Hinduism Introduction: Core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha | History | Khan Academy


– [Instructor] We’re now
going to talk about Hinduism which is one of the
largest religions on Earth, practiced by over a billion people. And, it’s interesting for several reasons. First, it is considered to be one of the oldest religions that is still practiced. Some historians would place the origins of Hinduism at 5,000 years into the past. It has elements that
may have been practiced in the Indus Valley civilization. You also have significant
elements that come from the Vedic Period. In fact, the Vedas, for which
the Vedic Period is named really form the root of Hinduism
as it is practiced today. It is believed that the Vedas come from an Indo-Aryan people that many historians believe came from Central
Asia and were related to many of the people
who colonized Europe. Now, the other thing that is fascinating about Hinduism, and I really just referred to some of it, it is a
combination of many cultures that really merged over
thousands of years. And, they merged around
the Indian subcontinent. As you will see there are many traditions, many cultures, many
different ways that one can, and many different ways that
people do practice Hinduism. But, there are also core
beliefs that we wanna get to the heart of in this video. And, we’ll discuss more in future videos. Now, what’s also interesting
is where the name Hinduism or Hindu comes
from, a Hindu being someone who practices Hinduism. The name for what we
now call the Indus River in Sanskrit was Sindhu,
and Sindh is still a region in the Indian subcontinent. The version that the
Persians said was Hindus and this got converted to Indus in Latin. So really, Hinduism is
the term for the cultural and religious practices of
people beyond the Indus River. The India really comes
from this same root. Indus is where India comes
from, but Indus comes from Hindus, which comes from
Sindhu and these are all related to the word Hindu. And, you can see that very
clearly in the Persian version. Now, as I mentioned, there’s
many different practices in Hinduism, many different
traditions, many different rituals in Hinduism, but
I’m going to try to focus in on what could be
considered the spiritual core. And, a lot of this comes out of the Vedas. They’re a collection of hymns, rituals, but also philosophy. And, the subset of the Vedas
that are very concerned with the spiritual and the philosophical are known as the Upanishads,
which means sitting down or coming near to. Some people say coming near to God, some people say coming
near to the actual reality, or coming near to a
teacher as in sitting down to get a lesson or to have a dialog. Now, the central idea in Hinduism is the idea of Brahman. And Brahman should not be
confused with the god Brahma. Brahma is sometimes, you
could view, as a aspect of a Brahman, but Brahman
is viewed as the true reality of things. It is shapeless, genderless, bodiless, it cannot be described. It can only be experienced. Now, according to Hindu belief we are all part of Brahman. And, what we perceive as our individuality is really, you can consider
to be a quasi-illusion. So, this might be one
individual right over here and then we might have another
individual right over here. And, this separateness,
the illusion of the reality that we see around us this
is referred to as Maya. And, Maya is not just the
illusion or the quasi-illusion created by our senses it is even notions like our ego, our identity. And, within that context
that inner self, the thing that is even within
our, that is even deeper than our sense of identity. This is referred to as Atman. And, as you can see they way
it’s been diagrammed here, the way we’ve drawn it
out Atman is essentially the same thing as Brahman. And, oftentimes you
will see it referred to as Atman-Brahman, they’re
really the same thing but it’s really, it’s
an illusion that there is this separateness of our reality. Now, according to Hindu
belief in each life you have this core part of
yourself which is Atman, which is part of Brahman. And, when you die it doesn’t disappear, but it will take on or
it will subjugate itself to another reality. So, after death this
