History of Germany

Germany has had an incredibly turbulent history,
especially in the last 100 years, one full of rises and falls of all kinds throughout
it’s more than 100 years (more like 2,000) of history. So, in early celebration of Tag der Deutschen
Einheit (Day of German Unity), hier gibt es die Geschichte von Deutschland (here is the
History of Germany)! It all started thousands of years ago, when
humans first set foot on German soil, and when the Neanderthals (named after the Neander
valley in western Germany) had later… left (they actually died, but still). For thousands of years, people all across
Europe lived in many different tribal cultures, which would later explain why Germany has
so many names now… [Germany] Hallo, ich heiße Deutschland! [Spain] ¡Buenos días, Alemania! [Britain] Hello, Germany! [Poland] Pozdrowienia, Niemcy! [Estonia] Tere, Saksamaa! [Sweden] Hej, Tyskland!
[Netherlands] Goedendag, Duitsland! [Germany] Was? Nein! Wie seid ihr so falsch über dieses?! Aber, die Niederlände haben recht. [Britain] I guess the Dutch would know. [Germany] Dutch? Sprichst du über mir? [Britain] What? No, I’m talking about the Netherlands… [Germany] Was? [Netherlands] Maar ik ben niet “Dutch”. [Germany] Ja, und ich bin Deutschland, Dummkopf! [Spain] Espera, ¿cómo podemos comprender
el uno del otro? This is because each group of Ausländer would
encounter a different tribe or group from the rest, or come up with their own word. When the Romans arrived, after their conquest
of Gaul, they named the territory “Germania”. These names came from tribes such as the Alemanni,
Nemetes, Saxons, etc. “Deutsch” came from a word meaning “of
the people”, but Britain couldn’t tell the difference between the Netherlands and
northern Germany, which is how Netherlanders are actually called “Dutch”. Soon after, the Romans, as they so often do,
decided to invade, but only held onto the territory until the Battle of the Teutoburg
Forest in 9 AD, pushing the Roman border back to the Rhine, where it would remain for the
next few centuries. In the 5th century, invaders from the east,
known as the Huns, started to invade the area, causing the (now larger) Germanic tribes to
seek refuge in the Roman Empire, and even took over some small bits of the ailing empire
in the Great Migration period, where the Visigoths ended up in Spain, and the Vandals smashed
some stuff and ended up in north Africa. Rome’s last western emperor, Romulus Augustus,
was deposed in 476 by Odoacer, effectively starting the Middle Ages. Over the next few centuries, a tribe called
the Franks started to conquer their way through modern-day France and Germany, becoming the
namesake behind France. In 800, the Pope decided to declare that Charlemagne,
King of the Franks, was now the first Roman emperor in over 300 years, even though Rome
was still well and alive in Constantinople, which would later contribute to the Great
Schism in 1054. Nevertheless, Charlemagne’s Empire eventually
led to the Holy Roman Empire, which was more of a loose federation of a crap-ton of city-states
and small kingdoms. The Hanseatic League, a northern European
commercial confederation, also became a thing that Hamburg and Bremen would love to remind
you about, and became the namesake behind the largest airline in Germany (and possibly
Europe), Lufthansa. In 1517, amid recent corruption in the church
(and possibly influenced by China), Martin Luther gave 95 reasons he thought the church
should change. However, some people didn’t take too kindly
to that, which started the Protestant Reformation, and is how there are now three types of Christianity,
one for the north, south and east. The new ideas could be spread by the new invention,
the printing press, invented partially to help with the labor shortage from the Black
Death, which was brought to Europe through the new Silk Road trade system in the huge
Mongol Empire, which started because of how badly the Mongols were treated by China. Remember? After a while, two German-speaking kingdoms
came to dominate politics and affairs in Germany: Brandenburg Prussia (Preußen) in the north,
and Austria (Österreich [Eastern Empire]) in the south— or is it the east (Osten)? The Holy Roman Empire was effectively destroyed
by Napoleon, and the German Empire was established in its place, leading to a growing sense of
nationalism, and a realization of how late they were to colonization, and so only barely
colonized a few small areas. In 1914, a Serb shot the heir to the Austrian
throne while in Bosnia, which led to threats that Austria-Hungary would invade Serbia,
who was a friend of Russia, which meant Russia would invade Austria-Hungary, who was friends
with Germany, who would invade Russia, but would first have to invade Russia’s ally
