Emmy Noether: The Greatest Forgotten Mathematician in History

Human history is littered with people who
changed the world, only to have their achievements erased from popular memory. Gay men like computing pioneer Alan Turing,
women like mathematician Ada Lovelace, even pure oddballs like Nikola Tesla were left
out the curriculum for decades. Thankfully, this is no longer the case. On the internet, everyone from the Navajo
code talkers, to NASA’s black, female number crunchers are having their stories told. But what if we told you that there’s a name
still missing from their ranks, one that should be on everyone’s lips. The name of a female mathematician so influential
her work may be second only to that of Albert Einstein. Her name was Emmy Noether, and her work changed
history. Born into a German-Jewish family in the late
19th Century, Noether grew up in a world designed to reject people like her. Barred from attending university due to her
gender, she nonetheless managed to attain a grasp of mathematics so phenomenal that
her work created an entire discipline. Anonymous in her lifetime, ignored by posterity,
this is the life of Emmy Noether, the most-important mathematician the world forgot. Nice Girls Don’t Do Math
When Emmy Noether was born on 23 March, 1882, it was into a family that was almost designed
to produce geniuses. Her father, Max Noether, was a highly-respected
mathematician attached to Erlangen University. Her mother came from the wealthy Kaufmann
family of Cologne. Although Emmy was the eldest, her brother
Fritz would become almost as famous a mathematician as their father. In short, this was a family of wealthy brainboxes,
intimately connected to a very prestigious university. With such an upbringing, how could Noether
not succeed? Yet this outward advantage masked a less-privileged
reality. The Noethers were Jewish. Max’s ancestors had changed their names
to try and blend in with German society. But while Germany in the late 19th Century
was much less anti-Semitic than it would become, the first traces of poisonous racism were
already there. Although Noether’s Jewishness would turn
her into a target later in life, it wasn’t solely what made her early years difficult. No, that was Nother’s bad luck to be born
female. We say “bad luck” not to rile up female
viewers, but because it really was a disadvantage back then. While as a very young girl Noether was desperate
to follow her father into mathematics, society at the time was all kinda like “Pfft, girls
can’t do math. Learn the piano instead.” Noether’s childhood may not have been fulfilling,
but at least she was happy. At elementary school, her teachers noted that
she was always laughing. In fact, happiness seems to have been Noether’s
default setting throughout her life. She spent her childhood dancing to made up
songs, telling jokes, and getting highly excited about anything that grabbed her fancy. Yet there were also signs of something deeper
at work. As she entered her teens, Noether began spending
longer amounts of time lost in her own head, like she was distracted by a voice only she
could hear. Already, it seems she was spending more time
puzzling out reality than she was living in it. But puzzles weren’t for nice girls, so Noether
spent her day to day life training to be a language teacher. She did a pretty good job, too. When she took the teaching exam in 1900, she
received the second-highest possible grade. But Emmy Noether would never do even an hour
of paid language teaching in her life. That same year, 1900, Noether seems to have
decided to Hell with what society wanted. She applied to study math at Erlangen University. At the dawn of the 20th Century, women were
forbidden from attending University classes in Germany. At least, they were officially. Unofficially, professors were given leeway
over who they allowed to sit in on lectures. This was something of an advantage if, oh
I dunno, your dad just happened to be a respected math professor at the university you wanted
to attend. Not long after, Noether began sitting in on
Erlangen’s math courses, one of only two women in the entire university. For the next two years, she progressed so
quickly that, when she sat an equivalent exam in 1903, she passed with flying colors. Had she been male, Noether would’ve doubtless
now found herself riding a rocketship to the very heights of academia. But unfortunately her double X chromosome
disqualified her from doing anything remotely fulfilling, so instead she went to Göttingen
University to sit in on yet more classes. However, Noether’s winter stint in Göttingen
would turn out to be a blessing in disguise. While there, she studied under David Hilbert
and Felix Klein, two of the most distinguished mathematicians in Germany. Neither of the three geniuses knew it in 1903,
but they were just over a decade away from a collaboration that would change the world. A Time of Change
In spring, 1904 the German government suddenly dropped a bombshell. From the following semester onward, women
would be allowed to enroll at the empire’s universities. For Noether, this was like spending your entire
life standing on the sidelines at a dance, only to suddenly be invited to join in – although
admittedly in this metaphor “dancing” involves a whole lot more algebra than usual. Anyway, Noether raced back to Erlangen and,
on October 24, sat her entrance exam. Did she pass? Of course she did. That year, 1904, Noether officially joined
one of the first mixed-sex math courses in Germany. Remarkably, she doesn’t seem to have encountered