individual or this perceived individual might take on another identity in another reality. They would perceive it as another life. And, this notion of
one life after another, one reality after another is sometimes referred to as transmigration of the soul, sometimes referred to reincarnation, or this notion of Samsara,
which is this endless cycle of birth and rebirth. It really comes from this
notion of same flowing, this thing, this pattern
that goes on and on and on. And, according to Hindu
belief what that next life is, what that next reality is
is based on your actions in this life. Karma, literally is referring to actions, but it’s really actions
driving consequences not only in this reality
but in the next reality. Now, there’s another notion of Dharma. Dharma is based on what is
the role you should play given the reality, given
the life that you are in. So, in a very simplified
way you could say, “Well, Dharma is the rightful
role, the rightful actions, “your duty depending on your role, “depending on your reality.” Karma is how that action
translates into consequences which is going to drive what
happens in this endless cycle. Now, a core idea of
Hinduism is to try to escape from this cycle, to awaken
to the true reality, awaken from this quasi-reality. And, this is really one
of the central ideas of the Upanishads that
eventually if you can awaken, so let’s say that this is
an awakening, this entity, this Atman, this self right over here, this perceived individual has now awoken and can see through, pierces
the veil of that Maya. Now, they have rejoined
Brahman and they’ve recognized that Atman and Brahman are the same. And, this freeing from Samsara, from this birth death cycle, this is referred to as Moksha. Now, to make this idea
a little bit clearer let’s look at some quotes
from the actual Upanishads. So, this is two versions
from the Isha Upanishad and the reason why I like
to show it is because it shows that if you’re
translating from Sanskrit into English or really from
any one language into another there’s gonna be some
room for interpretation but we can see it here. So, this is from the Isha
Upanishad which is considered one of most important ones. It’s a subset, it’s a
section of the Yajurveda, one of the four early Vedas. And, they write, and this
is an English translation, “The wise man beholds all beings
in the self, or the Atman, “and the self in all
beings, for that reason “he does not hate anyone. “To the seer all things
have verily become the self. “What delusion, what
sorrow can there be for him “who beholds that oneness?” This is another version of the same verses from the Isha Upanishad. “He who sees all beings
in the self and the self “in all beings he never
turns away from it, the self. “For, he who percieves
all beings as the self “how can there be delusion or grief “when he sees this oneness everywhere.” So, I might be getting into
an argument with someone but deep down if I
recognize that both myself and that individual that we
are part of this same Brahman that he is me and I am it, or I am he, well then that anger seems
a little bit misguided. Now, to get a little bit more context on this notion of oneness
here’s another verse from Chandogya Upanishad,
which is also considered one of the significant Upanishads. And, it’s part of the Sama Veda. “As the rivers flowing east
and west merge in the sea “and become one with it,
forgetting they were separate “rivers, so do all creatures
lose their separateness “when they merge at last into
pure Being,” into Brahman. “There’s nothing that
does not come from him.” And, the use of the word him is really an anthropomorphism of
this notion that has really no gender or body or form. “Of everything he is the inmost Self. “He is the truth, he is the Self supreme. “You are that Shvetaketu, you are that.” And, this last verse is
referring it’s in this Chandogya Upanishad it’s
a conversation between the teacher and his son. And, the son is Shvetaketu, my apologies for pronunciation. So, what’s he’s saying is that
these rivers is an analogy for you and I and we might
see ourselves as different but at some point we will flow and become one with the ocean. And, he’s pointing out to his
son, you are not different from that, you are self, you are Ahtman. It is Brahman, it is one and the same.