France, by going through Britain’s ally Belgium. It really was this complicated, and this started
World War I— so-called, because it was really a European continental war, it’s just that
Europe still kind of owned the world at the time— and eventually, Germany became a huge
player in the Central Powers. So you can probably guess who’s to blame,
right? [Serbia?] That’s right, Germany! After the war, the Allies demanded that Germany
dismantle its military and pay so much in war reparations that the Deutsche Mark’s
value spiraled out of control, and it became impossible to pay for anything sensibly. All this led to a pretty rough time in the
new Weimar Republic, which no one really liked much. The bad economic situation, made even worse
with the Great Depression, made some fringe ideas more and more appealing. When a well-spoken politician and former soldier
joined the Nazionalsozialistische Partei in the 1920’s, he quickly rose through the
ranks, through help of scapegoating Communists, Allies, and most notably, Jews. In the 1932 election, the party didn’t win
the election. Noting their leader’s popularity, President
Paul von Hindenburg (who had just won reelection) appointed Chancellor (Kanzler) Adolf Hitler. Hitler expanded the role of Chancellor, and
his supporters formed paramilitary groups to suppress uprisings. Propagating fears of a Communist uprising,
Hitler argued that only he could restore law and order, and bring Germany back to its former
greatness. A young staffer set the Reichtagsgebäude
on fire, and Hitler used the event to convince the government to give him more power, and
quickly used it to end freedom of the press, disband other parties, and pass anti-Semitic
policies. When President von Hindenburg died in office
in 1934, Hitler’s power was cemented. Nazi Germany allied itself with Fascist Italy
and Imperial Japan, and started its rapid march throughout Europe, conquering France,
Poland, Norway, and invading the USSR, leaving horrific and racist policies in their wake. However, a series of busts and failures, combined
with fresh help from America in 1941, meant that, once D-Day happened, Nazi Germany was
effectively dead in the water. The Allies stormed their way into Berlin,
destroying many German cities, and Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker
with Eva Braun, before they could be captured. After the war, Germany lost much of its land
to its neighbors, and Germany, Austria and Berlin were split up between the French, British,
Americans and Soviets. Austria fully reunited, as well as the non-Soviet
parts of Germany and Berlin. The Federal Republic of Germany was established
in the west, with its capital in the city of Bonn. The USSR, however, took advantage of this
now severely weakened Germany, and kept the eastern half as a satellite state, with West
Berlin being a western exclave in East Germany. Germany prospered, and became one of the founding
members of the EU, while East Germany (or the DDR) largely stagnated, which prompted
some East Berliners to defect to West Berlin, where they could then move somewhere else. Embarrassed by this, the Soviets built a huge,
scarily secure wall in 1961, surrounding West Berlin, and East Berliners were not allowed
in. However, no one who actually lived in Berlin
liked the idea of this, like at all, and there were frequent calls in the 80’s for democracy
and to tear down the wall. No one thought these would ever happen, but
then, in 1989, it happened. The DDR government allowed people to enter
the West, and pretty soon, people started climbing over the wall, and some even got
whatever tools they had and started to hack away at the wall. At first, the guards tried to resist, but
they eventually let the inevitable happen, one of the worlds most secure and controversial
barricades started to fall, finally bringing the two sides back together. Once the wall was down (and the USSR was on
its last legs), unifying Germany was, in a way, easier done than said, because the two
sides didn’t want to be split up. Finally, on 3.Oct.1990, the former DDR became
part of the Federal Republic of Germany, which finally moved its capital back to Berlin,
and in the next 27 years, Germany became a rapid success story. Germany is now the most populous country in
the EU, and essentially leads the EU (alongside France, it’s new best friend), and is the
#3 manufacturer in the world, directly competing with the US and China. So, basically, Germany figured out how to
be a great country: don’t be a &@#*ing Nazi. Thanks for watching this video on the history
of Germany, und wenn Sie mögen es, geben Sie es ein “gefällt mir” angaben, und
bis Sonntag mit mehr zu lernen! Tschüß!

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