Electricity: Crash Course History of Science #27


Like thermodynamics, the history of electrical
physics has its roots in pre-industrial questions that converged in the nineteenth century.
These questions became a research paradigm, driven by a whole crew of researchers… And
they led to a power system that reshaped the world. Time to get tingly! [Intro Music Plays] The study of electricity goes all the way
back to antiquity. Like, for a long time, people knew that lightning is the powerful
release of energy caused when two clouds are in love and make a baby cloud. But that’s hard to study. Much easier to study, however, was static
electricity, or the electrical charge produced by stationary friction: it waits for you to
pet your cat, and then shocks you! But for centuries, natural historians didn’t
really have any good ideas about how to more deeply understand this phenomenon. For one, they had no concept of current, or
electricity as a flow of electrical charge. Current can happen either by the movement
of negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons through wires, or by the
movement of charged molecules called ions. And these people didn’t know either of those things existed. Secondly, the relationship between electricity
and magnetism, which are intimately linked, was a mystery. And, third, a lot of experimentation into
these phenomenon basically amounted to weird parlor tricks that had no obvious uses. English natural philosopher Francis Hauksbee,
for example, found out in the early 1700s that spinning a glass globe produced electricity—thus
creating one of the first electrical generators. Then, in 1729, two amateur scholars named
Stephen Gray and Granville Wheler discovered that electricity could be communicated over
long distances by contact. This was an important first step toward researching
currents. But mostly it was an excuse to conduct totally ethical scientific demonstrations… like suspending a young boy from the ceiling,
charging him up, and then watching him attract objects with different body parts. And we can’t forget statesman, encyclopedist,
and infamous knowitall Ben Franklin. He witnessed one of these flying-boy demonstrations
in Boston, then went home to Philadelphia and waited for a thunderstorm. As the story goes, in 1752, he flew his kite
in a storm and succeeded in “drawing off” electrical fire. Inspired by this incident, he developed the
lightning rod. But no real epistemic knowledge. One of the first modern electrical physicists
was Italian physician Luigi Galvani. In the late 1700s, his assistant accidentally
caused a frog’s leg to twitch with a spark from a nearby electrostatic generator. Inspired by this chance observation, he conducted
many freaky experiments with frogs. After much frog-shocking, he theorized the
existence of animal electricity, or the electrical basis of nerve impulses. That inspired one young woman who was remarkably
well informed about contemporary science: in 1818, Mary Shelley published what would
become a very famous book about a man zapped to life by a Galvani-esque Doctor Frankenstein. Galvani also inspired his colleague, Italian
physicist and chemist Alessandro Volta, to push his work on nerves further. And Volta became a rockstar of electrical
physics when he created the first practical method of generating electricity—the first
battery, known as the voltaic pile So ThoughtBubble, let’s make some sparks fly! Volta’s battery evolved from humble origins.
The first iterations were made of two different metals separated by a brine-soaked cloth or
piece of cardboard. But Volta kept improving the pile. In 1800,
he stacked pairs of copper and zinc discs, again separated by briny cloth or cardboard. When he connected the top and bottom of the
pile, it generated a steady electric current that could be carried by a wire. Volta had created the first stable source of electrical
current! This type of two-metal battery fulfilled the
world’s scant electrical needs throughout much of the First Industrial Revolution, until
around 1870. But no one could really explain how it worked,
in part because no one had brought electricity and magnetism together. One of the first steps in this direction was
taken in 1820 by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted. While demonstrating to his students how to
heat up a wire by running an electrical current through it, Ørsted noticed that his compass’
needle kept jumping to a ninety-degree angle. Somehow, he realized, the electrical charge
and the magnetic attraction of the compass were linked. Ørsted conducted further experiments and
showed that electric currents actually produce neatly circular magnetic fields when they
flow through wires. This became known as Ørsted’s law. Later in 1820, at the Academy of Science
in Paris, physicist André-Marie Ampère watched as a friend reproduced Ørsted’s electrically-messing-with-a-compass
trick. Amazed, Ampère went to work figuring out
the math behind this special relationship. He showed that two parallel, electrified wires
attract each other if the currents flow in the same direction, and repel if the currents
flow in opposite directions. Thanks Thoughtbubble. Ampère also showed
that the force between the currents was inversely proportional to the distance between them,
and proportional to the intensity of the current flowing in each. This became known as Ampère’s law. You can
watch a whole episode about that over at Crash Course: Physics! And he even theorized that there must be some
“electrodynamic molecule” that carried the currents of electricity and magnetism. This became the basis for the electron. Ampère’s insights became the foundation
of the quantitative science of electromagnetism, or “electrodynamics.” In 1827, Germany physicist Georg Ohm —who’d
been conducting research using Volta’s battery—published his discovery that an electrical current between two points is directly proportional
to the voltage, or potential difference, between them. This became known as Ohm’s law. This can be expressed using the concept of
resistance, or the difficulty of passing an electric current through that conductor, in