any real resentment. While it likely existed in some form, most
of her professors seem to have realized she had a gift for the subject. Three years after joining, on Friday, 13 December,
1907, Noether took the examination for her Phd. She passed so handily that she graduated with
the highest honors possible. To return to our earlier metaphor, this moment
is Noether dancing so spectacularly the entire hall stops to watch. It’s also the moment some asshole janitor
snaps the lights back on and brings the whole dream to an abrupt end. Although Noether had a Phd in math, she wasn’t
actually allowed to do anything with it. The law thought women should be able to study,
but not lecture. So Noether found herself in possession of
a brilliant mind and a stellar education, but absolutely nothing she could do with either
of them. Still, she did have a couple of aces up her
sleeve. The first was her mother’s money. Thanks to her family, Noether didn’t have
to get a job. If she wanted to, she could devote her time
to the unpaid study of math. The second ace was her father. By 1908, Max Noether was suffering more and
more from a disability brought on by childhood polio. He needed more time off, and a substitute
who could cover him when he couldn’t attend class. A substitute just like Emmy. Subbing for her dad was an unpaid role, but
one which allowed Noether to remain in Erlangen. To keep on studying, to keep publishing papers. The more she worked, the more notice she got. In 1909, for example, Noether was invited
to go to Salzburg, to address the German Mathematical Society. In 1911, she came to the attention of Ernst
Sigismund Fischer, who championed her work at Erlangen and sparked her own interest in
abstract math. By 1915, shortly after the outbreak of WWI,
she was even overseeing two of her father’s Phd students, advising them on their doctoral
theses. It’s entirely possible she could have gone
on like that forever. Kept right on working away in Erlangen, perhaps
eventually even making it onto the salaried staff. But 1915 was the year that everything was
gonna change, both in mathematics, and in Noether’s personal life. That’s because 1915 was the year that a
former patent clerk named Albert Einstein blew up the entire scientific world. Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity
was the most transformative event in math since Newton decided to discovery gravity
and save us all from a lifetime of weightlessness. It turned almost everything we thought we
knew on its head, and lit a fire under the asses of every math department on the planet. Among those with suddenly burning backsides
were Emmy’s old mentors David Hilbert and Felix Klein. That same year, the two identified what appeared
to be a problem in Einstein’s theory, one that seemed to imply Einstein’s work contradicted
laws on the conservation of energy. But the two of them alone weren’t up to
the task of figuring out all the implications. What they needed was a fresh set of eyes. Someone with expertise in invariant theory. Not long after, Noether got a call asking
her to come back to Göttingen. She said yes. Einstein’s Dreams
When Noether arrived in Göttingen that year, it’s fair to say the all-male faculty wasn’t
pleased to see her. Hilbert’s plan had originally been to have
Noether appointed associate professor. To which some long-forgotten stuffy German-dude
replied: “What will our soldiers think when they return
to the university and find that they are required to learn at the feet of a woman?” Hilbert retorted:
“I do not see that the sex of the candidate is an argument against her. After all, we are a university, not a bathhouse.” But, in the end, stuffy German dude carried
the day, and Hilbert was forced to give Noether the unpaid position of “guest lecturer”. At which point Noether showed everyone up
by solving the problem with Einstein’s work in, like, fifteen minutes. It turned out that the problem wasn’t actually
a problem. Hilbert and Klein had just been thinking too
small. Using Einstein’s work, Noether was able
to prove that energy would indeed be conserved across a sufficiently large patch of space. But it was what she discovered alongside that,
that made Noether’s name. That became the reason she deserves to be
remembered. Noether’s Theorem would change the world. OK, we’re gonna level with you here: we
read a ton of articles trying to get our heads around Noether’s Theorem so we could explain
it to you, but it turns out it’s super confusing to people – like us – whose primary job is
history and who usually respond to the word “algebra” with a bloodcurdling scream. So we’ll let an expert do the talking, in
this case the New York Times’s Pulitzer Prize-winning science journalist, Natalie
Angier: “What the revolutionary theorem says, in
cartoon essence,” she wrote, “is the following: Wherever you find some sort of symmetry in
nature, some predictability or homogeneity of parts, you’ll find lurking in the background
a corresponding conservation — of momentum, electric charge, energy or the like…” For example, “Noether’s theorem shows
that a symmetry of time — like the fact that whether you throw a ball in the air tomorrow
or make the same toss next week will have no effect on the ball’s trajectory — is
directly related to the conservation of energy.” Got that? Throwing balls, conservation of energy, relativity
solved. Err, sure? Still, even mathematical luddites like us
can appreciate the historical significance of Noether’s work. Her Theorem would go on to hugely influence
