy is one of the most
important countries that lies in the
southern central Europe. It inhabits peninsula jutting
deep into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy’s holds within itself some of the
globes most diverse and picturesque magnificence and is often defined
as a country shaped like a boot. You also get to see the world’s most
rocky mountains here; the Alps. The highest peaks are the along
Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa. Both of these mountains are in the most
happening cities – France and Switzerland. Towards the south is Tuscany
which is Italy’s best region. Overseeing the Alpine lakes
and the valleys of glacier expanding to Piedmont and Po
River are the western Alps. The Apennine Range exudes from
the central Alps and broadens near Rome covering almost the
whole of Italian peninsula. The Apennines taper down towards the
south of Rome and is fringed by two wide coastal plains, one faces the Adriatic Sea
and the other faces the Tyrrhenian Sea. Most of the lower Apennine chain is
almost wasteland and is home to some of the rare animal species like the roe
deer, red deer, Marsican wild boar. Some of the rare plant species
like wild peony, ghost orchid, Marsican iris and
lady’s slipper orchid. There are many active volcanoes such
as Vesuvius in the southern Apennines. Sicily and Sardinia lie in the bottom
of Italy, in the Mediterranean Sea. Prehistory Monte Poggiolo is the where the first
hominins settled 850,000 years back. By the Bronze Age four
waves of migration occurred in the territories
of Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Lombardy, Liguria, South Tyrol,
Capua, Campania, Salerno and Sala Consilina. By the 8th century BC Italy was
in the proto-historical period and Phoenician script was
introduced among the inhabitants. Etruscan Civilization The origin of the Etruscans
is not known exactly. However, their civilization flourished
after 800 BC in central Italy. The only connection that can
be found is that they are an indigenous tribe and come
from Villanovan culture. A recent study concluded
that the Etruscans could be a result of an
invasion from Near East. The Etruscans are the nearest to a
Neolithic population from Central Europe. They concentrated on expanding their
civilization in the Apennines. They has a strong political
structure, although similar but much more refined
than the Magna Greece. There was a non Indo-European language
that was used as mode of communication. They followed monogamy. Mining of iron and copper and their
trade led to the growth and prosperity of the Etruscans who expanded their
hold not only in the Italian peninsula but also towards the western
parts of Mediterranean Sea. Around the 6th century BC the
Phoceans who were a Greek tribe settled along the coast of
Catalonia, France and Corsica. The interests of the Etruscans
conflicted with those of the Greeks. The Carthaginians also did not favour the
Greeks and made allies with the Etruscans. Battle of Alalia was fought by
Carthaginians and Etruscans who fought as allies against
the Greeks in 540 BC. Although it was an indecisive battle Etruria
relegated and moved towards the Tyrrhenian Sea and ruled on Corsica whereas Carthaginians
expanded over the Greek territories. After the 5th century
Etruria began to decline when they lost their
territories in the south. Carthage did not survive long and
was defeated by Magna Graecia in 480 BC, Etruscans lost their ally
which left them with lesser power. Battle of Cumae in 474 BC weakened
the Etruria even more, as they lost Campania and Latium
to the Samnites and Romans. Gallic invasions snatched away their rule
from the Adriatic coast on Po Valley. The Etruscans were soon taken
over by Romans who then amalgamated of what was left of
Etruria in the Roman Empire. Magna Graecia The Greeks started settling in
the southern parts of Italy, eastern Libya, eastern coat
of Black Sea and Marseille. The extended settlements were a result
of over-population and even famine. The area of Sicily and
the foot of Italy were referred to as Magna
Graecia by the Romans. Magna Graecia in Latin meant Great Greece. The name was given so because of the
dense population of Greeks in the area. When this colonization happened there was
much changes that took place in the Greek culture especially in the dialects,
traditions and religion of the Ancient Greek. The interaction of Italian
and Latin civilizations led to the birth of original
Hellenic civilization. The most significant cultural
transfer was the Cumaean variation of Greek alphabet that
was adopted by the Etruscans. The old alphabet of the Italians slowly
advanced to modern Latin alphabet which is now being used as the most
common alphabet across the globe. Several cities of Hellenic
such as Acragas, Neapolis, Sybaris and Syracuse were
mighty and influential. Cities like Ancona, Tarentum, Bari,
Rhegium, Elea, Croton, Syessa, Epizephyrian Locri and a few
others made up the Magna Graecia. Magna Graecia fell
terribly after 282 BC when the Romans started
expanding their empire. They were also susceptible to
attacks from the barbarians. Roman Kingdom The accounts for the Roman
Kingdom have come down from Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
Livy and Plutarch mainly. They mention about Rome being ruled
