History of Israel Documentary


As you go for the deep
research on something, it is important to know
about the basics on same so that which can help in better
understanding of whole of the concept and same is the case
here is going to be repeated. Before going over to study the
history of Israel it is important that you get to know about
this country, Israel itself. So, starting over with
this Israel, which is also popularly known by the
name of State of Israel, is a country situated in Middle
East which can be found over on those southeastern and
northern shores of Mediterranean and Red Sea respectively touching
those borders of Lebanon by the north, Syria by
northeast, Jordan by east, Egypt by southwest and
also to the Palestinian territories and GazaStrip
by east and the west. Capital of this state is Jerusalem, the
one which is declared by the government though there is not any kind of authority
recognized from the state yet, along with that is the financial
capital which can also be called as the technology center
and is named as Tel Aviv. Moving forward, if we
talk about the population in here, according to
Israel Central bureau of statistics in 2016
the total number of people in Israel is been
counted as 8,541,000. This country is been considered as the one
having Jewish people in majority counting 6,388,800 or one can say 74.8% of total
population there is being designated as Jewish. Next to that, the second
group of people in majority is those of Arabs
counting 1,775,400 people which include Druze and those
of east Jerusalem Arabs among which most of those Israeli Arabs
are actually Sunni Muslims also including those semi-settled
Negev Bedouins and the remaining ones are been counted
as Christians and Druze. Also there are many of those other minorities
which includes Samaritans, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians, Circassians, Maronites,
Dom people and also the Vietnamese. This doesn’t really end here as there
are more of the people which Israel is holding such as those who are
seeking asylums from Africa and Asia or the one who works in foreign country
but do not have any citizenship which also includes illegitimate refugees from
Eritrea, Sudan or Sub Saharan Africans. According to those rudimentary
laws, government of Israel call themselves as that Jewish and democratic
state which is highly developed and also a member of OECD with that
35th largest economy in the world. In addition to that this country
has that highly skilled workforce which is always there to get them
benefitted in different fields. Talking about education,
this country is also been counted as one of
those highly educated countries having maximum of those people
holding tertiary education degree in hands. Well, when it is about Israel one should
definitely know that there is nothing less in success and development they
are going to learn about this country. So, moving over to the
next this country is the one which in Middle
east is been counted as that highest ranking having best standard
of living and third highest in Asia. There are those larger number
of expectancies from this part of the world and reason
is no far a secret by no. Or is it? Well, there are so many of those
secrets that this country is holding within and obviously
an interest to read about which at major tells people about
how this country actually cameinto existence and what are those
many of the different happenings that it is been following
since 1948 (year of independence) over to reach
this peak of success today. No doubt, this is not easy
to be counted among those highest ones when it is about
education and lifestyle. What is the History related to Israel? Now, this is the thing which
holds over that concept of Jewish and modern history
in the state of Israel. Modern Israel and west bank
are said to be situated at the site of ancient
kingdoms of Israel and Judah, also it is considered as that place which
gave birth to Hebrew language and Abrahamic religions including the sites linked to
Christianity, Islam, Judaism and many others. Israel was ruled by many of
those different territories and also has been home to
varieties of community groups, which made whole of this
community go primarily Jewish until that 3rd
century, moving forward which changed to become mostly
Christian and then Muslim in 7th century which
lasted till the 20th era. In the year of 1096 and 1291 this area
was concluded as a focal point where there was a frequent conflict between
Christian and Muslim community, at the end of which it became
the part of Syrian authority. There was one national movement
named as Zionism which at first came into existence
in late 19th century. As soon as the British took over
theOttoman Empire there were those more of the happenings
which took place in continuity including the Balfour
declaration in World War I and also the increment in formation
of Mandate of Palestine which in other words can
be said as the Jewish action of coming to the
land of Israel permanently, which as a result lead to the
increase in many of those problems between Arab and Jewish causing
collision in there national movements. In 1948 as Israel finally got their
independence, there were those huge number of Jews who migrated
from many of the countries like Europe and Muslim countries and
also there were huge migrations of Arab people from Israel which also
lead to the conflicts between them. So, all in all one can