a really simple equation: “I=V/R.” Current, measured in amperes,
is equal to voltage, measured in volts, divided by resistance, measured in ohms. Yep: all three scientists became standard
units. Congrats, scientists! They say, in Physics the greatest honor is when your name starts to be spelled with a lower case letter. With practical batteries and basic scientific
laws, the stage was set for electricity to become an industry—enter motors and lights. Born to a poor family in Newington Butts,
London, Michael Faraday became obsessed with electricity and chemistry at a young age. Eventually, he became as important to the
sciences of stuff as Darwin was to those of life. In 1821—a year after Ørsted characterized
electromagnetism and Ampère began experimenting with the math behind it—Faraday got to work
inventing electromagnetic motors. His motors worked due to “electromagnetic
rotation,” a motion made by the circular magnetic force around an electrified wire. In 1831, he had his big breakthrough—electromagnetic
induction, meaning the generation of electricity in one wire via the changing magnetic field
created by the current in another wire. This became the basis of the electromagnetic
technologies that we use today. So… thanks, Mike! In the same year, Faraday also discovered
magneto-electric induction, which is the generation of a steady, direct electrical current in
a wire by attaching it to a copper disc, and then rotating the disc between the poles
of a magnet. This was the first modern electrical generator! And he proved that the electricity created
by magnetic induction, the electricity produced by a voltaic battery, and good ole static
electricity were all the same phenomenon. Faraday’s experiments led to the invention
of modern electrical motors, generators, and transformers. He figured out how to make electricity do
work on magnetism and vice versa. And his young buddy, Scottish physicist James
Clerk Maxwell, played the Ampère to his Volta, figuring out the math involved in induction. In 1855, Maxwell dropped “On Faraday’s
lines of force,” showing Faraday’s discoveries about electricity and magnetism in the forms
of differential equations. Maxwell’s long paper, “On Physical Lines
of Force,” introduced his full theory of electromagnetism in parts over 1861 and ‘62. Here, he theorized that electromagnetic waves
travel at the speed of light, and that light must exist in the same medium as electrical
and magnetic energy. By connecting light, electricity, and magnetism,
Maxwell laid the groundwork for modern physics. And his work was a major influence on Einstein. But the average person in the 1870s didn’t
know who Faraday and Maxwell were, much less that they had revolutionized energy and work. There was still no system for using electricity
industrially. For that useful system, we have to hop across
the Atlantic to the first home of corporate research and development in science—Menlo
Park, New Jersey. Here, a mix of brilliant engineers, scarcely
trained boys, and one pet bear (yes!) worked under the direction of a controversial inventor— who was or was decidedly not much of a scientist
himself, depending on which historian you prefer. His name was Thomas Edison. Edison, or the “Wizard of Menlo Park,”
or the “Napoleon of Science,” started his career as a lowly telegraph operator at
the age of sixteen. He worked his way up, improving telegraph
systems, until he could open his own contract-based-lab-slash-workshop in 1876. Mostly, people remember Edison for his work
on making practical incandescent light bulbs, but he should really be thought of as the
person who first saw the potential for an entire electrical grid. This included the generation of power, its
distribution to homes and businesses, and the invention of useful products that required
electricity to work. In the late 1870s, people didn’t understand
or see the need for electricity. Customers had to be created. So what did Edison do? Befriended the richest guy in New York, who
was also the richest guy in the world—J. P. Morgan. With Morgan’s money, Edison had the resources
to work out the longest-lasting filament, or slender, heated-up-until-visibly-lighted
bit, for his bulbs. This ended up being made of carbon, after
thousands of experiments on different materials. But he also had the resources to show off
his lights in Paris and London. And, most importantly, to electrify downtown Manhattan. Think about it for a second: the night before
1880 was dark. Yes, gas lamps existed, but they were weak,
smelly, and dangerous. Edison’s electrification of the cultural
and financial capital of an ascendent American empire was… blindingly amazing. People stayed up longer. More work got done. The feedback loop of just pushing off bedtime
by a few hours was enormous—and this was before anyone had devised a good mass-scale
electrical motor or vehicle. It’s true that Edison didn’t invent the
components of his electrical power system, only improved upon them, thanks to his team-based, finance-backed approach
to science and technology. And it’s true that he became embroiled in
an intense public battle called the Current War, over the safety and efficiency of his direct
current, or DC, versus his rival Westinghouse’s much more practical alternating current, or
AC. Aaaaand it’s true that Edison promoted capital
punishment in New York, using an electric chair powered by Westinghouse’s AC. But—beginning with incandescent light—Edison
and other inventors used the discoveries of the early electrical physicists to utterly
transform the world. Next time—we’ll follow Edison, tracing
the effects of corporate research and mega-scale engineering through many fields during the
Second Industrial Revolution. It’s time to go big or go bigger! Crash Course History of Science is filmed
in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all
this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If
you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other
channels like Animal Wonders, The Art Assignment, and Scishow Psych. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for
making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Comments 98