in succession by seven kings. According to the chronology that has been
codified by Varro, a total of 243 years have been marked as their rule which means
an average of 35 years for each king. The Gauls not only destroyed the
lands and took lives in the Battle of Allia in 390 BC but
also burnt the written records which could have been
important proof about the kings who ruled the lands
during those times. What remained of the records were
either stolen or destroyed with time. The myths say that Rome was founded
by Romulus and Remus who were twin brothers and grandsons of the
Latin king Numitor of Alba Longa. Roman Republic The Roman Republic was
established roughly around 509 BC when the rule
of seven kings ended. By the 4th century Romans
took over the Italian peninsula including the
Etruria and the Greeks. The overpowering Romans had to
face Carthage in the 3rd century. Although the Carthaginians
were powerful they were unable to subdue the
Romans and after the three Punic Wars Rome took over
Sicily, North Africa and Hispania ultimately
destroying Carthage. In the 2nd century BC they
defeated the Empires of Seleucid and Macedonia and ruled over
the entire Mediterranean. The conquests led to a fusion
amongst the Greek and the Romans. The Romans who were rural now
became stylish and lavish. The Romans had one big
Empire and no enemies. The Roman Republic went through a phase of
social turbulence and political emergency. It was Julius Caesar who
brought two more men together to bring back
stability in the Empire. Together with Pompey
and Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar formed
the first Triumvirate. After the death of Crassus
in 53 BC the Triumvirate broke and Pompey and
Caesar fought for power. Caesar took over Rome in
49 BC but his rule didn’t last long and was assassinated
in the year 44 BC. Once again Rome was
without a proper leader. Mark Antony took over the
leadership of Rome but his affair with Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII
caused a political upheavel. Caesar’s adopted son Octavian
attacked Antony and crushed the Egyptian armies, both Cleopatra
and Antony committed suicide. Octavian was now the only
ruler of the Republic. Roman Empire Octavian was the first
emperor of Rome in 27 BC. He was now called Augustus. It was under him that
Rome prospered and was at its peak in terms of
magnificence and glory. Although there was a republican, Augustus
had complete control of the Empire. Roman literature grew fast and
poets like Ovid, Vergil, Rufus, Maecenas and Horace made it possible
for Latin Literature to flourish. This period is referred to as the
Golden Age of Latin Literature. Epics such as ‘Aeneid’and other grand works
of the poets became the gems of the period. Romans witnessed a 200 year
peaceful and flourishing reign which is referred
to as ‘Pax Romana’. Although Rome was a strong Empire they
continued to extend their boundaries and some of their noted conquests
comprise of – conquest of Britain, conquest of Dacia, conquest
of Parthian Empire and also the conquest
of Germanic tribes. The death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395
marked the end of the mighty Romans as after this Rome was divided into
Eastern and Western Roman Empire. For some time Odoacer managed
to keep the Western Empire united under his rule for some
time but it was conquered soon. The Western part was pestered
with Barbaric invasions and was taken over by several
small barbarian kingdoms. Middle Ages Italy was distraught and shattered
after it was conquered by Ostrogoths. The Gothic War led to diseases
and famine in the country. This also led to the Lombards
taking over the Italian peninsula. In 751 the Lombards captured Ravenna,
overthrowing the Byzantine Empire. The Papacy in Rome was now face to
face with a new power – the Lombards. They looked forth to the Franks
to help them fight the Lombards. The Franks defeated the
Lombards and the Papacy has the reigns of central Italy in
their hands once again. They established Papal States. The Pope crowned Charlemagne the Holy
Roman Emperor in Saint Peter’s Basilica. The successors of Charlemagne were weak
and could not uphold the Empire together. Islam rose during these
times in North Africa, Arabian Peninsula and
Middle East and the southern parts were
under constant attacks from Abbasid Caliphate
and Umayyad Caliphate. The north was under the
pressure of communes. Sicily was under the Islamic
rule from 965 to 1061. As the millennium cam end so did the
dark times for the Italian peninsula. The cities gained back their
strength and popularity slowly and the Papacy was
once again in control. Papacy always faced
some or the other rebellions or conflicts
throughout their rule. These problems were never ending and
carried on till the Medieval Ages. In 1176, the Lombard League of
communes finally defeated Frederick Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano
and established an autonomous rule. The southern part of the peninsula
had a completely different history. The Normans bought and end
to 600 year old history of Lombard and Byzantine
possession of lands. It was the Normans who ended
the Islamic rule in Sicily. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily
was now ruled by Roger II. Roger II bought together all the smaller
cities under one powerful rule. He united the southern peninsula
