History of Britain in 20 Minutes


the United Kingdom is a nation located
in the British Isles made up of England Scotland Wales and Northern Ireland thousands of years ago the Isles were
inhabited by long-forgotten pre-celtic people known as the beaker culture named
for their distinctive pottery beakers little is known of them but it has been
suggested that these people laid the foundations for the mysterious
stonehenge a series of heavy standing stones which were transported from 150
miles away and arranged to form a calendar marking the days of the summer
and winter solstice over time waves of Celtic speaking people arrived from the
European continent who soon came to form the brittonic Gaelic and Pictish people
these people were not a unified people but were rather many tribes who shared a
similar pagan religion language and culture the Romans invaded conquering
what’s now England and Wales but failed to conquer the Pictish tribes to the
north the Romans launched several campaigns into this land they called
Caledonia however their fortifications were soon overrun and abandoned and they
retreated to Hadrian’s Wall their conquered lands were incorporated into
the Roman Empire becoming the province of Britannia
they brought Roman customs and laws improved infrastructure and connected
many towns and cities with Roman roads when the Romans left there was a great
migration of Germanic tribes these were the Jutes Angles and Saxons with their
language Old English their settlement pushed many Britons to areas in Wales
Brittany and a kingdom known as Domino Nia while Scotland eventually evolved
into four kingdoms thus most of these were the Scots who were originally from
Ireland the Britons of Strathclyde the anglo-saxon kingdom of Benicia and the
pics of Alba for unknown reasons the Jutes
disappeared from history but the Angles and Saxons eventually formed Seven
Kingdoms Wessex Sussex Kent Essex East Anglia Murcia and Benicia became
Northumbria after the collapse of Domino Nia the remaining territory of Cornwall
fought against the powerful kingdom of Wessex corn will eventually fall under
the control of Wessex but it managed to keep its own culture Wales at this point
was also made up of several separate kingdoms the largest being Gwynedd in
the North poets in the East and differed to the south the British Isles soon saw
numerous Norse raiders from Scandinavia these were the Vikings and they began
settlement on many of the Scottish Isles the Isle of Man and they even founded
the city of Dublin in Ireland the Scots in the pics then decided to unite under
Kenneth MacAlpine to form the Kingdom of Alba the kingdom of albergue grew strong
over the years and eventually Strathclyde was bought into the fault
meanwhile Danish Vikings arrived in the Anglo Saxon kingdoms for conquest after
fighting the king of Wessex Alfred the Great the Danelaw was formed a land
where the laws of the Danes held influence over the anglo-saxons
controlling the region and its affairs the anglo-saxons eventually defeated the
last Viking king of York Erich blood acts and Athelstan became the first king
of the English although the newly formed Kingdom of Denmark would conquer England
and even found a short-lived Danish dynasty under Knut the Norseman had a
dramatic impact on the Isles so it’s no wonder some words in the English
language have Norse origin after defeating formidable sea Raiders from
Ireland the Western Isles Scandinavia and anglo-saxon forces from Murcia were
fed up Llewellyn’s subdued his rivals in southwest Wales Llewellyn became the
only Welsh King ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales he was
defeated by the English Earl Harold Godwinson and killed by his own men
leading to the Welsh kingdoms splitting apart once more at the death of Edward
the Confessor there was a succession dispute between four claimants Harold
Godwinson was elected as king and managed to defend England from an
invasion by the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada however Howard had semaj his
army south to defend against yook William of Normandy who could cross the
English Channel according to tradition at the Battle of Hastings Harald was
killed by an arrow to the eye and the Norman invaders were victorious the new
King William defeated a number of rebellions built a new design of castles
called moats and Bailey’s and introduced a number of reforms like trial by combat
and the Domesday book the Norman dynasty invaded into South Wales and parts of
Ireland creating the lordship of Ireland at court Nobles spoken conducted
sessions in the anglo-norman language which endured for centuries and left an
incredible mark in development of modern English
after a brief Civil War henry ii would marry Eleanor of Aquitaine establishing
the Angevin Empire beginning a long rivalry against France Richard the
Lionheart defended much of this territory and also became a central
Christian commander during the Third Crusade achieving considerable victories
against his Muslim counterparts Saladin under king john heavy taxes were imposed
