History of iOS


Hey guys, it’s Greg with Apple Explained
and today we’re going to cover the history of iOS. This topic was the second place winner of
last weeks voting poll and if you didn’t get to vote, make sure you’re subscribed,
that way the voting polls will show up right in your mobile activity feed and you can let
me know which video you’d like to see next. So as you probably already know, iOS is a
mobile operating system that Apple created for use on their iPhone, iPod touch and iPad. Now iOS is one of the world’s most popular
mobile operating systems despite only running on Apple’s own hardware. Compare this to the Android mobile operating
system, which is licensed by Google to various hardware manufacturers and wireless carriers. Now the debate over which approach is better
is a topic we’re not getting into today, because in this video, we’re going to focus
on the history of iOS and its development from 2007 to 2018. So back in 2007 the first version of iOS was
released, but it wasn’t actually called iOS back in those days. In fact, Apple didn’t give the iPhone’s
operating system a name until 2008, when iPhone OS 2 was introduced. Up until that point, Apple marketing material
simply said that the iPhone runs a version of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop operating system. But today, the first version of iOS is referred
to as iPhone OS 1. And the capabilities of this OS were groundbreaking
at the time. Because keep in mind, the BlackBerry was leading
the smartphone market back in 2006 and its operating system was considered best in class. Although in retrospect, it appears to be very
archaic. Now Apple recognized the shortcomings of smartphones
at the time, and envisioned a device that was more capable, while also easier to use. The device was the iPhone, and its success
depended almost entirely on its operating system, iPhone OS 1, which redefined the capabilities
of a mobile device. In fact, when the first iPhone was introduced,
competitors admitted to being shocked by what Apple was able to accomplish, and it sent
them back to the drawing board. So exactly what about iPhone OS 1 caused such
a disruption? Well it ran applications that had almost all
the capabilities of its desktop counterpart and were super easy to use thanks to the iPhone’s
multitouch interface. This hadn’t been the case with other smartphones,
which had plastic keyboards and buttons that became quite clumsy and complicated the user
experience. In fact, many of the features included in
smartphones at the time weren’t even being used by customers, since many couldn’t figure
them out. That’s why Steve Jobs included this chart
during the iPhone’s introduction, which illustrated their goal to make the iPhone
the most capable and user-friendly smartphone in the industry. Now it’s probably more interesting to talk
about what iPhone OS 1 didn’t have, rather than what it did have. Because basically with iPhone OS 1, you had
the stock apps included on the phone, and that was it. But even those applications were extremely
limited compared to modern versions of iOS. For example, Messages only supported SMS texting. That meant all you could do was send and receive
text messages of up to 160 characters, no photos, emojis, or voice recordings. And if your message was longer than the 160
character limit, it was automatically divided into several parts. But perhaps one of the most significant features
missing from iPhone OS 1 was the App Store. But this hardly bothered anyone at all, because
back in 2007, the iPhone was the most fully-featured smartphone to ever exist. So very few users were complaining about the
lack of apps near the beginning of the iPhones launch. But eventually, the desire for third party
app development began to grow as many people recognized the iPhone’s potential as a platform
for developers. So with the next operating system release
called iPhone OS 2, Apple supplied a Software Development Kit that allowed third party developers
to create apps for the iPhone for the first time. Well technically it wasn’t the first time
since jailbroken iPhones could run third party apps already, but obviously that effort wasn’t
supported by Apple. Now there were other small improvements that
came with iPhone OS 2, like always-on push emails, a scientific calculator, and Google
Street View in Maps, but the App Store was definitely its headlining feature. And at launch, the App Store offered over
500 apps. Now that number may not seem impressive compared
to the 2 million apps offered today, but you can imagine it was a big step up from the
original 15 stock apps included in iPhone OS 1. And users began to download so many apps,
that in iPhone OS 3, the number of home screen pages was increased from 9 to 11, which accommodated
about 170 apps. And I should mention that iPhone OS 3 was
the first version to not be fully supported on every iPhone, since the original iPhone
didn’t have some of the new features offered. And some of those were the long-awaited cut,
copy, paste feature, Spotlight, Voice Memos, and video recording on the iPhone 3GS. But I think one of the most significant additions
to iPhone OS 3 was MMS support in Messages. And that meant users could finally send and
receive photos, contacts, locations, voice recordings, and video messages. Now it was during the lifespan of iPhone OS
3 that the iPad was introduced. And at the same time, Apple decided to rename
iPhone OS to iOS, since it was now being used by devices other than the iPhone. And in 2010 Apple introduced iOS 4, which
brought with it some really advanced capabilities like FaceTime video calling through WiFi,
improved multitasking features, home screen folders which held up to twelve apps each,
5x digital camera zoom, AirPlay, AirPrint, and the ability to create personal HotSpots
depending on carrier support. So iOS 4 was a significant upgrade released
alongside the iPhone 4, but there was one problem, and it had to do with the algorithm
that calculated the iPhone’s signal strength. Now this issue may sound pretty insignificant,
but it threw Apple into a PR nightmare that was dubbed Antennagate. You see, iPhone 4 users noticed their network
bars would fall dramatically when gripping their phone in a certain way, and this was
thought to be a design flaw caused by the iPhone 4’s new antenna system. But for the most part, it turned out to be
an issue with iOS 4’s signal strength algorithm. And Apple later released a software update
that fixed this issue. Now in October 2011, iOS 5 was introduced
alongside the iPhone 4S. And this update delivered one of the iPhone’s
most iconic features: Siri. And when Siri was first released, it was far