into a large and strong kingdom. A Byzantine Emperor
Manuel Komnenons tried to conquer back the lost lands
but was unsuccessful. The Byzantines left Italy in the year 1158. The Norman Kingdom stood
strong till 1194 before it was taken by the Staufen dynasty
which was a German tribe. Sicily was under the influence of several
such dynasties till the 19th century. Italy had a very different form of
administration that ruled it for centuries. Both church and Imperial people
had powers but both had different tracks and none of them
intersected each other’s path. The cities and states prospered
and gained fame and wealth through trade which led to
development of art and culture. This automatically set in the
environment for Renaissance. Feudalism did not exist anymore
and the society was mostly based on trade and commerce with merchants
who took care of these areas. Republic of Venice was especially
known to be thriving with merchants. The Italian cities had an encouraging
place between the East and West which is why it became the hub for
banks, international trading etc. Venice, Florence and Milan were
the leading cities and played an important role in the
financial uplifting of Italy. There also emerged new types of economic
and social organizations in the societies. Maritime was booming and Genoa,
Venice, Amalfi and Pisa were among the leading cities where
production of ships happened. The ships were extensively built for
trading and the protection of the cities. Genoa and Venice has become Europe’s
gateway for trade with the East. It also controlled trade with Islamic
countries and Byzantine Empire. Florence established itself as an
exceedingly systematized financial and commercial city and was Europe’s capital
of banking, wool, jewellery and silk. Renaissance All of Europe was influenced
by the thriving art, science, politics, literature
and history of Italy. It was the most significant
center for Renaissance. In the later part of Middle Ages
the southern and central Italy, those were once throbbing cities
of Magna Graecia and Roman Empire had now degraded and were quite low
compared to the northern peninsula. Rome was ruined and Papacy has
no control on law and order. The Papacy moved to Avignon in France. Sardinia, Sicily and Naples were
under foreign control for some time. The cities of Italy extended
their boundaries vastly and now completely controlled
the Holy Roman Empire. The Black Death plagued
the cities of Italy in 1348 and killed about
one-third of the population. The phase when the cities recovered from the
losses is when Renaissance and Humanism occurred and Italy took back its position
as a leader in the Western civilization. It was rebirth of not
only urbanization and the economy but also of
the art and culture. The Italian Renaissance began first in
Tuscany that was in the city of Florence. Spreading south, the Romans
also were impressed by this and Rome was then rebuilt by the
Popes of the Renaissance period. 15th century was when
Renaissance was at its peak and it was then that it was
plagued by foreign invasions. Renaissance began in Florence
and moved to Lucca and Siena. Tuscan painting and architecture
became model for all the cities in the central and
northern parts of Italy. Science, Philosophy and Literature The beginning of Renaissance
is seen by Petrarch who is known for the best sonnet
sequence of Canzoniere. Another famous person is the
author of Decameron, Boccaccio. Other poets who were famous
poets and authors were Ludovico Ariosto, Matteo Maria
Boiardo and Luigi Pulci. The scholars of the period
studied the works of classical writers like Cicero, Vitruvius,
Aristotle and Plato. Works of Hellenistic, Muslim and
Greek writers were added to the library so the European
scholars had material to study. Poliziano and Marsilio Ficino made several
translations from Greek and Latin works. Barlamm of Seminara and Leonzio
Pilato were scholar monks. Barlaam had taught Greek
to Petrach and Boccaccio. Leonzio was a master translator and
translated Homer’s work to the word. Baldassare Castiglione in his
work ‘Book of the Courtier’ wrote down about his vision of
a perfect lady and gentleman. Niccolo Machiavelli is known for
laying down the foundation of modern political philosophy
through is works in ‘The Prince’. The book was highly
conflicting in nature as it did not match the Catholic
doctrines of the time. Painting, Architecture and Sculpture Some of the renowned
painters of the Renaissance period were Masaccio,
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giotto di Bondone, Michelangelo, Titian,
Botticelli, Piero della Francesca
and Leonardo da Vinci. Novelty, grandeur and magnificence
are present in every work of architecture that belongs
to the Renaissance period. St. Peter’s Basilicaand Tempio Malatestiano,
Florence Cathedral are some of the works that live on to tell the tale
of the brilliant works of architects such as Andrea Palladio, Brunelleschi,
Bramante and Leone Alberti. Aldo Manuzio founded
the Aldine Press that was famous for printing
in the Italic style. The books printed here were
pocket-sized and cheap. Unremitting Warfare Most powerful cities of Italy were all
situated in the central and northern parts and among the strongest were
Genoa, Milan, Venice, Florence, Siena, Verona,