on his barons in order to pay for his expensive Foreign Wars the Baron’s
rebelled and forced John to sign the Magna Carta a charter that established
the principle that everyone was subject to the law even the king guaranteeing
the rights of individuals the right to justice and the right to a fair trial
most of North Wales remained independently ruled by several Welsh
princes until twelve sixteen when Llewellyn the Great became the ruler of
the Principality of Wales this would be the case until it but the first who
conquered Wales in 1284 effectively becoming parts England
at the death of King Alexander the third Scotland was left with 14 rivals for
succession to prevent civil war the Scottish magnates asked Edward the first
of England to elect a claimant John Balliol was elected King but was
constantly undermined by Edward who opposed Scottish independence Edward
decided to launch several campaigns to conquer Scotland and depose King John to
which he acquired the nickname hammer of the Scots under a brave Scottish Knight
William Wallace the Scots mounted resistance against the English defeating
them at the Battle of Stirling Bridge Edward marched north in person and
defeated Wallace in battle but Wallace managed to escape he was later captured
and executed but his efforts allowed Robert the Bruce to rise up and defeat
the English securing Scottish independence when the King of France
died without an heir Edward the third was technically eligible to the crown
through his mother the French Court denied his claim and instead installed
Philip of Valois Edward paid homage to Philip as he owned the lands of Gascony
and was essentially a vassal to the King of France
due to disagreements Edward reasserted his claim to the throne and invaded
France beginning the Hundred Years War the English achieved notable victories
at the Battle of Crecy Poitiers and Agincourt thanks to the technical
superiority of the longbow but was unable to conquer the French with the
appearance of Joan of Arc who lifted the French spirit and turned the tide of the
war upon the death of Edward the third an entire generation was skipped in the
line of succession which prompted bitter rivalry between several claimants most
notably were the houses of York and Lancaster tensions were high until a
bloody age of warfare erupted between these two factions in the Wars of the
Roses it’s so in-depth and complicated this period would likely become a video
of its own the wars ended with the arrival of the Tudor dynasty Henry the
eighth wanting a divorce split with the church creating his own Church of
England this ultimately led to a series of religious differences between future
English monarchs in between his six wives and naval adventures Henry gave
Wales representation in Parliament and created the kingdom of Ireland but
realistically he only controlled an area known as the pale in
addition Henry’s paranoia and suspicion amounted to tens of thousands of
executions including his friends and wives during the 16th century the
largest of most powerful Empire was Spain under king philip ii england under
Elizabeth the first were helping Dutch rebels reject Spanish rule and many
English privateers were also intercepting Spanish silver on its
journey back from the new world this angered the spanish king and the final
straw came when Elizabeth had Mary Queen of Scots executed because she did not
want Scotland falling under Catholicism the Spanish Armada consisting of 130
ships was deployed to invade England at the Battle of Gravelines and English
victory forced the Spanish fleet to sail around the British Isles before storms
in the north of Scotland destroyed the remaining ships in metallian the english
led by Sir Francis Drake amassed their own Armada to invade Spain but this too
became a failed endeavor born in this period William Shakespeare became a
renowned poet playwright and actor who contributed significantly to English
literature when Queen Elizabeth of England died without an heir her closest
male relative was James the sixth of Scotland
James was elected as King of England and Scotland in a personal Union
although the country’s remain separate political entities as the first monarch
to rule the entire island of Great Britain several assassination attempts
were made by Catholic conspirators one such assassination attempt was the
Gunpowder Plot by Guy Fawkes who tried to blow at Parliament’s after a failed
colony known as Roanoke England established a successful colony known as
Jamestown which would eventually evolved into the 13 colonies at first
expeditions to the new world were mainly driven by religious motives which were
predominantly to convert the natives to their faith but colonies became more
profitable as demand for new world crops like tobacco and sugar increased British
ships also made a monopoly on the transportation of captive African slaves
that crossed the Atlantic to the Americas millions of Africans were
shipped in cramped horrific conditions to work on brutal plantation
in the Americas and essentially became property to their masters for 300 years