  • Thomas Edison: The Corporate Scientist

  • Die herrschende Geschichte ist die Geschichte der Herrschenden.

  • I'm sure scientists those days started a bit of a resistance after Ohm published his piece, though they immediatly saw the potential use of Volta's work.

  • Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.

  • Where is Tesla

  • i want a photovoltaic hauksbee generator ๐Ÿค”

  • Are you going to mention that Tessa may be a vampire

  • two magnets repelling each other inside a coil of copper wire might work? i donโ€™t that Michael Faraday tried it… ๐Ÿค”๐Ÿคทโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ’ก

  • Good guy JP Morgan, we should be thankful to bankers… and Russians can't possibly have contributed to humanity, Tesla who?

  • Frankenstein got an honorable mention and no Tesla in an electricity historical…. That's just wrong and frankly rude too….

  • Alright everyone take a chill pill, they said they'd talk about Tesla in an upcoming episode. You know these guys and their love for knowledge, you think they'd casually forget about such an important figure?

  • Obvious omission to get people commenting.

  • Grrrrr – it was Tesla's AC, not Westinghouse's. Westinghouse bought Tesla's patents and funded the first large scale AC generation at Niagra Falls. The current wars were between Tesla and Edison.

  • Are you going to have an episode on psychology?

  • 5:10 you show the wires repel when the current flows opposite directions but you have the magnetic field going in the same direction. One of those wires should be showing the magnetic field going clockwise. Both wires are showing counterclockwise. Use the right-hand rule your thumb shows the direction of the current and your fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field.

  • Tesla? how no mention about him?,,,

  • Westinghouse but No Tesla?

  • Its like you wanted to avoid the name behind AC and then comments exploded, i dont know why his name is so hard for this channel to say

  • To be fair, you have to have a very high IQ to understand the impact of Nikola Tesla. The importance is extremely subtle, and without a solid grasp of theoretical physics most of the work will go over a typical viewer's head. There's also Tesla's nihilistic outlook, which is deftly woven into his characterisation- his personal philosophy draws heavily from Narodnaya Volya literature, for instance. The fans understand this stuff; they have the intellectual capacity to truly appreciate the depths of this science, to realise that they're not just funny- they say something deep about LIFE. As a consequence people who ignore Nikola Tesla truly ARE idiots- of course they wouldn't appreciate, for instance, the tragedy in Teslas invention "The AC current," which itself is a cryptic reference to the work of Prior Greek Natural Philosophers. I'm smirking right now just imagining one of those addlepated simpletons scratching their heads in confusion as Teslas genius wit unfolds itself on their television screens. What fools.. how I pity them. ๐Ÿ˜‚

    And yes, by the way, i DO have a Nikola Tesla tattoo. And no, you cannot see it. It's for the ladies' eyes only- and even then they have to demonstrate that they're within 5 IQ points of my own (preferably lower) beforehand. Nothin personnel kid ๐Ÿ˜Ž

  • This guy kills us with information, yet so easy to comprehend

  • so if I make I light bulb light up with a lemon does that mean I'm gay- I mean a battery?