Pisa and Ferrara. Further up in the north of Italy
was the continuous battle between the Papacy and the Holy
Roman Empire for sovereignty. There were two groups into which every
city had sided – Ghibellines and Guelfs. Wars among the states or cities
were common but incursions from outside Italy were limited to sporadic
raids of Holy Roman Emperors. Politics of Renaissance
developed from this backdrop. From the 13th century the armies of the
cities mainly constituted of legionnaires. The cities were rich and
could afford forces. By the 15th century all the powerful
cities amalgamated the smaller areas. Verona and Padua were taken by Venice,
Pavia and Parma along with several smaller places was taken by Duchy of Milan and
Pisa was taken over by Florence in 1406. Wars were a constant
affair and the armies that fought for the lands were
known as condottieri. The condottieri were soldiers
from Switzerland and Germany and they were led
by Italian captains. The condottieri did not want to risk
their lives unnecessarily and the wars turned to cordons and manipulations
and the battles became less. The condottieri played
smart and continued the conflicts as this was their
means of employment now. If not paid on time the mercenaries
would turn on against their employers. There were many occasions when the
mercenaries thought of overtaking the state because it was they on who
the citizens were dependant on. Genoa, Venice and Pisa
were at war at seas too. Several years of conflict finally
declared Genoa as winner over Pisa. Venice was more powerful than
Genoa as by the 15thcentury the Genoese started to decline
and Venice ruled the seas. Milan, Florence and Venice dominated
the lands and the Peace of Lodi written in 1454 finally bought a
stop to the never ending wars. For the next forty years there
was peace in the peninsula and Venice’s hold on the seas also
saw peace till the 15th century. Italian Wars Italian Wars began in 1494 when
France invaded northern Italy and there were several states
that lost their independence. The main reason for the wars
was dispute among dynasties between Kingdom of Naples
and Duchy of Milan. This dispute slowly increased
and gave fire to fiercer battles which included
more states and alliances. Charles V led the French armies at
Battle of Pavia in 1529 and War of the League of Cognac that lasted
for four years – 1526 to 1530. Years of wars and battles
could not decide a winner and ultimately with the Peace
of Cateau-Cambrésisthe French relinquished its
claims and instated a long Spanish domination
over the peninsula. The Turks attacked the vicinity on Venice
in 1499 and destroyed the neighbourhoods. It was attacked again in 1509
by the League of Cambrai. The German and Spanish
troops sacked Rome on May 6, 1527 and destroyed the city
except for the Papacy. Abbruzzi and Apulia were sacked in 1528. 1529 and 1530 saw the siege
of Florence which brought about destruction to the
neighbouring environs. Italy’s trade was ruined and most of
the citizen’s wealth was confiscated. The population became half. Wool and silk industries that were
once booming were devastated. Ransom that was paid to the invaders and
taxes charged bared Italy completely. The recovery would be
excruciating and long. Early Modern History The period of 17th century
was an unbridled time that was marked by political
upheaval and social unrest. This was because of the
Spanish effect on the Italian peninsula, the
power of Papacy, the reaction of Catholics
against the Protestant reformation and Counter
Reformation of Catholics. Although there were several
accomplishments in the fields of arts and
sciences which included the Baroque style of painting and discoveries
made by Galileo in the field of astronomy there was an inclusive decline
in the economy of Italy. Italy undoubtedly had some
of the best explorers who led to several
important discoveries. Amerigo Vespucci, Christopher
Columbus and Giovanni da Verrazzano are the famous names
in the list of discoverers. Despite their fame Venice and other Italian
ports were no longer considered as important as the main hubs were now
moved towards the West in the Atlantic. 30 years of war in which the Spanish were
involved between 1618 to 1648, financed their armies by levying heavy taxes
on the Italians and drained them dry. Their commerce and agriculture
suffered tremendously. 1630, the Black Death returned
and emaciated Milan and Venice. About 25% of the population was
lost to the horrific plague. Another plague in 1656
claimed the lives of about 43% of the population in
the Kingdom of Naples. The French Army of Italy led by Napoleon
invaded Italy in 1796 and between 1797 and 1799 Napoleon had conquered almost all of
Italy and called it French Revolution. He was based in Milan and
set up new rules laws. The Roman Republic was formed and
the Pope was sent to France. He formed the Kingdom of Italy in
1805 and declared himself King. Netherlands was made
Batavian Republic by the French and Switzerland was
now Helvetic Republic. All of them had to pay subsidies to Paris
and also give military support to Napoleon. Administration and politics were
bettered, Jewish ghettos were abolished, trade barriers were brought down
and metric system was introduced. Piedmont and Belgium were
now main parts of France. Napoleon later took Dalmatia and