say that there are total of world’s 43% Jews
who resides in Israel today making it one of
those, no actually the top and largest Jewish
community in the world. Moving forward to more of the details
on same, in 1970, United States for Israel became the supporter in
military and many other purposes. And then in the year of 1979 an agreement
on Egypt-Israel peace treaty based on Camp David Accords was signed so as to
maintain peace between the two nations. Similar to which there were so many
of those other agreements that were signed between Israel and
different nations such as in 1993, Oslo I Accord was signed with Palestine
Liberation organization, which then led to the discovery and establishment
of Palestinian National authority and then in following year
of 1994, an agreement named Israel-Jordan peace
treaty was signed. Though, there were agreements
signed between Israel and different nations so as to
maintain that peace within but there were those so many conflicts
that can be seen between Israel and national and international countries
related to politics or economy. History from Ancient Times Now, as you know the
highlighted points from the history of Israel, this
is the time when you should look up for the
happenings from ancient times about what all
took place in there. It is about 2.6 and 0.9 million
years ago when there were many of those happenings about people
shifting from Africa to Levant, everyone having those
different cultures within, flint artifacts of whom
were found in the territory of Israel and also following
those many of those oldest stone tools which
were found at Yiron. In addition to this there are many
of those other groups that were found around 1.4 billion years
old such as Acheulean Industry, the Bizat Ruhama group
and Gesher Bnot Yaakav. Also, following this in carmel
mountain range there were those early human remains found with the
skeleton of Neanderthmal female, also known as Tabun I that
is regarded as one of the most important human
fossils in the world. This process of digging the
earth up in el-tabun produced that longest record in the
field of Stratigraphy coming up with the report of
having 600,000 or more hears if human activity in that region
from those Lower Paleolithic to the present day
activity, indicating that millions of years of human
evolution in that area. Now, talking over the times when this
name Israel came into existence is in Merneptah stele founded for Ruler of
Egypt “Merneptah, son of Ramses II”. According to William G. Dever, Israel is
nothing more than a cultural and political entity in central highlands which can
also be said as that ethnic group at most and not some kind of state with
proper organization and maintenance. People who belong to Israel included
Semites to Canaan and Sea peoples too, on which McNutt says that it would be good
here to assume that during Iron age, most of the population began themselves
to get identified as the one in Israel departing oneself from Canaanites through
those marks of prohibiting intermarriages and focusing over the family history
and also the religions which they belong to so as to go for the
same and doesn’t get out of track. The very first use of grapheme
based writing came into existence by the area having Canaanite
people resided in Egypt; one can call this writing as that base
to many of those modern writing styles. Evidence of this writing which is
also known as Classical Hebrew is known from about those 1000 BCE,
written using Paleo – Hebrew alphabet. Villages at that time were having
that population of 300 to 400 people which used to have their
own source of making living including farming and herding,
making them self-sufficient with no chance of having
economy related problems. So, one can say that writing at that
time was just used for the recording purpose no matter if it is been used in
some large sites or the smaller ones, indicating that any
kind of archaeological evidence can be assumed
as some kind of society having small villages with not so many
numbers of those resources and population. Among these old times of
Iron Age there were also some of the links between
Israel and Judah kingdoms. By theperiod of 10th century there was
that special importance given to kingdom of Israel indicating about how important
role it was playing in everyone’s life there and this was all
before falling of this power into the hands of Neo-Assyrian
Empire in late 722 BCE. And in mid of all this was the
kingdom of Judah, neighbor of Israel from south which came into existence
in 8th or 9th century BCE and enjoyed their success as a
client state, at first with Assyria and moving forward
which got good with Babylon and all of this got good before
that war against Neo-Babylonian empire that completely
devastated it in 586 BCE. And this destruction of
Babylon to Persian made many of those people basically
Judeans return to Jerusalem, initiating the formative
period in the growth of a unique Judahite identity in
the Persian domain of Yehud. Now, Yehud was the one which
was already overtaken by Hellenistic Kingdoms following
the downfalls of Alexander but all of this continued till
that 2nd Century BCE when the judaeans finally fought against
Seleucid empire of Hellenist and thus succeeded in creating
that Hasmonenan Kingdom on their own which was considered as that
last independent Judean kingdom. This kingdom finally came to end
at 63 BCE with its breakdown by Pompey of Rome, there were