Comments 100

  • The spiritual teachings in the Upanishads and other 'hindu' literature are truly great.
    However, it is quite troubling to see everyone using the words – hindu religion, hinduism, Hindutva, etc – with absolute ignorance.
    Hindus have many religions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Dwaitham Adwaitham, etc. There is no one religion as such identifiable as "Hinduism".
    What is being passed off as "Hinduism" or "Hindu Dharma" is actually the 'Varna' religion propagated by brahmins. Please try to see the distinction between hindu religions and Varna Dharma, which is concealed under the cloak of "Hinduism".
    People talk about caste system of hindus, but Varna Dharma is actually a CLASS SYSTEM which is propagated by brahmins. According to this Dharma, society is divided into 4 classes– Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya & Shudra. The brahmin class is the gate-keepers of this religion. What is appalling is that all are hindus, ― but some are more privileged and some are lesser beings – like Orwell said, "All are equal, but some are more equal." (This is why the 'lesser beings' of hindu society are seeking refuge in Islam, Christianity and other religions.)
    Hinduism is a culture, but not a religion. Please do some research and take a closer look at our hindu (Indian) society and its religions.

  • THERE IS NO HINDU WORD IN 4 VEDAS 18 PURANAS AND OTHER HOLY BOOKS LIKE CHRISTIAN IN BIBLE AND ISLAM AND ISLAMI=MUSALMAAN IN HOLY KURAN.HINDU IS FARSI WORD AND BRITISH CALL SINDHU PEOPLES AS HINDU.PRODUCTION OF INDIGO=NEEL BY BRITISH SLAVES OF BRITISH COLONEY ,THATS MEANS INDIGO=NEEL PRODUCER BRITISH RULER INDIGO SLAVE COLONEY INDIA.

  • Spreading lies.

  • Hehehehehe i can see some intellectuals fighting on religion. Best of luck to everyone 💐

  • [ONE OF THE COMMENT AMONG SEVERAL, DESCRIBING SOME COUPLE OF FACTS ABOUT HINDUISM ]
    We are all Hindus because we are living on the land of hindustan whether it is a Muslim, Christian or a Jain etc.
    In Hinduism we are all on our individual path forward seeking something beyond physical. Some may prefer religion, some sanyaas marg or maybe some doesn't even try. All are free to do whatever they like as long as they don't bother any state law or cause inconvenience to others by theor actions.

  • This is not entirely correct

  • And we are learning Greek mythology here its really interesting how these both mythologies have similarities between each other

  • Wonderful explanation. You have got some really talented instructional designers with you.

  • This is purely vedic … great understandings.

  • Although, I respect Khan academy. you have made a lot of errors in this. You erroneously coin the term Hinduism to our religion. Hinduism the term was coined by the Britishers. We call ourselves the Sanatan Dharma which literally means the 'Eternal order'. Although your approach that Hinduism at its pith is a quest to find oneself is true. You point out that Dharma is Dharma only in place of maya. which is again untrue. Because the Brahman who is beyond maya, Dharma and Karma himself is performing his duty(Dharma) by running this world (rig Veda and Bhagvat Gita). Then how can Maya be associated with Dharma.

  • Very good video. Yes, Shvethakethu is surely hard to pronounce! (shway-tha-kay-thu) I used "th" instead of "t" to say how the t is pronounced and "sh" instead of "s" as really, that is how it is pronounced.
    Here's how I look at it. Imagine a hundred pearls on a string. Can each pearl claim the string that is within it as its own, that that part of the string belongs to that pearl? No, it cannot. Really, the pearl belongs to the string, and even though it can slide back and forth on the string, it just cannot claim the string as its own. So in the same way, Brahman flows through us. But the part of the Supreme Brahman within us, is not our "Soul." It is the part of the Universe, Brahman, that our mind and body float on. If we believe in the five koshas or elements, there are : body layer, energy/praana/chi layer, then three layers of mind. It is my belief that when we die, the physical body is left behind to be burnt or decompose, but the remaining four layers are our "soul." The soul, can remain indefinitely in the ether if it wants to, or incarnate again as per its inclination. But there is no penalty/punishment in the next birth or Janma to pay back or whatever, just more and more to learn. Until the soul feels, or is so guided by the most advanced souls, that it does not need another Janma; it then attains Moksha, or liberation. The great work of regression hypnotists like Michael Newton, are so valuable in this regard: https://www.newtoninstitute.org/

  • if Hinduism began 2000 BC . what about Mahabharata that began around 5000 BC
    another religion is nursing level course except Buddhism,. and Hinduism (Sanatan) is PhD level

  • The dates are based on the debunked Aryan Invasion Theory. The Ramayan is supposed to be like 12000 years old; Mahabharat like 8000 years ago; and the Rigveda at least 20000 years ago. Please check the Aryan Invasion Theory criticisms.

  • what else you can say ….. junki
    please post something about AISA ??? Dare to say???? 🙂

  • Its an extremely good explanation of a an extremely difficult concept.
    As regards the pronunciation of SHVETAKETU try to pronounce as SHWE TĂ KETU this will possibly help you with better pronunciation.
    Everything said and done beautiful piece of work.