Veneto and added to his Kingdom. Ligurian Republic was also
forced to merge with France. Slowly Kingdom of Naples,
Marche and Tuscany were also made a part
of Kingdom of Italy. The Europeans allied themselves and
defeated Napoleon on April 6, 1814. He was sent on an exile to Elba. This resulted in the Congress of Vienna. Napoleon escaped and came back to
France where Joachim Murat was in rule. He asked the Murat to convince
the Italians to fight for him but the Italians were not persuaded
to fight along his side. People rebelled against
Murat and killed him. The Kingdom of Italy fell
and many kings who were ruling before Napoleon came
back to their thrones. States were now independent and now Italy
was under a period of restoration. Unification of Italy – 1814 to 1861 The social and political
process that unified the Italian peninsula is
known as Risorgimento. Although there is no
specific date that can be said about this unification
but scholars say that it began with the Congress
of Vienna in 1815 and ended with the
Franco-Prussian War in 1871. There were many disputes among the
leaders on when it came to unification. The unification started happening
only after the revolutions of 1848. Italian nationalist
Giuseppe Garibaldi took the lead in the Italian drive
for a united Italy. Italy made allies with France and Britain
which also helped in the unification. The southern parts of Italy
were considered to be backwards while the northern parts of
Italy were much modernised. The people of South were not asked to
give their views in important matters. The misunderstanding and gap led to civil
wars which lasted for ten long years. By the time these revolts ended
millions moved to South America, United States and more industrial cities
such as Turin, Genoa and Milan. Liberal Italy – 1861 to 1922 King Victor Emmanuel II united most
of the states of the peninsula. The main builders of unified Italy
were the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, Camillo Benso, Giuseppe
Garibaldi and Count of Cavour. The Prussian Prime Minister offered
Victor Emmanuel II to annex Venice that was controlled by Austria in
exchange for Kingdom of Prussia. He agreed to the alliance and it led to
the Third Italian War of Independence. Austria lost and Venice was
added to Italy once again. The only thing that came in the
way of unification was Rome. In 1870, Italy took over the Papal
State, ultimately unifying Italy. The capital of Italy was
moved from Florence to Rome. 19th century saw industrialisation at its
boom and modernisation was speeding. Agostino Depretis took over
Italy as the Prime Minister and implemented a new political idea
which he called “Transformismo”. Transformismo was all about a
cabinet that was to pick several reasonable and proficient politicians
from a non-partisan outlook. But this was not so,
Depretis pressurised the districts to vote for those
who would favour him. He banned public meetings
and all those who posed a threat were exiled and
sent to remote islands. Some of the things of that can be counted
as the positive side of him were that the elementary education was made free,
arrest for incurring debt was stopped, and compulsory religious
teachings were also stopped. He was forced to resign in 1877
however, he was back in 1881. He was once again thrown out in 1887 when
the country faced continuous decline. World War I and Italy Initially Italy chose to remain
quiet on taking sides but later on the London Pact made it declare
war in Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy was promised huge
territories in exchange. Although the army was huge but it was
poorly supplied and even more poorly led. The effectiveness of the war was
pitiable and continued for three years. In 1916, Italy declared war
on Germany and the Austrians who already had higher
grounds got more privilege. Thousands of Italian soldiers
were killed and more injured. The government had to bring back Italy
to a higher level so it increased the labour wages and introduced collective
bargaining and insurance schemes. The industries began to expand
although the industrial wages matched the rising
inflation, the farmers suffered. The residents in the rural
areas were not happy. The Treaty of St. Germain announced
Italy as victorious and awarded it. The Pact of London did
not give Italy it’s said territories so the triumph was
thought to be ‘mutilated’. Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini was the
founder of Fascist Party. He has participated in the World War I and
was working with Socialist newspapers. He later broke off and established Fasci
di Combattimento on March 23, 1919. Period of 1919 and 1920 was seen
as a period of time of strikes, political instability,
unemployment and economic crisis. The strikes were not only among
the industries and factories but also among the peasants and farmers
in the rural parts of Italy. The National Fascist Party
managed to suppress all these rebellions and tried to bring
peace and order in the country. In the October of 1922 Mussolini put forth
his demands when there was a strike. He told the government
to give the power to the Fascist party or Italy
would have to face a coup. A group of 30,000 Fascists
marched from Italy to Rome and said they would
restore order in Italy. They asked the then ruling Prime Minister