those huge number of disturbances caused at the kingdom of Israel as
a result of installing of client kingdoms in Herodian dynasty
including destruction of temple, first war between Jewish and
roman people, and also the appearance of Rabbinic Judaism
and early Christianity. There were those many of ages that
this Israel and Judah territory has been through which includes
Iron Age I ranging from 1200-1000, Iron Age II ranging from 1000-586, Neo
Babylonian ranging from 586-539, Persian period from 539 to 332 and also the
Hellenistic period from 332 to 53. Iron Age I – According to McNutt, as already
discussed above, it was during this age only when most of the population began
identifying themselves as Israel people, in other words which is also known as
‘Israelite’ differentiating themselves from those another people in terms of their
religion or many other decision making ideas. Also, along with that it is believed
that at the end of Iron age I there was that huge increment in number of
villages and also the population there which was at the time of late bronze age
was just 25 villages and at the end of iron age was 300, also the population
doubled in numbers from 20,000 to 40,000. More of those villagers were on the
northern side who left none of their remains to be traced as whether
they were Israelites or not. As this iron age approached
to the end there was more of the Israel being
spreaded all over the area. Iron Age II – For two long centuries
of Iron Age II there were those not so much favorable climatic conditions which
lead to the growth in population, settlements and trade all over
the area that resulted into the alliance in this territory with
city of Samaria as its capital and all of this happened by the mid of 10th
century when a legend of Egyptian pharaoh Shishak is believed to
be recording a number of campaigns that were
focused to the area. Then moving over to the period of 9th
century BCE, this was the time when Israel got appeared with proper clarity and
also this very time Shalmaneser III, the Assyrian king named through his
enemies at the battle of Qarqar. Also this time , Israel got engaged
in many of those competitions including one with Damascus and Tyre
for the control of Jezreel valley, second with Galilee in north
direction and also the third one with Moab, Amman and damasus so
as to get control over Gilead. Moving along in the 7th century there
were those people of Jerusalem who grew up to really big with
great number of population in comparison to what it
was earlier making that clear authorityamong its
neighbor countries. And all this happened at the time
when Assyria was destroying over the Israel so as to have that
control over whole of that place and get Judah established on there, already
controlling the valuable olive industry. Within some time there was that Judah
already working out as an Assyrian state but it doesn’t settled there for so
much long as in the mid of 7th century Assyrian at sudden
collapsed and the conflict between Egyptian and
neo-Babylonian empire for getting the control over land
made Judah get destroyed at whole between the
period of 597 and 582. Babylonian period – This was the period
during which there was that huge failure in terms of both of economy and population in
comparison to those other previous periods which also made them loose the
negev, the shephelah, and also the part of Judean hill
country including hebron. Also during this period there was that
huge effect on Jerusalem that made it much smaller that it was in previous time which
made the town of Mizpah in Benjamin to become the capital of new
Babylonian authority, Yehud. Also while all this was going on
there was that strong expectation that the temple of bethel in Benjamin
substituted the one in Jerusalem so as to upsurge those number of bethel’s
priests in comparison to that of Jerusalem. This ruling of Babylon not only destroyed
the Jerusalem and its temple but also the whole organization which made
Judah to remain there for centuries. Following all this there was also
that strong belief, known as ‘Zeon Theology’, according to which Jerusalem
had been chosen by the God of Israel and also that Davidic dynasty would
rule this place like forever. And now as the Babylon was
taking over whole of the kingdom and making city fall with no
further kingship from Davidic, all of the exile community
including king, priests and prophets started looking forward
to the new concept community, faith and politics which would be all
according to the new ruling power which make them get belief in Hebrew bible
along with all of the exile community. One can say that exiles in
Babylon were all responsible for making people learn their
individual responsibility and also the concept of
universalism according to which it is believed that
god controls the world. Persian period – Now, as the Babylon
fell to Cyrus in 539 BCE, it made Judah become that executive
partition within the Persian empire. Cyrus was the one who succeeded in getting
that leadership of Cambyses who at first added Egypt to their authoritywhich transformed
Yehud to that important boundary plain. Moving forward to his death in 522
after which the empire was followed by turmoil after which in 521 finally Darius
detained all of the powers and throne and introduced a modification in those
arrangements in administrationof the empire which also comprised the collection,
organization and management of local law codes. And then after 404, Persia at sudden