this practice continued in the British Empire until it was fully abolished in
1833 this period also saw a wave of plantations in Ireland where Irish lands
were confiscated and given to English and Scottish settlers tensions would
rise between Charles the first and Parliament following disagreements
conflicts between Royal and parliamentary authority within England
led to the English Civil War the country became divided between parliamentarians
known as the Roundheads and Royalists known as the Cavaliers under Oliver
Cromwell and the New Model Army the parliamentarians defeated Charles and
executed him for treason cromwell became Lord Protector and dissolved the
monarchy but shortly after his death it was restored under charles ii charles ii
married Catherine of Braganza and when she arrived from Portugal she introduced
the greatest beverage of all the time TEA Tea had been used by China for centuries
but its arrival in the 17th century captured the interest of the English
aristocracy and soon captivated every other Englishman in 1685 a catholic
James ii became king in a largely Protestant nation James’s daughter Mary
and her Dutch husband William would both Protestant and many Nobles unhappy with
the Catholic King invited William to become King William found considerable
support when he invaded and he was soon crowned King William the third in what
became known as the Glorious Revolution although Williams supporters dominated
the government there remained a significant following for James ii in
the scottish highlands clan MacDonald of Glencoe was one such group who had not
been prompt in pledging allegiance to the new monarch for this reason alone 38
members of the clan were murdered in what became known as the massacre of
Glencoe after Scotland’s failed colonial endeavours in Nova Scotia and Panama and
an economic crisis in the 1690s there was a union between England and Scotland
forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain the House of Stuart’s had ruled
Britain for just over a century but ended with the death of Queen Anne
Sophia of Hanover the granddaughter of James the first and
her son George became King Great Britain soon found itself drawn into several
European Wars most notable being the war of the Spanish Succession and the Seven
Years War victories in these Wars resulted in territory for the Empire
particularly in North America although it resulted in considerable debts in
order to make up for this debt King George the third ordered heavy taxes be
placed on the thirteen colonies this among other reasons culminated into the
American War of Independence and with financial help from France and Spain
the Americans were victorious the East India Company which was founded by
Elizabeth the first had grown rapidly and even operated its own military and
controlled a sizable amount of territory the company had set up fortified
warehouses where they traded with many India rulers
acquiring important luxuries like textiles and spices one of the most
important cities of all was Bengal as it had a large taxable population the
governor of Bengal robert clive ordered that the population grow opium to export
to China instead of growing food as it proved to be a great source of income
however when a famine struck it resulted in the deaths of millions of people
meanwhile Captain James Cook arrived at New Zealand and the southeast coast of
Australia although he wasn’t the first to discover the area because of past
Portuguese and Dutch explorers however unlike the Dutch of Portuguese Britain
claimed as their new penal colony known as New South Wales with the first
convicts arriving in 1778 a new threats had emerged from France French Emperor
Napoleon Bonaparte Music Napoleon had come to dominate most of
Europe but Britain’s advantage was that she was an island and the Royal Navy had
become a major force at sea invasion of Britain was near impossible and in a
series of coalition’s Napoleon was defeated by the end of the Napoleonic
Wars Britain was growing rapidly into a superpower based on their supremacy of
naval engineering furthermore in Ireland the great famine struck a disease
killing potato plants Ireland which had merged with Britain relied heavily on
this crop for food but the British government forced Ireland to export what
little food they had to other areas without any aid or food Ireland’s
population plummeted by half due to starvation and emigration to countries
like the United States things weren’t looking so great in India either as
India was rebelling against company rule the East India Company had employed many
Indian soldiers known as sepoys who were under the command of British
soldiers these sepoys grew increasingly unhappy and a revolt soon occurred yet
it quickly failed due to a lack of unity between Indians after the rebellion the
British government took direct control with Queen Victoria being declared
Empress of India during the 19th century the world was forever changed by the
Industrial Revolution society was transformed by technological advances