Luigi Facta to be replaced by Mussolini. Even though King Victor Emmanuel
II had a much powerful army than the Fascists the political system
was going through a crisis. He had to choose between the Fascists or
the Marxist, he filtered down to Fascists. Once the Fascists were in power, Mussolini
passed a law that stated two-thirds of the seats would be given to the party
that would manage to get 25% of the vote. The 1924 election was
not pleasant as the Fascists forcefully
reached the goal of 25%. Benito Mussolini cleverly removed any
obstacles that checked his power and finally in 1926 he passed a law that he was the only
person who was responsible to the king. All the local governments were
dissolved and officials were appointed while the mayors and
councils were thrown out. In 1928 there were no parties
except for the Fascists. The Latern Accord of 1929 was
a treaty that recognised Pope as the authoritative
person of Vatican City only. Vatican now had an independent status and
became an important centre of the world. The treaty also stated that Catholicism
was the only religion of the state. Other religions were tolerated as well. The bishops and priests were given salaries
and church marriages were recognised. The religion was taught in schools now. The bishops promised their
loyalty to the Italian state. The church was not obliged
to follow Fascism and the differences
were always there. However, the peace continued with
these small differences too. Mussolini vowed to make
Italy the biggest power in Europe and hold power
in Mediterranean Sea. There was an equally powerful
man who was Adolf Hitler. Mussolini and Hitler met in 1934. Mussolini wanted an
assurance from him that the Nazi’s would not try
and control Europe. Mussolini decided to
attack Ethiopia in 1935 and Second Italo-Abyssinian
War stemmed in the international isolation of
Italy, becauseBritain and Francenow lost their trust
in Benito Mussolini. World War II Germany’s invasion of Poland
marked the World War II. Although he supported Hitler Benito
Mussolini said that he was neutral. Mussolini along with the Fascists
wanted to seize Middle East and Africa. He was warned by the King about
the army not being efficient enough for a long term war and
to fly the weapons and tanks. Mussolini took the advice and waited
when France was attacked by Germany. France lost and it was now that
Mussolini entered in the war. Mussolini expected to speedily
seize Savoy, Nice, Corsica, and the African colonies of Tunisia
and Algeria from the French, but Germany signed an armistice with
Marshal Philippe Pétain instituting Vichy France, which reserved control
on southern France and colonies. This resolution infuriated
the Fascist government. Italy couldn’t stand any fronts
and was losing continuously. By 1943, there were many battles they lost. On July 25, 1943 Mussolini was arrested
by King Victor Emmanuel III’s order. The National Fascist Party
was banned and a new prime Minister was appointed –
General Pietro Badoglio. Mussolini was saved by a German
commando in the Operation Eiche. The Fascists helped the Nazis in
several ways but they finally lost. Mussolini was caught on April
25, 1945 and was executed for treason the next day, thus ending
a long Fascist rule in Italy. Italian Republic On June 2, 1946 the republican won 54%
of vote and this made Italy a republic. The House of Savoy were
barred from entering Italy, this bar was
lifted only in 2002. By 1950, Italy was stabilized and,
in 1957, the economic and commerce developed soon and Italy was
finally free from her troubles. Wars and revolts, battles
and rebellions had left the country weak
but it recovered soon. The country is now leading in
global trade and commerce. Italy became one of the founding
members of the European Economic Community, it is
now the European Union. There have been many changes
in the government after the Republic and today Italy
is a thriving country. Italy has been marked by chapters
of momentary long separation and union of futile kingdoms
and intercommoned conflicts. With its 60 million residents
the country now enjoys peace, have developed culture and
high standards of living. It is now a prosperous country and has
developed a high sense of growth compared to the early years of 20th century when
the country was dependant on agriculture. Tourism has now prospered and
its capital Rome happens to be in the list of tourist’s
favourite place of visit. Not to forget the fashion hub – Milan. Milan has been the center of music,
learning, art and culture since antiquity. It also happens to be the best place
to taste the region’s top cuisines. Another important city located
in the Ligurian Gulf is Genoa. One of the most important
places which is also of great religious importance
is the Vatican City. Vatican is always thronged by
tourists throughout the year. The city of love, the city of canals, the
city of bridges or the city of masks call it what you like– Venice is one of
the most romantic escapades for couples. It is addressed as the “La Serenissima”
and the “Queen of Adriatic”. Literature, art, culinary, music, religion
and philosophy seem to thrive in Italy. The country has preserved
its reminiscences from the wondrous painters and
sculptors of ancient times. Italy has in store some
rare and extraordinary gifts for the people
of the world.