a new generation of scientists working in the 1950s and 1960s. Scientists who used her work to predict the
existence of new particles. One of those was the Higgs Boson, the so-called
God Particle discovered in 2012. Take away Emmy Noether and her Theorem, and
the cutting edge of physics today suddenly looks very different. Unfortunately, there was a major barrier to
most people actually hearing about Noether’s discovery. During WWI, scientists working for the Central
Powers were forbidden from sharing discoveries with rival nations, in case it lead to a military
breakthrough. But one person did get to hear about Emmy’s
work. After reading of Noether’s Theorem, Einstein
wrote to Hilbert. In his letter, he used a simple term to describe
the woman who’d come up with it. He called her a genius. The New Germany
The next few years of Noether’s life were odd, to say the least. Although she’d just made a major breakthrough,
most of the world didn’t know about it. On top of that, the university was still refusing
to pay her and, with the German economy shattered by war, even money from her parents wasn’t
enough to stop her sliding into poverty. At least she was able to continue working. During this period, Hilbert managed to get
around the university’s prohibition on solo female lecturers by advertising Noether’s
classes in his own name and then “forgetting” to show up. It wasn’t much, but it allowed Noether to
follow her passion. Then end of the war brought its own problems,
as Germany plunged into chaos at the end of 1918, a chaos that only ended in August, 1919,
with the creation of the Weimar Republic. With the era of upheaval at an end, Noether
and Hilbert fixed their sights on a new target. Getting Noether a real job at Göttingen University. By now, she’d been able to publish her Theorem
to a wider audience. Everyone knew she was a mathematician of staggering
talent. But, no. The stuffy German dudes on the university’s
board had somehow missed the whole “discovering a world changing theorem” bit, and remained
intensely un-keen on lady lecturers. They maintained this position all the way
through 1921, even as Noether published her paper Idealtheorie in Ringbereichen, now seen
as a major milestone in the advent of modern algebra. Finally, in 1922, the university condescendingly
awarded the cleverest person in their midst with a role as untenured associate math professor,
and allotted her a pitifully small salary. It was a victory, sort of, but the stuffy
Germans were dicks enough to make sure it didn’t feel like one. Yet Noether doesn’t seem to have really
cared. She was able to teach now, to work on her
passion. She became one of the most popular lecturers
on campus, with a dedicated student clique forming around her known as “the Noether
Boys”. Yep: boys. Despite the law change and Noether’s presence,
there were almost zero women studying math at Göttingen. And that reflected the deeper attitudes that
were still swirling around at the time. In 1927, for example, Noether began a collaboration
on non-communicative algebras with two male mathematicians, but was only rarely able to
put her name on the papers. Still, the community itself championed her. In 1928, for example, she was invited to address
the International Congress of Mathematicians at Bologna. In 1929 she was briefly given the job of visiting
professor at Moscow university. As time passed, signs slowly began to appear
that things were, indeed, changing. In 1930, Noether met the 24-year old Czech
math superstar Olga Taussky. After, she told her friends how pleased she
was that women were finally being accepted in math. Yet while acceptance might have been growing
where Noether’s gender was concerned, an even more violent wave of oppression was about
to come crashing down on her. Noether was a prominent Jewish woman living
in 1930s Germany. Unfortunately, we all know what’s coming
next. The Age of Horror
The same year that Noether met Olga Taussky, the Weimar Republic held one of its frequent
elections. But while every previous election had returned
messy, but expected results, the election of September, 1930 returned an unpleasant
surprise. From one of the smallest parties in the Reichstag,
the Nazis were catapulted into second place, netting nearly a fifth of the vote. The era of Weimar democracy was reaching its
end. Around the corner lurked a time of unspeakable
horror. The coming nightmare wasn’t immediately
apparent in Göttingen, especially for the apolitical Noether. Oh, sure, a couple of her students started
turning up to her lectures wearing Nazi brownshirts, but Noether laughed it off. She knew these boys. She knew they would never harm her. The next couple of years were accompanied
by the steady drumbeat of jackboots and despair. In October, 1930, the SA undertook its first
major anti-Jewish action, destroying storefronts in Berlin. Two years later, Weimar Germany again went
to the polls, this time giving the Nazis the largest number of seats and over 37% of the
vote. Yet Noether still didn’t realize the danger
she was in. The same year that the Weimar Republic teetered
on the edge of annihilation, she was accepting awards for her math work and addressing international
congresses in Switzerland. But her ignorance couldn’t last. On January 30, 1933, Hitler was made Chancellor
of Germany, a momentous event celebrated nationwide by torchlit SA and SS parades through cities. Not three months later, on March 24, the Reichstag
passed the Enabling Act, handing Hitler absolute power. The very next month, Noether was fired from
Göttingen for being Jewish. It was almost like someone had been waiting