  • Shameful no mention of Nikola Tesla you people are total complete sell-out frauds! Tesla's ideas will Triumph no matter how much you try to ignore him. ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ–•

  • Hey guess what everyone? Donald Trump's Uncle John G Trump was the scientist the US government appointed to review Nikola Tesla's papers at the time of his death. coincidence? I think not.

  • Haha make a โ€œcloud babyโ€ ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ’• lol love you guys videos!

  • Oh, we're referring to AC as "Westinghouse's" now, instead of Tesla's? GOT IT.

  • I think TRUMP edited this video…

  • You forgot to mention Nikola Tesla and Lewis Latimer !

  • You actually pronounced an ร˜ somewhat correctly! You may have offended the Tesla crowd, but Scandinavia is proud of you!

  • Was hoping for a mention of Joseph Henry, he invented insulated wire, practical electromagnets, electrical communication at a distance, discovered inductance, and has an SI unit in his name.

  • General Electric advertisement .๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚

  • James Clerk Maxwell was a great mathematical genius. He should have had his own episode!!!

  • Didn't ancient scientists create some fluid batteries as well?

  • I was hoping they would mention Oliver Heaviside. His contributions to the Electrical Sciences are extremely important and I think he deserves way more recognition.

  • Hello john Green, Russians love you. But the trouble happened, we need you to give your consent to translate your content and voice acting into Russian. Please respond ะกั‚ัƒะดะธั ะ”ะถะพะจะธะทะพ. From Russia with love.

  • Please add the Arabic language translation

  • No Tesla, No mention of Maxwell's laws. No mention of the Faraday cage. This should have been two more episodes.

  • Nicely Done Team Crash Course !

  • does youtube shadowban?

  • Edison was a murderer

  • Edison was the Donald Trump of inventors. I mean that in a derogatory way, America.

  • Franklin is the guy who came up with the positive and negative nomenclature for talking about electrical charge, causing generations of electrical engineers to curse his name. Because of Franklin electricity flows from the negative side to the positive side over a voltage potential.

  • I see I'm super late to the party. What SI unit is the edison again? I think I must have missed that. The tesla, for those playing at home, is the SI unit of magnetic field strength. "They say in physics the greatest honor is when your name starts to be spelled with a lower-case letter."

  • You did not take even the name of tesla๐Ÿ˜‘๐Ÿ˜ก๐Ÿ˜Ÿ

  • Crazy futurists deserve their recognition just like the ruthless capitalists. Those that drive tech and understand this world will bring it to it's knees and Tesla will be avenged ROFL. Resistance is futile. I mean RIF!

  • How can you have a "Crash Course History" on electricity without any mention of Tesla?

  • All inventions seem to be named after somebody

  • This was an electrifying episode! It's Greased Lightning!

  • Everyone is losing it because they didn't mention Tesla..
    And here I am annoyed that yet again Hauksbee and Ben Franklin are brought up, yet no mention of William Gilbert or Thomas Browne. A guy gets famous for one experiment and suddenly no one knows who discovered (and named) electricity. (Gilbert n Browne coined it in early 1600's)
    Edit: Also, just pointing out, we don't actually know if the kite experiment ever happened, or if it did, we have no idea at all id Franklin did the experiment himself. He certainly never claimed that he did. He only briefly mentioned it in a very brief statement to the Pennsylvania Gazette, saying, and i quote: "the iron rod experiment had been achieved in Philadelphia, but in a different and more easy Manner". He never specified who did the experiment, only that it had been done. He also never said it was the kite. In fact, it was about 2 decades later when Joseph Priestly wrote about it, that it was claimed Franklin did the experiment using a kite. Problem is he never witnessed it himself, and many scientists have pointed out if Franklin HAD done the experiment in the way Joseph described, it would have killed him.
    Aaaaaand, on top of it all, Benjamin Franklin was nowhere near the first person to do that type of experiment. In fact, that experiment had been done so much in the previous years (with a variety of objects including metal rods), that virtually no one even took notice when Franklin made his claim. He did write up the concept that electricity n lightning are the same… but as for the kite experiment, all we have as evidence is the word of someone who was not there, writing about it 2 decades after the fact, by simply giving his interpretation on what Benjamin Franklin would likely have done.