and increasing mechanization and would launch Britain to global dominance some
of the greatest innovations and inventions were the sewing machine the
fire extinguisher steam powered engines and turbines the electric motor and
photography The Telegraph was also a major invention as a message could now
be sent from Britain to India in a matter of hours the establishment of
railways and trains also transformed transport forever instead of travelling
days by horse and carriage it now only took a matter of hours by train
engineering and communication advance is not only United the Empire they
triggered a manufacturing boom like no other people flocked from rural areas to
city centres for jobs productivity reached an all-time high
but the consequences of mass migration resulted in extremely cramped and
polluted cities however with these problems that
were generated it resulted in an improved sewage system
Newcastle focused on shipbuilding Manchester the cotton industry Liverpool
became a major trading centre Middlesbrough fixated itself on iron and
steel works the presence of iron ore limestone and large coal deposits in the
West Midlands and southeast Wales prompted the establishment of ironworks
and Scotland boomed in the linen industry the Victorian era also saw a
major change in society as families from the poorest backgrounds gained access to
education although it was much stricter than today’s standards the 1860s also
saw the rise of the greatest food combination ever fish and chips towards
the end of the 19th century European powers came together at the Berlin
conference to divide Africa between them a group in South Africa known as the
Boers who originally Dutch settlers proved difficult for the British the
Boers lived in two nations the free orange states and the Republic of
Transvaal and both resisted British rule using guerilla warfare to counter this
the British placed many women and children in their tens of thousands into
concentration camps when many died from starvation and disease Britain became a
major player in the First World War and many men proudly volunteered to serve
and protect their country the Great War as it was called saw the use of new
technology such as dreadnoughts warplanes artillery machine guns
grenades chemical weapons bolt-action rifles and the first use of
the tank many faced horrific conditions in the trenches and witness groups of
battles millions died and many returned home shell shocked by what they had seen
the Empire reached its territorial heights in 1921 after gaining territory
from Germany and the crumbling Ottoman Empire the Empire now ruled over 400
million people and controlled one quarter of the world’s land mass but the
reality was Britain could no longer afford to build bases or ships to defend
its empire as it had before 19:14 Ireland finally managed to break
away from British rule and formed the Irish free states and shortly after
became a republic the Second World War was more brutal and horrific than the
first most of Europe had fallen under German occupation and under Prime
Minister Winston Churchill Britain stood strong during the Battle of Britain and
the Blitz Britain were extremely successful at intercepting and decoding
enemy communications with the likes of Alan Turing who cracked the German
Enigma code the war ended with an allied victory but many nations within the
Empire felt a desire for independence and it was clear the Empire was about to
break India was one such nation who were ready to declare their independence
Mohandas Gandhi practiced a nonviolent approach and this proved successful are
shortly after India gained independence the Commonwealth of Nations was formed
to improve relations and economic ties with former colonies this still remains
today with 53 members united by language history culture and shared values of
democracy the British Empire officially ended with Hong Kong Britain’s last
colony being handed over to China in 1997 the Empire committed many
atrocities on many different people imposing their culture and civilization
while often wiping out native ones on the other hand this brought about
globalization and the uniting of the modern world and without such
innovations and industrialization the world might have been a very different
place the United Kingdom suffered a small economic recession in 2008 but has
since recovered it is a multicultural society with each region retaining a
presence of its history and culture if you ever visit look out for the Welsh
cake the haggis the whiskey the Chelsea bun the par mo the Cumberland sausage
the Yorkshire pudding or the Cornish pasty
the UK remains a member of NATO United Nations and the World Trade Organization
and uses the pound currency in 2016 a referendum resulted in 51.9% of voters
in favor to leave the European Union although the countries within the United
Kingdom became divided on the matter leading to the many questions of its
future unity thank you for watching let us know your thoughts in the
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