lost their control over Egypt which made Egypt become their main competition
at the outer borders of Europe and then this caused them
to stiffen up their control over other authorities
including Yehud and others. Though, all of these made Egypt get
conquered but the after that Persia lost its control over every other authority
as it got a huge fell to Alexander. Now yehud’s population
in this entire period or Persian was not more than
30,000 and following that of Jerusalem it was no more than 1500
which were connected by the means of temple. It is also believed that cyrus, the Persian
conqueror of babylonmade Jewish people return to Jerusalem and also get their temple
built again, which was completed by 515. After all of this in mid of next century
Jerusalem finally got that chance to become the capital of Judah, during all
of this it is also believed that Persian even experimented their ruling with Yehud
but by the middle of 5th century BCE, Yehud become the theocracy which was ruled and
controlled by hereditary high priests. According to the history it is
believed that Ezra and Nehemiah made a visit in Jerusalem, somewhere
in the mid of 5th century BCE o as to restore those walls
of Jerusalem getting through the Persian king and
the status of governor. There were those lots of tensions
between the people already residing in Yehud and those who returned over
from those other places to their own, and this is all because the returnees
had that demand to rebuild their temple which can make them feel like they actually
returned to their own native place. In 5th century , ezra and Nehemia made a try
to make this place from rivalry to the one with unity and purity which was inspired by
the theories of Ezekiel and his followers. So, basically all in all during this
Persian era or one can say that during the period of 538 and 400 BCE
there was that huge number of changes such as foundation for Judaic religion
and also the beginning of biblicalnorm. Along with that there was those
another changes such as Hebrew was considered as that everyday language
for the Judah people and many others. Hellenistic period – After the death
of Alexander in 322 BCE, its generals decided over to divide whole of the
empire among themselves and Ptolemy I who was ruling the Egypt
seized for Yehud Medinata, but it was already losen up by the
succesors in 198 to Syria. Though at first the relation between
Seleucids of Syria and Jews but later on there was that huge conflict between
them as a result of which Seleucids lost and there was that independent
kingdom of Jewish people, which is also been considered as a civil war
by many of those modern critics. Now, the hasomonean kings were trying hard
to make the Judah as it was described in the bible, such as which included the
ruling of Jewish monarchy from Jerusalem and also which included
all of the territories that were once ruled
by David and Solomon. And so to make this project work, there
was that huge conversion of Moabites, Edomites and Ammonites to the Judaism and
also that kingdom of Israel which was lost. Then moving over in 63 BCE, Jeruslaem was
finally fought over by the major general of Roman, named as Pompey and thus which made
this Jewish kingdom a client state of Rome. Rule of Romans As by now you are already
been knowing about many if the concepts related to the
history of Israel and jews and now here you are going to get read
about its history by the roman rule where interaction of romans and Jews during the
time of roman empire has been traced. Though, there was also that huge
correspondence between their different cultures but all this was carried
out before the Christian period. People who belonged to jewish
migreated to the rome and roman Europe from land of Israel,
Babylon, Alexandria and Asia minor as there were those huge number
of conflicts going on between Ptolemaic and Seleucid territories
in the land of Israel itself. Now, as they moved over there in Rome were
those best of the privileges that jewish people enjoyed and thus which made them become
the part of community in proper manner. There was that roman authority of Syria
established in 64 BC by the major general of Roman, known by the name of Pompey
who also defeated Jerusalem in 63 BC. Moving forward in 45 BC, pompey was
defeated by Julius Caesar who at first conquered Alexander in 47 BC, now as
the whole empire was under Julius there were those many of the
changes and alterations that were brought up
during this period such as Judaism was now a legal
religion in there as followed by the very first roman
ruler named as Augustus. Similar to this there are many of those
happenings in following eras such as in 40 BC Herod was considered as
the king of Jews by roman people, in 30 BC Roman authority for Egypt
was developed, in 6 AD Samaria and ldumea were converted into
roman authority of Ldumea. There were also many of those
tensions between jewish and roman people which lead to many of those
wars between them, under 6-135 AD there was that huge loss
occurred for Jerusalem which also destroyed
that second temple, not ending here institution of Jewish tax and
roman colony (named as Aelia Capitolina) which was attempted to be made by
Hadrian was completely destroyed. Around this whole of the time period,
Christianity seemed to enter and spread around all over the region
making other religions get neglected. It in about 313 when Constantine and Licinus