for an excuse to get rid of her. Noether was given no compensation for the
loss of her job, denied a pension, and told she would be unable to teach again. The mathematician’s response was impressively
upbeat. Noether wrote to a friend:
“I must say, though, that this thing is much less terrible for me than it is for many
others. At least I have a small inheritance (I was
never entitled to a pension anyway) which allows me to sit back for a while and see.” And that’s exactly what she did. Through the summer of 1933, Noether continued
to teach in private, opening up the front room of her home to any students who wanted
to learn math. She even allowed her brownshirt students to
attend these informal classes, ignoring the fact that these boys had likely marched through
the city chanting Nazi slogans just a few months earlier. As a friend of Noether’s later noted, she
never “doubted (the brownshirt students) integrity”. This was about math. Politics could be damned. Thankfully, Noether never got to experience
the true faces of her Nazi students. That fall, worried about Noether’s increasingly
precarious position, Albert Einstein arranged for her a job lecturing at Bryn Mawr College
in Pennsylvania. Remarkably, she turned him down. If she was going to emigrate, she wanted to
go to England to teach at Oxford, not some American college. But it soon became apparent that she didn’t
have a choice. Across 1933, the Nazis passed a raft of anti-Semitic
laws, excluding Jews from many professions, and subordinating all Jewish intellectual
output to Goebbels himself. Although physical violence against Jews wouldn’t
become state policy until 1935, it was clear now even to the optimistic Noether which way
the wind was blowing. That October, Noether boarded a boat bound
for the USA. Not long after, she began her visiting professorship
at Bryn Mawr. With remarkable luck, Noether had just escaped
the clutches of one of the most-destructive, racist regimes of all time. Although she would return to Germany once
more, she would never again be victimized by Nazi policies. Unfortunately, her escape would only turn
out to be a reprive. Nobody knew it yet, but the fifty one year
old Noether was only 18 months away from the end of her life. Death and Legacy
When death finally came for Noether, it was with a suddenness that was painfully unfair. Across 1934, Noether had settled into her
new life in America. She’d begun additional lectures at Princeton,
and built a small but devoted following in both universities. In fact, it was in America that she probably
felt the most accepted she ever had in her life. No-one in the States seemed to care that she
was a woman who wanted to teach math. That she was Jewish. Finally, after half a century, Noether had
found somewhere that seemed to accept her for who she was. Somewhere she could live out the rest of her
life without trouble. She even felt comfortable enough to take a
trip back to Germany that year. While riding on the Hamburg metro with her
brother, she struck up an excited conversation about Idealtheorie – a mathematical concept
that in German uses the term “Führer”. Her brother’s wife would later remark that
Noether seemed completely oblivious to how close she came to being arrested for that
discussion. As 1935 dawned, Noether was ensconced in Pennsylvania,
working on her theories, and seemingly enjoying a new lease of life. And then she got the news. On April 8, doctors discovered Noether had
an ovarian cyst. They recommended her for surgery and, on April
10, she went under the knife. As they operated, the doctors made a gruesome
discovery. Noether’s insides were riddled with tumors. The great mathematician was dying. But death wouldn’t even have the decency
to wait another couple of months. Four days after her surgery, on April 14,
1935, Noether developed a sudden, extreme fever. An infection had developed. The doctors rushed to save her, but they were
too late. Emmy Noether died that same afternoon. At the time she passed away, she’d only
just turned 53. Today, her name is all but forgotten outside
of math and science circles. Even some who know her theorem know nothing
about her. They may even assume the “Noether” it’s
named after was male. And this is a tragedy, because her work changed
the world. A whole lot of modern theoretical physics
is underpinned by her ideas, and her contributions to abstract algebra were so huge that we’ve
seen people claim she basically invented the discipline. The weirdest part of all this, is that people
knew how special she was. After Noether died, Albert Einstein wrote
in the New York Times: “In the judgment of the most competent living
mathematicians, Fräulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius
thus far produced since the higher education of women began.” Yet while Einstein remains a household name,
while Kepler, Cantor, and John Nash all trigger hints of recognition, Noether’s name has
slipped into the fog. The most significant thinker the world somehow
forgot. But we shouldn’t be too sad for Noether. While she certainly deserves more recognition,
it can’t be denied that her work lives on, influencing millions of thinkers, helping
us to understand the universe. She may have slipped into obscurity today,
but when the final sum total of the human race is added up, and the achievements of
all the billions and billions who have ever lived are weighed…
…it’s comforting to know that Emmy Noether will be up there at the very top, still smiling
away; the mathematician who changed the world.

