History of Canada Crash Course


History of Canada Canada, the land of beavers,
hockey and snow but does it really paints the complete
picture of the country. The history of Canada is filled
with conflicts and struggles. The history of Canada is very vast and
interesting, from the arrival of Vikings to the present-day Canada which is
home to people of a vast diversity. Long before the foreign armies
step their foot on the Canadian land, it was inhabited by the
indigenous people of Canada. With start of 15th Century, the French and
British expeditions explored, colonized and fought for various parts of North America
which later formed The Province of Canada. Different parts of the
country were conquered and control by French
and British Army. Later the British Armies took control over
a vast part of the country after France was defeated in The Seven Year War (called
The French and Indian War by Americans). Although the British were
the first to claim land on the North American in 1497
when Jon Cabot claimed some North American coasts
(modern-day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia) on behalf
of King Henry VII. But those claims were not
exercised and Britain didn’t make any further attempt
to colonize the areas. However as the British didn’t
make any further claims at that time, the French
started their own expeditions and the first French colony
was established in 1534 by the name of Nouvelle
France (or New France). After the British won the
Seven-year war, they took over all the French colony
and signed The Paris Treaty which forced French to completely
cease all there businesses and trades except the fishing
rights for the Newfoundland. The British controlled Province
of Quebec was divided into two different parts, those
were Upper and Lower Canada, these remained like this until 1841. In 1894 Upper and Lower
Canada unified to form Province of Canada, further
down the road in 1867, Province of Canada was
further joined by two British colonies to
form modern-day Canada. During the American Revolutions,
Canadian refused to be a part of the war which led to hatred
between Americans and Canadians. Canadians were generally
branded as Non-American, which they later decided to be a
better suited for them. Over thousands of years of their history,
Canada has elements of Indigenous people, French, British and their inner conflicts
related to the independence of Quebec. Canada before the Foreign Colonization Indigenous People of Canada Archeological evidence states
that North and South America were the last continents to
be migrated by the people. During the Wisconsin Glaciation 50,000-17,000
BC, the sea level gradually lowered in this part of the globe which allowed people
to migrate into northwest North America. The exact dates of the
migrations to American are still debated over by
historians and archeologists. First Foreign Contact There are some traces of contact
made by The Norse, who had settled the Greenland and
Iceland, known as the Vikings. There is evidence of their visit to the
North American lands in the 11th Century, in a small settlement built by them at
the northernmost tip of Newfoundland. French Colonies in Canada Francis I of France sent
the French expedition in hope to expand the
French empire overseas. Jacques Cartier planted a
cross in the Gaspe Peninsula in 1534 and claimed the name
on behalf of Francis I. This led to the establishment of
the first French colony in Canada. Further attempts to claim
Charlesbourg-Royal, Sable Island and Quebec
all failed eventually. In 1608 Champlain founded the Quebec City. This was one of the earliest
permanent settlements, which became the
capital of New France. This city was further turned into the
main center for the New French colony. The Seven Year War After the 17th century, both French
and British colonies were looking to expand their empire and trade
inside the North American mainland. In 1700’s French colonies
were well established along the shores of
Saint Lawrence River and Nova Scotia, however with the arrival
of the British colonies from the shore. Hudson’s Bay Company was
one of the biggest British colonies which laid claim
to the Hudson Bay. Rupert’s Land was used to establish
new fishing settlements and trade. From 1688 to 1763, 4 French and Indian
Wars along with 2 other wars were fought between the Thirteen American
colonies of New France and Britain. British army used their
unmatchable Navy strength to attack the French
colonies through Louisbourg. Canada under the British Rule With the end of The Seven Year War and
signing of the Paris Treaty in 1763, France had to agree to cease control of
all its colonies in the American land, with an exception of fishing
rights in Newfoundland. Some French people who choose to live
in the country were made to work small jobs and further, there were various
bounds to what they can worship and speak. Later British returned Guadeloupe to
France, which was its most important sugar-producing colony, it was considered
the most profitable colony in Canada. Canada during World War I The Canadian Army was the part of
the WWI to improve their relations with the British and develop good
connections with them internally. Canadian Military really achieved a big
stature in this war due to the spirit shown by their troops during the battles
of Somme, Vimy, and Passchendaele, this period of war was later named
as “Canada’s Hundred Days”. This glorious endeavor by the
Canadian Military really helped to give a sense of discreet
identity to the Canadian Citizens. The reputation earned by the
Canadian troops under William George Barker and Billy Bishop really
helped to make a mark in the War. The Canadians basically participated in
the war due to their relations with the British but by the end of the war, the
number of casualties was very high. Around 67,000 soldiers were
killed in the war with 173,000 injured and that’s excluding
the number of civilians. Canadians realized that the
sacrifices made by their own people for the benefit of the
British weren’t worth the cost. This led to some political disputes
with the British Government. Feminism and Women Suffrage in Canada From 1894 to 1918, Women’s