allotted the order about proclamation of Milan giving that official credit
to the Christianity being accepted as that legal religion among all
of the people living there. Now, following this the roman capital was
also moved from rome to Constantinople, and all this is done by Constantine
and then all this finally lead to the Christianity church
in roman empire and also the rights that
were being introduced by the roman emperors so as to make every
other person their respect the religion. Now, this was the brief knowledge
about whole of the period when roman empire actually came into existence,
walking over those deep discussions, according to the encyclopedia
of jewish people it is believed that jews
people lived in Rome for around 2000 years which is obviously very
much longer than any other European city. Also it is being said that these people
went there direct from Alexandria and this is all been done by the dynamicviable
interaction between these two cities. Two of the civil wars are properly been
explained in the jewish encyclopedia connecting bith of them with each other
where the one of them took place in Judea between Hasmonean brothers including
Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II and the other one took place in Roman republic
between Pompey and Julius Caesar and in mid of all this was getting
over the evolution of Jewish people in Rome, it actually grew very
rapidly as many of the jewish people who were taken to the rome as
prisoners were set free by them and thus which made whole of the
population get incremented. Along with all this, rome also got
involved in eastern Mediterranean, with the end of Third Mithridatic War when
Syria was made that head by Rome. After that when Mithridate got
defeated, there was this Pompey the great who had a control in its hands
to all of the area over there which also included that
visit to the temple which was built up in
there in Jerusalem. Moving forward, during the first
century the kingdom named as Herodian was discovered as roman
client kingdom and then in 6 AD, these remains became the domain of roman,
also known by the name of laudea province. Julius Caesar formed over a
policy by which jews people were permitted to follow their religious
and spiritual practices, which was at first maintained by the first
emperor of rome that is augustus and thus maintained by the people having
the control after that to the region. Now, this policy by Caesar
made Judaism the unique status by which they
have now that permitted religion throughout the
empire which was obviously more than enough to have
proper status in that city. Talking over the problem between rome
and jews, this thing actually first came in light when there were those
financial crisis occurred under Caligula. Now, the first war between these two
was caused in 66 AD, though which was been kept down by two of the roman
emperors named as Vespasian and Titus. Following which in 70 AD there was again a
conflict in which romans ruined much of the temple in Jerusalem
among which many of the artifacts such as Menoroh
were highly destroyed. As all of this was
happening, jews people just continue to live in their
lands, though there were many of those other wars
taking place too such as the kitos war which took
place from 115 to 117. This was the war which destroyed many of the
villages, actually 985 in number and also most of the population from Judaea was
killed or forced to get out of that place. Now as people were vanishing out
of the Jerusalem which was renamed as Aelia Capitolina, people were
now gathering into Galilee. As the wars between Jewish and roman
people continued for like long long years from 66 to 135, after this the
name of Laudea province and Jerulaem was changed to Syria
Palaestina and Aelia Capitolinarespectively by
Hadrian and all this was done to remove any of the
historical connections of Jewish people from
that particular region. Also the more of the jews and jewish
people were now only been taught to practice their religion and then they were
banded out from the Jerusalem region. While all of this ended, the
Roman Empire now brought over the Christianity as their state
religion on 27 February 380. As many of the judaean people were
sent into the slavery there were those many of the people who joined the
citizenship of many other roman empires, data of which can be looked over in
the scripts of acts in new testament. Though, they were happy
on being relocated to the safe place but there was
also that negative affect which was making them feel
like homelessness and also about getting away
from their own religion. Also the policy which was passed
over to make jewish people get into the part of accepting those
religion practices of Judaism was now not so much in
action and seem to get ended up with the end
of wars against Roman. Now, there were many of those
Jews people who even after the failure of Bar Kokhba revolt
stayed there in the land of Israel and went through many of
the different experiences which obviously
include many of those conflicts against people
and territories who visited there to have that
control over the area. At this time there were
many of those Jewish texts that were composed in
these Israeli cities such as Jerusalem Talmud,
completion of Mishnah are the examples clearly
indicating the same. Tannaim and Amoraim are considered as one
of those most active rabbis also known as Jewish scholars who were well known for