Comments 100

  • Thank you to Brilliant for sponsoring. Check them out here, and support the show: https://brilliant.org/Biographics/

  • If you’re regarded by Einstein himself as a genius…. then everyone needs to shut up and start taking notes! 👍🏻

  • Do one on Frank Zappa!!!!

  • Wonderful video! Thank you!

  • I'm really glad that you made this video. I know it won't get as many views as it deserves, but it's important that you made it anyway. Thanks to the team!

  • Well, that was my time well spent.

  • I met Emmy Noether in my Calculus book. They had short blurbs on famous mathematicians in the margins. Thank you for telling me more about her.

  • This is a great story. It's sad how many anti-intellectual tiny men I'm seeing in the replies complaining in regards to the idea of learning about important women. Not only is it totally sad and pathetic it also just proves why we need more people to educate folks about important roles women have played throughout history.

  • Nice video. Glad she got to the States and was well treated and respected by her peers.

  • As a mother to three girls , we are all about girl power in this house. My second oldest is a math major in college, so this video is very inspiring. I love all your videos but I especially enjoyed this one. Thank you.

  • I used to hate the open and close , there's nothing we can do. It's feels as if you get punched in the soul.

  • Powerful

  • Legend has it she was solving very complex problems on a chalk board. When she was finally caught by a couple of teachers she asked Isaac Newton…”How ya like them apples?”

  • Even with my love of astronomy I had never heard of Emmy Noether. I asked my husband, the family math whiz, if he'd ever heard of her, and he had but wasn't that familiar with her work.

  • For another mathematician, John Forbes Nash Jr.? He dealt with mental illness (paranoid schizophrenia). Would be really interesting to have a bio on him.

  • I think one of the reasons I adore this Channel and all of Simon's channel so much is that it brings history that has been pushed to the wayside up to the forefront. I get to learn about so many places and people that were not taught to me in school. Because of this, my nine-year-old daughter gets to have history the way it should have been in the first place. The good, the bad and the ugly just like the Horrible Histories that we like to watch together as well.

  • Love the video. can you do a video on Leonhard Euler and Bernard Riemann.

  • Now, SHE should be on the $10 bill.

  • I would say that Srinivasa Ramanujan was the greatest "forgotten" mathematician as the public in general don't know of his contributions to mathematicas mainly due to being non-western.

  • She looks like a female doppelgänger of Schrödinger

  • She is of my favourites! Thank you for shining a light on her genius and delightful attitude toward life.

  • Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

  • As wonderful as this video is, you entirely understate the importance of her work to Einstein's theories … Einstein enthusiastically acknowledged that he would not have been able to advance the math without her.

  • Absolutely fascinating video! Thanks so much.

  • An insufferable but very positive and beautiful soul , an outgoing math Genius, who faced sexism, racism and and untimely demise in cancer.

  • Nash was an idiot.

  • Physics even at a lower undergraduate level is dominated by symmetry and conservation. By finding that from each one you get the other, Nother essentially took the whole subject of phsyics and wrapped it up in a bow.

  • I had never known of her before this video; however, I will now never forget her. Thank you!

  • What a woman!!!! We had the same birthday…just some years apart!

  • Thanks Simon! I very much enjoyed learning about the brilliant lady.

  • I would have loved little biographies on the people who discovered the different calculations and formulas in my math textbooks at school. The only math classes I actually ever disliked was Algebra 1 (because it was kinda boring) and Calculus (I thought I understood what I was doing and that I was doing it right, but the best grade I got in two and a half semesters of it at high school and university was a D-).

