Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25


Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse
U.S. History and today we’re going to continue
our extensive look at American capitalism. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I’m sorry are you saying
that I grow up to be a tool of the bourgeoisie… Oh not just a tool of the bourgeoise, Me from
the Past, but a card-carrying member of it. I mean, you have employees whose labor you
can exploit because you own the means of production, which in your case includes a chalkboard,
a video camera, a desk, and a xenophobic globe. Meanwhile Stan, Danica, Raoul, and
Meredith toil in crushing poverty – STAN, DID YOU WRITE THIS PART?
THESE ARE ALL LIES. CUE THE INTRO. [Theme Music] So, last week we saw how commercial farming transformed the American west and gave us mythical cowboys and unfortunately not-so-mythical
Indian reservations. Today we leave the sticks and head for the
cities, as so many Americans and immigrants
have done throughout this nation’s history. I mean we may like to imagine that the history of America is all “Go west young man,” but in fact from Mark Twain to pretty much
every hipster in Brooklyn, it’s the opposite. So, population was growing everywhere
in America after 1850. Following a major economic downturn in
the 1890s, farm prices made a comeback, and that drew more and more people out
west to take part in what would eventually be
called agriculture’s golden age. Although to be fair agriculture’s real golden age was
in like 3000 BCE when Mesopotamians were like, “Dude, if we planted these in rows, we
could have MORE OF IT THAN WE CAN EAT.” So it was really more of a second golden age. But anyway, more than a million land claims
were filed under the Homestead Act in the 1890s. And between 1900 and 1910 the
populations of Texas and Oklahoma together
increased by almost 2 million people. And another 800,000 moved into Kansas,
the Dakotas, and Nebraska. That’s right. People moved TO Nebraska.
Sorry, I just hadn’t yet offended Nebraskans. I’m looking to get through the list before
the end of the year. But one of the central reasons that so many people
moved out west was that the demand for agricultural
products was increasing due to…the growth of cities. In 1880, 20% of the American population
lived in cities and there were 12 cities with a
population over 100,000 people. This rose to 18 cities in 1900 with the
percentage of urban dwellers rising to 38%. And by 1920, 68% of Americans lived in cities
and 26 cities had a population over 100,000. So in the 40 years around the turn of the 20th century,
America became the world’s largest industrial power
and went from being predominantly rural to largely urban. This is, to use a technical historian term,
a really big deal. Because it didn’t just make cities possible,
but also their products. It’s no coincidence that while all this was
happening, we were getting cool stuff like
electric lights and moving picture cameras. Neither of which were invented by
Thomas Edison. I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but suddenly there are a lot more photographs in Crash Course U.S. History b-roll. So the city leading the way in this urban
growth was New York, especially after Manhattan was
consolidated with Brooklyn (and the Bronx,
Queens and Staten Island) in 1898. At the turn of the century, the population of the 23
square miles of Manhattan Island was over 2 million. And the combined 5 boroughs had a
population over 4 million. But, while New York gets most of the attention
in this time period, and all time periods since, it
wasn’t alone in experiencing massive growth. Like, my old hometown of Chicago, after
basically burning to the ground in 1871, became
the second largest city in America by the 1890s. Also, they reversed the flow of the
freaking Chicago River. Probably the second most impressive
feat in Chicago at the time. The first being that the Cubs won two
World Series. Even though I’m sorely tempted to chalk up the
growth of these metropolises to a combination of
better nutrition and a rise in skoodilypooping, I’m going to have to bow to stupid historical accuracy and tell you that much of the growth had to do with the phenomenon that this period is most known for: immigration. Of course, by the end of the 19th century, immigration
was not a new phenomenon in the United States. After the first wave of colonization by English people, and Spanish people, and other Europeans, there was a new wave of Scandinavians, French people, and especially the Irish. Most of you probably know about the
potato famine of the 1840s that led a million
Irish men and women to flee. If you don’t know
about it, it was awful. And the second largest wave of immigrants was
made up of German speakers, including a number of
liberals who left after the abortive revolutions of 1848. All right, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The Irish had primarily been farmers in the
motherland, but in America, they tended to
stay in cities, like New York and Boston. Most of the men began their working lives as
low-wage unskilled laborers, but over time they came