  • quite a bit better than I expected it to be, tbh. although to characterize anything as Hinduism misrepresents the fact that the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Tantras, Sages, and Gurus are all contributing to a millenia-long theological argument about the nature of humanity, our relationship to each other and the Universe at large.Intellectually, it's much less a religion than a post-doc conference on metaphysics. Some of the ideas are encoded into specific practices, and some of those practices are effective experiments producing data that is subjectively verifiable. But if you're looking for something to believe , well…

  • Your Map is not correct…Show ancient map of BHARAT and One thing replay….You are from USA but why your viewers,Subs are mostly Indians?…Why??

  • Guys some of you may have knowledge about these things but please just don't make conclusions on your own without going through it

  • The wrong timeline, things are much older then you put it in the video. Saraswati river missing, No Aryan invasion.

  • ut is aatmaa…which is a part of bhramah…but you said atman is a part of brahman…that wrong…please change the spelling

  • Aryan coming from central asia is a fake theory .Aryan are native of India/Bharata/Aryavrat .You can check any ancient book like vedas their is reference of Aryavrat

  • Its good vedio but there is confusions
    My explaination
    Brahman .. you can call as soul
    Aatman ..as god ..in which all soul will merge and become part of the one
    Maya…is the illusion we are seeing around us
    Moksha …means to free from maya …to free from life and death cycle and finally be one with god

  • Please ! People of abrahamic faiths cannot explain indic beliefs

  • Do your home work idiot Hinduism is not the biggest religion the biggest religion(s) is first Islam second Christianity.
    The word Hindu comes from Arabic not Persian,Hindu means people live near water this nickname was given to ppl of India by Arabs when they first come to India, Hindu or Hinduism isn't religion the religion of ppl of India is bhudism

  • In that unitive state, there is no Maya, no Joy or Heaven but he makes his own Maya joy, and heaven. He is the Supreme seer and thinker, eminent and transcendent. He placed all the things in the path of eternity. Endless and infinite.

  • Abrahimic faith and islam always fails to understand hinduism and sanatan dharma… moreover the time period shown of mahabharat/ramayan is not currect as we think it has to be before 5000 bce

  • Awesome! It seems to be many paths toward Moksha, and then to Brahman… It could take many births before some of us can enter into Brahman, and maybe for neophyte humankind 8,400,000 births… Therefore, why not take advantage in this life!!!

  • Religion is not what God wants .
    God the Father wants a spiritual relationship between God and y through his only begotten son LORD JESUS CHRIST because we r taught in the written word to walking in the spirit not the flesh because man made religion so that is what u think but it is satan and his band of fallen angels.
    Like the lie of make up.
    The Lord Jesus Christ told me to share this with u that the love of an idol is lust this is a sin and the wages of sin is death but
    God the Father loves us all so much that he gave us his only begotten son LORD JESUS CHRIST paid the price death in the following way CHRIST died for our sins ,buried and that he Rose again the third day according to scriptures in Isaiah53 in the Holy Bible King James version red lettered.
    The Lord Jesus Christ also taught us how to love God with all our mind heart soul and strength love your neighbours as u love yourself love your enemy's so u would not have any husbands love your own wives as I LORD JESUS CHRIST love my bride wives love and obey your husbands as my sheep listens to me LORD God children honour obey trust respect and love your parents as my church treat every one.
    God is waiting on u to repent and God Lord Jesus Christ is coming quickly

  • Yeah… all the Aryan Invasion theory nonsense is bunkum. Even one of the main propagators of the theory – Romila Thapar – has reluctantly disowned it.

    Unsurprisingly, a lot of regurgitations of the Christian-Evangelist sponsored, colonial-era propaganda being passed off as “information on Hinduism”.

    Appreciate the sincere effort though, you got a fair few things right too!