organizing and debating the law of Jerusalem. One can look for Tannaim decisions
in many of those compilations such as of Mishnah, Beraita,
Tosefta and many other are there, among which Mishnah was the one that completed
shortly after 200 AD by Judan Hanasi and following this, the
commentaries under Amoraim was completed around 400
AD in Jerusalem Talmud. After this in the year of 351,
most of the jewish population in Sepphoris started a conflict against
the ruling of Constantius Gallus, that was the brother-in-law of Constatius
II, the emperor and that too is performed under the leadership of Patricius which was
later restrained by the general of Gallus. There was that tradition followed
according to which in 359 a Hebrew calendar was created which was
actually the lunisolar calendar and was based on math and calculations
rather than any kind of observations. Before this discovery, there was that
huge dependency of the jewish community which was outside the land of Israel
only on the observational calendar that was authorized by Sanhedrin, as
obviously it is necessary to have a calendar for noticing up those dates which can
make one know about the holy days. There was that huge danger
for those who any how tried to communicate or share their
thoughts with each other, as all of this continued, Hillel finally
determined to provide that authorized calendar which was not at all dependent on
any kind of observation from Jerusalem. Now, as most of the people were
made convinced to get towards the Christianity there was that
one emperor named as Julian who rejected the offer to become
Christian and also made many of the Jews community to get back
to their Jerusalem community so as to live with their own
religion, also who made people to get that temple
rebuilt for third time though. Julian also worked over the
campaign against Sassanid Empire which experienced a failure
later on and nothing else and also which made Julian get
killed in the battle on 26 June 363, which as a result lead to the failure
of any rebuilding of temple. Due to the great revolt in 1st century
and also the Bob kokhba revolt in 2nd century, there was that huge
amount of destruction in Judea which lead to that huge influence upon the
jewish people throughout the world and that is because the center of worship got
altered from temple to that rabbinic power. Among those so many jews,
there were some sent as slaves while some of them got
transported as prisoners, some of them linked with the current
dispersion and also there were some who continued to live there in Judea itself
and started working for Jerusalem Talmud. Though, the jews who joined the current
diaspora got that chance to get into the Roman empire which was later restricted
because of the rise in Christianity. Later on there were those
many of the jews which were taken out of the
Judea and then sent to those many of the roman countries such
as in middle east, Europe and north Africa. War for Independence (1948-present) There were those may of the
declarations been noticed by the superpower leaders such as Harry S.
Truman and Joseph Stalin so as to have that confirmation
of having new state settled up and also get all
of the conflicts get aside. But the league members of Arab
including Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq declined
on this partition plan by UN and announced for the right of
self-determination which can allow them to have that own planning of how
they are going to make it happen. And this declaration made Arab
states march a force against Israel which gave a start out
that first Arab-Israeli war, adding to the fact that there
were those huge number of military equipment already
available to the Arab states which basically means that
they were on that top of their offense making the competitor
fall over the knees. Moving over on 29th of May,
1948 British people finally introduced United Nations
security council resolution according to which many of those
equipment were sent across to the jewish state so that which can match the needs
to which the Arab is already having. During this war of independence,
haganah became that Israel defense of forces which was being
joined by many of those states who wanted to have independence
from all of those difficulties and battles over the religion and
region, Palmach, Etzel and Lehi were also three of such states which were
fighting over for their independence. As the battle was on the stake, etzel
decided over to bring on the private equipments by the way of water through
ship which was named as “Atalena”. But as the ship approached over tha area
the government decided to not to fulfill their demand and thus Ben Gurion gave
an order to let the ship get sunk. There were many of those etzel
members which were killed in the battle, after which
many of those Jewish members among which most of them was World
war II migrants began coming back to the new state of Israel
and thus joining over the IDF so as to fight the battle
against those who are looking over to have control over
the land and the area. Now, as the people of Jewish suffered
that huge amount of loss in their territory and also their occupation
was destroyed by the Arab people, there was a time when condition actually
turned in the favour of Jewish people and thus gave them a chance to push
arable people out of their territory and have control over the land which
was at first under arab people.

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