  • I actually knew about Emmy before this video. I had a wonderful math teacher in middle school, Mrs. Tent, who was one of the only math teachers who made me enjoy math. She was brilliant and even wrote our textbook. She would give school wide lectures on prominent mathematicians and those who were also not well known. And we actually paid attention because we loved her so much. She wrote a book about Emmy and Leibniz who has also been covered on this channel. Mrs. Tent passed a few years ago and this video made me think of her and how much I enjoyed her classes. I also appreciate learning more about Emmy and glad to see her getting more recognition!

  • Staggering! Never heard of her. Thank you so much.

  • Akhenaten: Moses and Monotheism

  • Thanks for taking my suggestion.

  • I bet she was amazing in the kitchen.

  • Please to Atilla the Hun and Talat Pasha. That would be pretty cool.

  • Simply top-notch. Well developed and brilliantly presented. Thank you.

  • Do Luka Magnotta!!

  • After an especially upbeat Simon on the latest Business Blaze, I meet a sobering and just as engrossing Simon here on the latest Biographics. (Shameless Business Blaze fangirl plug:-) But I don’t mind—this is history that I and the rest of the world should know. I do hope her memory one day enjoys a resurgence that approaches that of Tesla’s. I may have forgotten most of my math, but even I know that was a world-changing theory. Imagine what else she’d have accomplished in the field had life not been an unrelenting bastard. Just relieved she escaped death by Brownshirt cos if that’s where this video ended, that would’ve been an even more crushingly awful end to a life of genius

  • Another jew? No thanks

  • Any chance you could do a biographics about Louis Riel and or Gabriel Dumont from Canada, part of the Northwest Rebellion??

  • Davie504 in the thumbnail ❤️

  • Why does everyone act as though einstein was an anomaly? Tesla’s work is far more superior in regards to use. Let alone, environmentally hardly a footprint. If you’re a fan of einstein, you champion the bombing of japan…. think about it….

  • Far from being an unknown she is completely overhyped.

  • I feel like this script was a little padded. Her brilliant and inspiring story could have been portrayed a bit more energetically if there had been fewer metaphors explaining simple ideas and less of the effusive praise of Einstein.

    Of course, I'd prefer not to have the ad for Brilliant, either, but I understand the obligation there.

  • Not only women were barred from lecturing, atheists as well. That is why Einstein 'showed allegiance with the people of Israel', so he could teach in Germany, while some of his peers were less pragmatic and went on to Austria instead.

  • Im so glad to have learned about her.

  • I studied in Göttingen, and even here all you hear about is Hilbert, Gauß, Weber etc.

  • this comment section is full of sexism…though most of you claiming to be against it dont know the definition anyway. keep playing online sjw.

  • Not really forgotten, I learned her beautiful equation last week at uni.

  • She probably saw numbers floating in her head/dreams that we normal people couldn't……

  • Make biography on the great Maratha Empire Shivaji Maharaj 🚩 in india🇮🇳

  • Beautiful work, Biographics. Emily Noether. Shall remember her for life.

  • “It really was a disadvantage to be a woman back then”
    Glad we’re all on the same page.

  • Please do Henry V of England Charles VI of France , Michael Collins , J.Edgar Hoover and Jack Palance and Harry Percy(The Hotspur)

  • Excellent presentation ….. it underscores the truth that every person who lives…. has something valuable to contribute to the whole of mankind. No room for prejudice. Thank you so much.

  • Being from Erlangen and a student at Erlangen University, thanks for covering a person so close to home!

  • In whose history? People should stop mistaking history with recorded history. To say that this woman is one of the greatest in history is outlandish.

  • Wait!
    Dancing doesn't require a lot of Algebra?
    hmmm…. that probably explains a lot.

  • Are you any relation to Whistler's Mother (1871 painting)?

  • Once again, you have outdone yourself! Thank you, profoundly, thank you.

  • I took a course on statistics at the University of Connecticut in the early 1980's and Gottfried E. Noether was the professor. Emmy Noether was his aunt. He was the author of the textbook for the course.

  • Being called a genius by Einstein, that's legit.

  • I do know the Emmy Noether Street in Munich. I didn’t know who she was. Now I know. Thank you 🙏😃

  • I think I first heard about Noether when as a CS undergrand I was learning about the ACL2 theorem prover, and how it used "noetherian reduction" to guide the proof that a recursive function eventually terminated. I had never heard of this lady until then!