  • It's not ATMAN it's AATMA

  • ….all the intelligence…science…religion…everything are from …Europe…Central Asia…this being the reason…the abrahamic religions are the real owners of everything ever happened…happenning in this world…planet.. and btw – notice – brah..brahm..brahman…in abraham… …now connect the dots…:)….#beingsarcastic….:) ….everything is …brahm…:)

  • If you read the puranam you will understand that our religion is always there there is no beginning or end to hinduism. It is a mis conception that it has born so and so no.of years back. It has its own cycle. It evolves again itself .It was there before and it will be always there. That is why it is called sanatana dharma. Some times it gets endangered. But you accrued good knowledge.

  • Hinduism is not a religion !!!

  • Khan academy you should remove your indo aryan invasion theory from these lectures theses are totally debunked there are no evidences for it, the Nazi's used this theory so they can find roots do hinduism.

  • Hinduism is way of life .
    hinduism is not invented by one person like islam. this is Gyan of
    hundreds of thousands Saddhu's and saints.

  • I can't stand historical revisionism, especially revisionism for politically correct reasons. The term is B.C. not B.C.E. Since you seem it necessary to remove anything that might offend snowflake sensibilities, it can't trust that anything you say hasn't been sanitised. History is history, it happened, why is it that leftards can't resist making moral judgements about everything?

  • everything has the consciousness of being itself. like a movie.

  • Hinduism is a proven religion unlike many of the others

  • Nice explanation, Sir. Excellent interpretation of some complex Vedic concepts. Please ignore those who can not appreciate , and please keep moving on.

  • Really informative. People here are more interested in flooding the comment section with hate speeches, rather than understand the essence of advaita or upanishads. Too bad most Indians are not even familiar with advaita or the contents of the upanishads, since they worship anthropomorphic Gods all the time, and are not even aware that the source of all creation is actually Nirguna (no form, gender, or attributes).

  • This is not mere beliefs but this is reality based on cause and effects. So don't say beliefs.

  • This is so fascinating. It sounds like the oldest creative analogy described in pursuit of or to collectively explain a very simple truth in both a scientific and metaphysical way. The truth being, we are all made of the universe or are the realization of the universe itself. Literal translation of Brahma/ Brahmand is the Universe and to be a Brahman is to be the ultimate cause or realization of all that exists? Perhaps that's an simplification but its awesome to think about. The Vedas also derived the age of the universe which amazingly corresponds to that of modern scientific cosmology.

    "The Hindu religion is the only one of the world's great faiths dedicated to the idea that the Cosmos itself undergoes an immense, indeed an infinite, number of deaths and rebirths. It is the only religion in which time scales correspond to those of modern scientific cosmology. – Carl Sagan."

  • Illusion is part of reality. Will is part of reality. That illusion that satisfies our will best is the one we will hang on to. Until it doesn't anymore. Until something better comes along. We will never get to the "bottom" of things simply because there is no bottom. The world is infinite in all directions. We will never know truth in any final, eternal, complete way. All we will ever experience is models of reality. Simplified abstractions. Models operating at some level of abstraction. If you want to call these models "illusions" because they do not capture reality in all its facets, dimensions, potentials, minutiae, expansiveness, etc., fine.

    The biggest mystery is consciousness and whatever the background energy is that registers on our measuring instruments, be they eyes, ears or complicated machines like the hadron collider… finally, a consciousness has to experience what has impacted and make it an "it", give it a form, numerical, colour, mass, etc., the symbolic language of modern physics, i.e., E = mc2, E = hf, Δp. Δx ≥ h/4π, etc. It is never a complete description, it can't be. It's a provisional model whose continued existence depends on its power of prediction and control, i.e., we stay alive, we don't die, it satisfies our needs, desires, will. It's a heuristic tool to get us what we want. It is not a mirror image of a free-standing reality. The little trout swimming in the fast-flowing mountain stream does not mirror the stream, but it lives in the stream and gets all it needs to stay alive from the stream, nutrients, oxygen, etc., if it acts within certain parameters. The little trout is viable in that environment like our conceptions of reality are viable in ours. It works. It survives. It's sustainable. And generations upon generations will survive and prosper if acts happen within the allowed parameters and the environment doesn't change too much, i.e., the stream freezes solid, evaporates away or becomes too chemically polluted.