to have much more varied job opportunities. Irish immigrant women worked too, some in
factories or as domestic servants in the homes
of the growing upper class. Many women actually preferred the freedom that
factory labor provided and one Irish factory woman
compared her life to that of a servant by saying: “Our day is ten hours long, but when it’s
done, it’s done, and we can do what we like
with the evenings. That’s what I’ve heard from every nice girl
that’s tried service. You’re never sure that your soul is your
own except when you’re out of the house.” Most German speakers had been farmers in their
home countries and would remain farmers in the US,
but a number of skilled artisans also came. They tended to stay in cities and
make a go of entrepreneurship. Bismarck himself saw emigration from
Germany as a good thing saying, “The better it goes for us, the higher the
volume of emigration.” And that’s why we named a city in
North Dakota after him. Although enough German immigrants came to New York that the lower east side of Manhattan came to be known for a time as Kleindeutschland (little Germany), many moved to the growing cities of the
Midwest like Cincinnati and St. Louis. Some of the most famous German
immigrants became brewers. And America is much richer for the arrival of men like Frederick Pabst, Joseph Schlitz, and Adolphus Busch. And by richer, I mean drunker. Hey. Thanks for not ending on a downer,
Thought Bubble. I mean, unless you count alcoholism. So, but by the 1890s, over half of the 3.5 million immigrants who came to our shores came from southern and eastern Europe, in particular Italy and the Russian and Austro Hungarian empires. They were more likely than previous
immigrants to be Jewish or Catholic, and while almost all of them were looking
for work, many were also escaping political
or religious persecution. And by the 1890s they also had to face
new “scientific” theories, which I’m putting in air quotes to be clear because
there was nothing scientific about them, which consigned them to different “races” whose
low level of civilization was fit only for certain kinds of
work and predisposed them to criminality. The Immigration Restriction League was founded
in Boston in 1894 and lobbied for national legislation
that would limit the numbers of immigrants, and one such law even passed Congress in 1897
only to be vetoed by President Grover Cleveland. Good work, Grover! You know, his first name
was Stephen, but he called himself Grover. I would have made a different choice. But before you get too excited about
Grover Cleveland, Congress and the President were able to agree on
one group of immigrants to discriminate against:
the Chinese. Chinese immigrants, overwhelmingly male, had been coming to the United States, mostly to the West, since the 1850s to work in mines and on the railroads. They were viewed with suspicion because they looked different, spoke a different language, and they had “strange” habits, like regular bathing. By the time the Chinese Exclusion Act went into effect in 1882, there were 105,000 people of Chinese descent living in the United States, mainly in cities on the West Coast. San Francisco refused to educate Asians until the state Supreme Court ordered them to do so. And even then the city responded by
setting up segregated schools. The immigrants fought back through
the courts. In 1886, in the case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins the United States Supreme court ordered San Francisco to grant Chinese-operated laundries licenses to operate. Then in 1898 in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Court ruled that American born children of Chinese immigrants were entitled to citizenship under the 14th Amendment, which should have been a duh but wasn’t. We’ve been hard on the Supreme Court here at
Crash Course, but those were two good decisions. You go, Supreme Court! But despite these victories Asian immigrants continued to face discrimination in the form of vigilante-led riots like the one in Rock Springs, Wyoming that killed 26 people. And congressionally approved restrictions, many of which the Supreme Court did uphold, so, meh. Also it’s important to remember that this
large-scale immigration – and the fear of it –
was part of a global phenomenon. At its peak between 1901 and the outbreak
of World War 1 in 1914, 13 million immigrants
came to the United States. In the entire period touched off by the
industrialization from 1840 until 1914, a total
of 40 million people came to the U.S. But at least 20 million people emigrated to other
parts of the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil,
the Caribbean, Canada (yes, Canada) and Argentina. As much as we have Italian immigrants to thank
for things like pizza (and we do thank you), Argentina can be just as grateful for the
immigrant ancestors of Leo Messi. Also the Pope, although he has never once
won La Liga. And there was also extensive immigration
from India to other parts of the British Empire
like South Africa; Chinese immigration to South America and
the Caribbean; I mean, the list goes on and on. In short, America is
not as special as it fancies itself. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document?