  • Emmy: Literally out Einsteins Einstein
    Other professors: "Sorry, we couldn't hear that over your Vagina."

  • Navajo code talkers. NA-va-ho. Emphasis on the first syllable. 😉

  • What an amazing woman. Thank you Simon for telling her story.

  • Wait what ? A famous women who isnt used as clickbait for the fact that shes a successful women?? I appreciate this channel 👌🏻

  • I am studying her work, in part, while learning supersymmetry. Great timing

  • This episode was awesome!!

  • Thank You!!!! I too had not heard of this remarkable woman, Emmy Noether.

  • Wow. Simon, this video is possibly the most important one you've made to date. It truly was eye-opening. Thank you!

  • Thank you for this. And thanks for a yoeman's job trying to get the math out

  • Just think of all the brains that have gone to waste over the centuries merely because of gender or poverty – or both!

  • Fun fact, the United States did not become the global economic super power that it is until women entered the workforce in droves. No country that only utilizes half of its geniuses will ever be able to compete, and no country that slaughters its geniuses will ever deserve to compete.

  • "One of the most destructive, racist regimes of all time"
    USA: Hold my beer

  • Thanks for the early Women's History month present!
    An excellent bio. I have a dgree in Women's and Gender Studies. I have studied women's role in Science and Maths. I have lectured on Women's History, and have never come across her story.
    Great script and wonderful delivery,.
    Thanks, again.

  • Dear Simon Whistler & company ~ I would simply like to note I was unceremoniously unsubscribed from this channel by Youtube without my knowledge or consent! I know, I know, put it into a memo entitled 'stuff we already know'

  • That's bomb. U go girl.

  • Hey bio its black history month so can you do some unknown bios on black inventories

  • Everything fundamental in the physics idiom is product of a quantum field (i.e. electric charge to the relevant field's phase that built it). Phase is a punishing thing to find any sort of intuition with. Skip it. Noether's conservation theorem reveals that the tweaking, twisting, and tousling of this phase in this field, won't change the observable properties (electric charge in our case); that result, is 'conserved'. The symmetry betwixt field and fundamental, is what does the conserving, and is why we could rely on an electric current to watch.

  • Thank you Simon for this video. Thar was a beautiful ending.

  • Emmy no ether is how i read her last name😂. I wish it wasn't all this war and sexism getting in her way. I wonder how much further we'd be if women could've gotten into stem fields and schools much sooner. Really kind of pisses me off how much we were fucked over by bigotry throughout history

  • Einstein basically said she’s smart for a woman.

  • Yet another fantastic video Simon. I did not know that Emmy Noether even existed until your video. What a great mathematician she was

  • So her family is like mine: My mom is a chemist at Yale, my dad got into IIT (in India). The year my dad got in, 300,000 other people tried to get it. Only 2,000 people made it. My dad ranked 67 among them. My sister and I are both doing math above our grade.

  • Thank you for this video it was very informative

  • 1. Get time machine
    2. Go to beginning of 20th centurion
    3. Get all brilliant women and all German Jews
    4. Profit

  • Universities with no women? No wonder these people went and had two world wars in the half-a-century after…

  • could you do james clerk maxwell

  • The death of Noether is a scathing indictment against the claim of the existence of a benign and loving creator god and its alleged intelligent design — how can such a being supposedly will such a brilliant mind as hers into existence only to smash it on the rocks before it even fully flowered because of a disease which it itself had to create?!  I am reminded of the famous Epicurean trilemma against the notion of an omnipotent, omnipresent, and omnibenevolent god:

    1) If God is unable to prevent evil, then he is not all-powerful.2) If God is not willing to prevent evil, then he is not all-good.3) If God is both willing and able to prevent evil, then why does evil exist?

  • Emmy Noether is well known among mathematicians and physicists.
    Sophie Germain (1776-1831) was another "unknown" mathematician. She corresponded with the great German mathematician Carl F. Gauss.

  • "Forgotten mathematicians" don't have their own wikipedia page.

  • Please do Khalil Gibran next

  • 15:06 — The theory of ideals in the domain of [algebraic] rings.

  • If it makes you feel better, I got up to Calculus in school and I’m still struggling understanding that theorem. :D;

  • If there were 10 to the 10th to the 10th Thumbs Up I would hit them all!!!^!!! Thank you, Simon and Team.

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