    We create variables – temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc. – and give them values – 20 degrees Celsius, ten kilometres per hour, 50%, etc. This helps us predict and plan for future undertakings, like a sailboat trip. In short, it works. It works better than anything else we have at the moment. If it works, it's real. It might not be the ultimate model and it might not encompass everything, but it's the best we have.

    There is always room for improvement.

    Break from the illusion that the model you are operating – the software, the map, the narrative – is ultimate reality – and that we should wage war to defend "the true religion, atheism, science, etc." – but don't disdain it either for not being ultimate reality. It is what it is and we are where we are and we take it from here, cherishing out heritage – biological, cultural, religious – and ready and willing to advance to a brave new future. Embrace and transcend. Don't believe everything you think. Don't disbelieve it either. Just entertain it as a probability wave. Surf it. Enjoy it. Don't cling on to it. Peace.

  • Hindus believe that the only truth is the supreme Brahman(Om) all pervading omnipresent pure consciousness which is the same as Atman in each body of every living things and universe has only a temperary existence.

  • This video is like a childs understanding of rocket science. Just want to look at that child and smile.

  • I like true Hinduism.

  • Hinduism is from – Himalaya and Indu Sagar (Indian ocean).

  • Hinduism is not only diverse. Its detailed. Its spritual. Its complete.

  • Read gospel of Sri Ramakrishna for complete knowledge of hinduism.

  • Aryan invasion theory is wrong

  • If I may Dharma means Law….

  • The most pathetic, absurd, laughable comments to this video will come from my fellow Hindus. Instead of congratulating the producers of this content for a job well done they will make very patronizing comments about how he's foreign so he doesn't understand the topic, yet they will never give any explanation. Those who attempt to explain will not cite sources from the scriptures but will just babble vacuous nonsense about how it's too deep to understand, about how it's a great mystery.

  • Basic Questions
    1. Is there a Creator and Sustainer of this multi universe?
    2. If there is one, does He concern Himself about our lives?
    3. If He does, where can we find instructions to lead a life that meets His approval?
    4. What are the consequences of leading a good or a bad life based on such instructions

    As humans, trying to define God reminds me of:

    Falsafi ko behess ke andar Khuda milta nahi
    Dor suljha raha hai par sira milta nahi

    So let us concentrate on what we need to do to lead a noble life!

    Thanks

  • Mohomad ho
    Ya moosa ho
    Ya isha ho
    Sab k sab meditation kerte the
    Kise cave m
    Lakin mosa isha mohomad ek ne bhi meditation k liye nhi bola aone follower ko
    Kyuki unko pata hai meditation hindu kerte hain god se contact kerne ko mosa isa mohomad sab meditation ker k book likh gye
    Meditation kerne ko nhi bola kyuki fr isha moosa mohimad k follower hinduo se nafrat kese karenge
    Meditation karo khud allah god bhagwan se contact banao
    Ager insan sache hoge to isha mosa mohomad ki tarah allah se contact bana paoge
    Thode bhi sache hoge to allah bhagwan god nhi to uski bheji koi angel se hi contact hoga
    Ab ye na bolna meditation kafir kerte ye haram hai
    Mohomad meditate ker raha tha jab jairail ne usko nocha tha to wo bhi kafir aur hindo ho jayega kyuki marte dam tak wo meditate kerke hi angel se allah k bare m poochta tha
    Meditate hi asal hai jo tumse isha moosa mohomad ne chupaya hai
    Wo nhi chahta tum seedhe allah god bhagwan ki angel se contact ker pao warna book nhi meditation sikha k jata
    Meditation sirf hindu hi sikha sakta
    Kyuki hindu tumko seedhe allah ki angel se milana chahta
    Na ki mohomad ki tarah book de ker apna ullu seedha kare

  • Your history chart need more correction wrong infromation lead to wrong students👦📖🎒

  • Incorrectly explained video, hindus are not from central asia….

  • Atma = soul, which is what we are.

    Brahman= God (the Universal Spirit). Atman is submissive to Brahman but is ultimately the same spiritual quality as Brahman.