and away the best digital assistant on the market, although that hasn’t necessarily
been the case in recent years. Now other major additions in iOS 5 was an
overhaul to notifications, which included passive banner alerts, along with notification
center. And for the first time, software updates could
be delivered to iOS 5 over the air. Which meant you didn’t have to connect your
iPhone to a computer every time an update was available. Other features included multi-tasking gestures
for the iPad, a camera shortcut on the lock screen, synced iMessages across devices, group
messaging, and native emoji keyboard support. This was also when the iPod app was replaced
by the Music and Video apps. Now iOS 6 came near the end of 2012, and it
was infamous for replacing the native Google Maps app with Apple’s own version called
Apple Maps. Now Apple Maps did offer some cool features
like turn-by-turn directions, and Flyover views in select locations, but it just didn’t
have the same level of detailed map data that Google Maps had. And it showed. When users started getting directions from
Apple Maps, they found it to be very unreliable. Location data could be inaccurate, certain
cities were missing entirely, and many establishments were mislabeled. The release of Apple Maps became so problematic
that Apple CEO Tim Cook issued an open letter of apology saying he was “extremely sorry
for the frustration” and that the company “fell short on the commitment” of bringing
world-class products to its customers. And internal debate over this apology became
so heated that one of Apple’s long-serving executives Scott Forstall actually left Apple
during this time. Now apart from Apple Maps, iOS 6 introduced
some other well known features that you probably use today, including Passbook (now known as
Wallet,) enhancements to Siri, shared photo streams, FaceTime over cellular, and panorama
mode. So iOS 6 brought some important improvements
to the iPhone, but its true significance wasn’t clear until Apple released iOS 7. Because it was at that point everyone realized
iOS 6 would be the last version to retain the iPhone’s classic, skeuomorphic interface. Under the leadership of Jonathan Ive, iOS
7 ushered in the era of flat design. It got rid of reflections, shadows, textures,
and app interfaces that resembled real-life objects. This change was actually quite shocking at
the time, and many users were turned off by iOS 7’s flat, colorful design. But Apple stuck with their decision, and the
iOS interface remains flat to this day. Now iOS 7 brought more than just a new look. It featured AirDrop, CarPlay support, new
Siri voices, parallax wallpapers, FaceTime Audio, and iTunes Radio. So iOS 7 was a big leap forward for the iPhone,
but it needed some refinements and optimizations. And Apple delivered exactly that in September
2014 with iOS 8. It allowed the iPhone to integrate even more
seamlessly with the Mac through features called Hand Off and Continuity. Which allowed tasks like writing an email
to be started on one device and seamlessly picked up on another. This also meant you could answer phone calls
and send MMS messages from your Mac. Now one of the biggest performance optimizations
included in iOS 8 was Metal. Which allowed developers to use the iPhone’s
graphics processor in a more efficient way, improving the performance of their games and
apps. Other features like HomeKit, Apple Pay, and
Hey Siri were also announced with iOS 8. Now 2014 was a big year for machine learning,
and Apple took advantage of this technology in iOS 9, introduced in late 2015. The main focus for this release was intelligence. Since iOS 9 featured something called Proactive,
which combined Siri and Search to provided you with contextual information that it thinks
you might need before you ask for it. This feature was also integrated into apps
like mail, where a calendar event can be automatically created if a date is found within the email. iOS 9 also introduced Low Power Mode, a highly
requested feature, which provided the iPhone with an extra hour of battery life after reaching
20%. Other important features included an upper
and lowercase keyboard and support for wireless CarPlay. Now by this point, there was one feature that
many users desperately wanted, and that was to hide native apps. Because most users probably didn’t use something
like the Stocks app, and they preferred to remove it from their home screen entirely. And that feature is exactly what they got
with iOS 10 in 2016. But there were actually quite a few highly
anticipated additions to iOS 10, including raise to wake, unlocking with the home button,
a multi-page control center, and a universal clipboard that allowed elements to be copied
on one device and pasted to another. But despite the new control center design
in iOS 10, Apple decided to change it again in iOS 11 just one year later. This time it brought all the controls to one
full-screen page that users could customize to their liking. But the big focus of iOS 11 was Augmented
Reality. Apple developed something called ARKit which
allowed developers to integrate advanced AR technology into their apps for the first time. And when it came to the iPad, iOS 11 delivered
some incredible productivity features, including drag-and-drop, a new multitasking interface,
and support for four active apps on-screen at the same time. Now the most recent version, iOS 12, is available
for download September 17th, 2018, and not only is it supposed to increase device performance
by 70%, but iOS 12 also has some really helpful productivity features like Screen Time. Which gives you detailed reports of how much
time you spend on your device, and what you’re doing. There’s also something called Siri Shortcuts,
which allows users to program a series of actions that should happen automatically at
a certain time. For example, to start their day, users can
set their lights to turn on, coffeemaker to begin brewing, and iPhone to display the News
app. But, of course, this is assuming your appliances
and lights are connected through HomeKit. Now there are a lot of other cool features
like ARKit 2, Measure, and Do Not Disturb During Bedtime, but something I’m really
excited about is how well iOS 12 appears to be running on older devices. Several beta testers have reported their older
iPhones becoming noticeably faster after updating, and if this is true for all older iPhones,
I think it’ll be one of iOS 12’s most important features. So that is the history of iOS, and if you
want to vote for the next video topic, don’t forget to subscribe. Thanks for watching, and I’ll see you next
time.

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