The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. I get it wrong and then I get shocked with
the shock pen. Sorry I don’t mean to sound defeatist, but I
don’t have a good feeling about this. All right. “The figure that challenged attention to
the group was the tall, straight, father, with his earnest face and fine forehead, nervous
hands eloquent in gesture, and a voice full of feeling. This foreigner, who brought his children to
school as if it were an act of consecration, who regarded the teacher of the primer class
with reverence, who spoke of visions, like a man
inspired, in a common classroom. I think Miss Nixon guessed what my
father’s best English could not convey. I think she divined that by the simple act
of delivering our school certificates to her
he took possession of America.” Uhh, I don’t know. At first I thought it
might be someone who worked with immigrants, like Jane Addams, but then at the end
suddenly it’s her own father. [buzz] Jane Addams’s father was
not an immigrant. Mary Antin? Does she even have
a Wikipedia page?! She does? Did you write it, Stan? Stan
wrote her Wikipedia page. AH. So, this document, while it was written by
someone who should not have a Wikipedia page, points out that most immigrants to America were
coming for the most obvious reason: opportunity. Industrialization, both in manufacturing and
agriculture, meant that there were jobs in America. There was so much work, in fact, that
companies used labor recruiters who went
to Europe to advertise opportunities. Plus, the passage was relatively cheap, provided
you were only going to make it once in your life, and it was fast, taking only 8 to 12
days on the new steam powered ships. The Lower East Side of Manhattan became the
magnet for waves of immigrants, first Germans, then Eastern European Jews and Italians, who
tended to re-create towns and neighborhoods
within blocks and sometimes single buildings. Tenements, these 4, 5 and 6 story buildings
that were designed to be apartments, sprang
up in the second half of the 19th century and the earliest ones were so unsanitary
and crowded that the city passed laws requiring
a minimum of light and ventilation. And often these tenement apartments doubled as workspaces because many immigrant women and children took in piecework, especially in the garment industry. Despite laws mandating the occasional window
and outlawing the presence of cows on public streets,
conditions in these cities were pretty bad. Things got better with the construction of
elevated railroads and later subways that
helped relieve traffic congestion but they
created a new problem: pickpockets. “Pickpockets take advantage of the confusion
to ply their vocation… The foul, close, heated air is poisonous. A healthy person cannot ride a dozen
blocks without a headache.” So that’s changed! This new transportation technology also enabled
a greater degree of residential segregation in cities. Manhattan’s downtown area had, at one time,
housed the very rich as well as the very poor, but improved transportation meant that people
no longer had to live and work in the same place. The wealthiest, like Cornelius Vanderbilt and J.P. Morgan, constructed lavish palaces for themselves and uptown townhouses were common. But until then, one of the most notable feature of
gilded age cities like New York was that the rich and
the poor lived in such close proximity to each other. And this meant that with America’s growing
urbanization, the growing distance between rich
and poor was visible to both rich and poor. And much as we see in today’s megacity, this
inability to look away from poverty and economic
inequality became a source of concern. Now one way to alleviate concern is to create
suburbs so you don’t have to look at poor people, but another response to urban problems
was politics, which in cities like New York,
became something of a contact sport. Another response was the so-called
progressive reform movement. And in all these responses and in the
issues that prompted them – urbanization, mechanization, capitalism, the
distribution of resources throughout the social order –
we can see modern industrial America taking shape. And that is the America we live in today.
Thank you for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my history teacher,
Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Halse Rojas, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson.
And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption for the
libertage. If you’d like to suggest one, you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we
say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome.

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