  • Carbon dating of drawka (krishnas' capital city) artefacts found undersea off the bay of kambatt date 12,000 yrs. A few also date back to 32,000yrs. The west could not comprehend that Indian civilization could be very ancient, so they started with 1,500 yrs now u state 5000. Pls research before you make these videos.

  • aatmaa is basically soul

  • Hinduism is dated back to more than 50,000 years.

  • You'll find the concept of Brahman in Albert Einsteins 'Verallgemeinerter Gravitationstheorie' (Generalized gravitation theory) published 1917 in German. Just one site with very few math! And not without reason most of the great physicians had been Daoists or Hinduists and Einstein as well as David Bohm said that our reality ist just an illusion 😉

  • Guys, here is my input(after seeing lots of debate about 'how old is the Hinduism')
    As per current scientific evidence, Hinduism has to be dated more than 10000 years' ago. To the negates, dont put garbage but do your research and post scientific counterarguments.
    Data:
    1. As per most recent genetic analysis done from Rakhigiri skeleton sample', Hinduism civilization has to precede ANI gene formation in Indian population due to absence of ANI. In other words, ASI gene should be 'considered root gene' for modern Indian population.
    2. If you have any knowledge of human ancestry or migration since our homo genus origin in Northwest Africa, first migration out of Africa went THROUGH India and some part of it settled in Indian subcontinent, this was AASI gene. This should be around 50,000 TO 75000 Years ago. There was no 'NEW gene flow in Indian subcontinent till 10000 years ago when ASI gene was formed by its intermingling with Middle eastern (Iranian) farmers.
    3. Language development , particularly the written ones (Indo-european which also include Sanskrit) development usually considered to be coinciding with inflow of steppes pastoralists gene into Indian subcontinent, happened probably around 2500-1500 Years ago. Steppes pastoralists +ASI gene formed ANI gene.
    4. Almost every Indian (and there form following Hinduism) has ASI gene in them to the least. Its the ANI proportion that changes in proportion when you move from southern to northern part of Indian subcontinent.
    5. Per archaeology, Rakhigiri civilization is considered to be continuum of Harappa Civilization and it was believed to be based on vedic rituals (means Hinduism). Religion doesn't form when people develop civilization rather its 'a belief that their parents have which they passed on to their kids'. Even monkeys and animal may have their own religion till they make a collective effort to change it somtoething different. Therefore Hinduism has to be presumed to be formed when ASI gene formed to the least (that is around 10000 years ago) and may be prior to that when first homo settled its foot on Indian subcontinent with AASI gene formation (that is around 50000 to 75000 years ago). Therefore Hinduism has to be originated between anywhere from 75000 years to 10000 years ago. Why?
    AASI gene pool is also found in other parts of world (wherever out of Africa Hunters Gatherers migrated) but there is no Hinduism there. Also ASI and ANI precursors (middle east, Iran, Iraq and Steppes region respectively) do not have Hinduism philosophy. Although culture there do show some 'trace of Hinduism text' but not anywhere close to the what Hinduism is.
    5. By current scientific consensus, in terms of 'authenticity' following weight should be logically given:
    Genetic> Archaeology (will include carbon dating)>Linguistic/literature.
    Reason: Genetic analysis has least conflicting artifacts than other two. In this paragraph, I do not hesitate to comment that so called other dominant religion of today's world i.e. Christianity and Islam are not only influenced but rather originated by plagiarism of Hindu scripture. Per current facts, it should be assumed that due to this 'plagiarism', Hinduism gave rise to Jainism and Buddhism. Then Buddhism intermingled with Jewish religion to form Christianity. Then Middle easterner selfish clan developed Islam out of christian text and beliefs.
    Hope it helps the nastiks. By the way being Nastik, you are still Hindu because Hinduism is not about believing god but rather 'doing chintan to find the ultimate truth, and Truth of our existence can be a god made out of matter or energy or rather combination of two'. I am still trying to find my own way to achieve Moksha.

  • Hindus can't understand different between philosophy & logic.