Comments 15

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  • THE BEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD

  • I love Tuscany, but I’m not sure what the notion of “the best region” is coming from…

  • stop disable comments on other videos

  • this is how A.I learns.

  • i have seen this picture of Venice like 1000 times, so annoying..

  • hit that little bell

  • What about the zombje stuff?? History channel told us thay theres a zombie sickness here..

  • A vague account if Italian history. An opportunity to mine a rich seam of historical events lost. Where was Mazzini? The Black Hand ( Mafia) the real modeling of the EU that Napoleon could not bring about. The magic of story telling is in the detail. No mention of the Politically driven "Years of Lead" that raged on until the 80's taking countless lives. Not PC I suppose?

  • I love Italy so much , I have lived there  I think it was so amazing for me. I love Italian history so much.

  • Well done!

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  • some of Italian are evil minded what I have learned from History .

  • Etruscans were from the country of lidia in western Turkey. Lidian people were not greeks, they were a tribe of proto turks. Etruscan people's language and Turkish language can not be classified as an indo europian language. Also Etruscans writing symbols are simmillar to the letters of gokturk alphabet. (It is the one of the alphabets of Turks.) Their mithological stories and chracters were very simmilar to ancient Turkish mithological stories and characters. For example, their rassena is the same as turks' asena which is a female wolf. On the other hand, dead burying style of Etruscans were according to kurgan(tumulus) cultur. This cultur only signs Turkish cultur all over the world. One more point, the pronunciations of the words "turk" and "etrusc" are very simmilar to eachother. For those reasons, etruscan people's origin depands on a Turkish tribe.

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