political status was promoted without the vote by National
Council of Women of Canada. This suffrage movement
proved a really important point in the history of
the Canadian women right. While this movement improved the political
status of the White women, it was achieved using race-based arguments which
later made the situation a little grey. Women did vote in some smaller
provinces, where women who own a piece of land were allowed
to vote in school trustees. Later in 1916 Manitoba took the lead
by providing full Women suffrage. The Military Voters Act of 1917
gave the votes to the war widows and to the women who lost their
sons in the aftermath of the war. Prime Minister Borden
supported women suffrage in his campaign and he
introduced the bill supporting equal women
suffrage, which was passed for all the provinces
except for Quebec in 1918. Women in Quebec, however, had to wait
until 1940 to gain full suffrage. The very first women elected to Parliament
was Agnes Macphail, Ontario in 1921. Canadian impact on the
World stage after WWI With the great impact of the
Canadian troops in the Allied forces, Canadian Prime Minister
started to be more assertive, convinced with the fact that Canada
has proven itself in the war front, he for a separate seat in the
Paris Peace Conference of 1919. After being opposed by the British
and the United States, Canada was given a seat in the Conference along
with India, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Newfoundland on the
basis that these countries lost a large number of soldiers in the war and
deserves a place in the Peace Conference. Canada didn’t really alter
the proceedings of the Conference by participating
in a really modest manner. For them finally having a sit at the
table was a matter of great pride. Domestic Conditions of Canada after the
war and during The Great Depression After the war was over the
Liberal Government take it upon itself to improve the domestic
conditions of the country. Liberal Government policies focused
on lowering wartime taxes, cooling the wartime tension and defusing postwar
conflicts of the labor classes. In 1930s whole America
was hit hard by the Great Depression and
Canada was no exception. The Great Depression began in 1929 and
by 1933 at the depth of the Depression, Unemployment reached 27% and Gross
national product dropped by 40%. Many large businesses were
forced to close and the exports are dropped by
50% from 1929 to 1933. 30% of the labor force was out of
work and nearly one-fifth of the population was completely dependent
on the Government for their survival. The sectors which were hit worst
by the Depression were the areas depending on the primary industries
like farming, mining etc. In 1930, Prime Minister
Mackenzie King blew away the effects of the Depression
in the country as a temporary swing in the
business cycle and refused to give any relief or
shelter to the unemployed. He believed that the economy will improve
without any Government intervention. Later, the opposition party
overthrew the Liberal Party using this blunt wisecrack of the Prime
Minister in 1930’s Election. The Conservatives were
the winner of 1930’s election and appointed
Richard Bedford Bennett. He promisedto resolve the situation
by making deal with the Federal Government, but with the Depression
getting worse with time. He later attempted to sign a New Deal
with United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt but that didn’t really
help him to turn around the situation. This led to Mackenzie King getting
back to power in the 1935 elections. The worst of Depression was over
by 1935 and the things were starting to get better until
the WWII broke out in 1939. The end of British Rule in Canada The British Parliament passed
the Stature of Westminster in 1931 which put Canada coequal
with the United Kingdom. It was a really crucial
moment in the Canadian complete independence
from the British. Canada in WWII Canada’s involvement in
the Second world-war helped to restore its
economic status and really boosted its self-confidence,
as it played a really crucial role in
the Atlantic and Europe. Even after playing a really crucial role
in the war by supplying food, and raw materials, Mackenzie King, and Canadians
were ignored by Winston Churchill. After the war, the Depression
ended and Canada’s economic stature started
to extend significantly. Postwar period and relations
with the United States After the WWII, prosperity returned to
Canada and continued to grow from there. In 1948, the British Government presented
three choices in Newfoundland Referendum: First one was to remain a crown colony. The second one was to return to the
Dominion status or to join Canada. After a year facing political
pressure, finally, Newfoundland voted to
join Canada in 1949. Canada was the founding member of NATO
and in 1950 Canada sent combat troops to Korea during the Korean War to fight
alongside the United States Army. The Quiet Revolution Quebec was one of the most important and
debated part of the Canadian Province. In the 1960s, a revolution took place
to overthrow the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec and further
modernization of the economy and society. This revolution was later
called as The Quiet Revolution. Quebec was controlled by the
high-class British officials with the French generally working low-level
jobs to basically serve the British. The motives of the nationalists to secure
French linguistic rights in the province and sovereignty for Quebec led to the
electing of Parti Quebecois in Quebec. In 1980, Referendum in Quebec was turned
down with 59 % voting against it. In this scenario, Quebec
would have been considered independent and will have its
own tax and law structure, they will maintain the
trades and business with the Canadian Province and also
share the same currency. Recent History (Post 1982) By 1982, British Government’s
last remaining powers over the Canadian Constitution were
ceased by passing a resolution requesting that the British enact a
package of constitutional amendments and would create an entirely Canadian
process for constitutional amendments.

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