  • One of the best explanation I have heard about Brahman and Atma

  • hinduism is not believe like any other religions if it is just a believe you can believe what ever you like hinduism is explanation of this universe and it has 2 component causeless auspiciousness ( shiva) and cause and effect ( karma ————-) why trying to explain some thing which you cannot or you do not know why not tell — go to bonafide guru and learn which is tradition of hinduism to learn

  • 3:00 Don't just confuse Brahman with Brahma, bur also don't confuse Brahman with Brahmin which you seem to be doing.

  • You should have talked about the caste system in relation to Dharma.

  • Very well explained

  • Hinduism is 12000 years old. Way before Judiasm

  • Sanatan Dharma, called Hinduism is not just 5000 years old. We have scriptures as old as 10,000 years to 15,000 years old. In fact it is Million years old…

  • One of the most helpful nutshells I've come across. Thanks!

  • what!!! didn't know sal had video about this topic!!

  • Please, get right the placement of Sanaathana Dharma in Time. In other words, the dates are all wrong.

  • I'll take Brahman for 500 points.

  • Totally wrong. Dislike

  • Detailed info kind of starts at 2:08…

  • " hinduism " term is reffered in vedas and puranas several times , which are much more older than 500 BCE . SO don't say that it is coined from 'indus' .

  • Why not tell the listener what sindhu means? Not mentioning the meaning of the word leaves quite a lot out.

  • I don't get why so many people criticizing this video . this just an honest attempt at explaining …

  • Abe Ram Setu is 7.5 lac years old itself as per Valmiki Ramayan and also from Scientific Work done by Radioactive Analysis of structures and soil.

  • I decided to watch this on a whim, but it actually turned out to be pretty interesting. Might do some more looking into this.

  • Very well explained within such a short presentation… Although the Aryan invasion, origins and timelines for Hinduism are highly contested and far from being settled.

  • The story of "matrix" movie was actually concieved by ancient indians long way back. Isn't the idea if Maya/illusion and waking up to see the reality is a mind blowing thought ? That's Hinduism guys. It has deep philosophical thoughts. An ordinary mind can't understand it easily. It's beyond anything else. To read it is one thing, but to realise it's meaning is completely another thing.

  • is this the guy from ancient aliens

  • I am Christian and this makes very much sense to me

  • very good

  • the Persian version

  • Vedic period is more old then people say

  • The aryan theory was determined to be incorrect, founded by British men from the late 19th century/early 20th century.

  • The very premise of Aryans descending upon India has lost the credibility of the rest of narration! However, the rest of it is acceptable to a degree! Go back in history of human migration and understand the Sanatana Dharma extended from Ireland to Japan raiding from the Indian subcontinent. They were called different names such as pagans, Zoroastrians etc:! They were all variations of the Dharmic system of living! There is a deliberate attempt by the proselytising religions and the Eurocentrics who are the power centres today to subvert this reality to conduct their conversions into faith based religions of the book while denying the true history of the humanity!

  • 5000is wrong, Vedas Hindus 4 part holy text 7000yrs older.

  • The most amazing thing about Hinduism is there's a story in the ramayana about the monkey king building a bridge from India to Sri Lanka 100,000 years ago to fight a 7 headed king or something.. you can see this bridge on Google maps in satellite photos and there are even documentaries talking about it.. that is by far the most amazing connection between a religious book and archeology ever..

  • So Hindu comes from Hindus which is the Persian word for the River valley. Persia is modern day Iran and one of the oldest civilizations. Also indo-aryan is the oldest language. And Sumerians talk about ancient aliens (Aryans) creating life on Earth and its believed human life was started in the fertile crescent around Mesopotamia (the middle East).

  • so Brahman actually refers to everything as a whole, everything abstract or physical, which is all of the Universe

  • So Brahman is the One being from MK.

  • You said Persian version haha

  • I HAVE A SIMILAR VIDEO, PLEASE COMMENT ON MY INFANCY…..

  • Thanks

  • Only Hindu💪💪💪💪
    Har Har Mahadev🚩🚩🚩🚩🚩

  • khan academy is the only reason im passing my ap world history class

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