  • Everyone is losing it because they didn't mention Tesla..

    And here I am annoyed that yet again Hauksbee and Ben Franklin are brought up, yet no mention of William Gilbert or Thomas Browne. A guy gets famous for one experiment and suddenly no one knows who discovered (and named) electricity. (Gilbert n Browne coined it in early 1600's)

    Edit: Also, just pointing out, we don't actually know if the kite experiment ever happened, or if it did, we have no idea at all id Franklin did the experiment himself. He certainly never claimed that he did. He only briefly mentioned it in a very brief statement to the Pennsylvania Gazette, saying, and i quote: "the iron rod experiment had been achieved in Philadelphia, but in a different and more easy Manner". He never specified who did the experiment, only that it had been done. He also never said it was the kite. In fact, it was about 2 decades later when Joseph Priestly wrote about it, that it was claimed Franklin did the experiment using a kite. Problem is he never witnessed it himself, and many scientists have pointed out if Franklin HAD done the experiment in the way Joseph described, it would have killed him.

    Aaaaaand, on top of it all, Benjamin Franklin was nowhere near the first person to do that type of experiment. In fact, that experiment had been done so much in the previous years (with a variety of objects including metal rods), that virtually no one even took notice when Franklin made his claim. He did write up the concept that electricity n lightning are the same… but as for the kite experiment, all we have as evidence is the word of someone who was not there, writing about it 2 decades after the fact, by simply giving his interpretation on what Benjamin Franklin would likely have done.

  • Oh, btw. Edison didn't invent the light bulb. He "perfected" it…. and by perfected i mean he invented a version that would eventually blow, creating a need to continue buying them. (He saw potential for profit in light bulbs, but didn't like fact people would only need to buy them once every 10-15 years or so).
    Humphrey Davy and Joseph Swan were the real inventors of the light bulb, and yes, their version could easily last 10+ years. In fact, they were developing bulbs that would Never blow before Edison stole their research, and developed a much lower quality bulb. (They were actually 2 of the countless people who won lawsuits against Edison). This video has quite a few errors…. and btw yes, Edison was not an inventor. He was a ruthless businessman who was exceptionally good at stealing research (and credit).

  • Cmon guys, you're usually much better at research. This entire video could be titled: "Myths we believe are real"

  • It was never stated in Frankenstein that electricity was involved in the "monster's" creation. That comes from movie adaptations.

  • I know this format is short, but no Tesla is a glaring omission.

  • R u serious at all, where is NIKOLA TESLA

  • no Tesla? wth?

  • That was a very subtle use of the it's a trap meme. Well played crash course animator person

  • Applause for pronouncing รธ right

    Also, Tesla was crucial in making components for alternating current (which will be what I'll blame on if I fail at the exam)

    Also, without alternating current, only the very rich could have afforded electricity. This would have happened if Eddison won the war of currents

  • Edisons only discovery was Nikola Tesla

  • And the ghost of Tesla Laughed and Laughed . ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚

  • Who cares about Tesla, I want to know why he missed Oliver Heaviside who simplified Maxwell's equations, introduced complex numbers to electrical circuit analysis, started using the frequency domain for solving differential equations, predicted the existence of the ionosphere, and did all this from outside the scientific establishment being largely self-taught.
    Or Hertz who tested Maxwell's claims of electromagnetic waves and invented the antenna, founding radio communication.
    Oh I know, because the video is less than 13 minutes long.

  • Elon Musk discovered the AC current

  • I love that you dind't mention Tesla, because Tesla is a footnote in scientific history, a practitioner of Technae not science if anyone.

  • Q: How to kill someone who is already dead?
    A: Never mention their name when you're suppose to.

  • Electricity and no Tesla? Wtf

  • Edison stepped over Tesla ๐Ÿ™ please give Tesla the space he deserves. And since this is History of Science, context is important. Please also include how Edison is guilty for making us pay for electricity while Tesla was a cutie pie who wanted power to the people.

  • Common Hank you couldn't even just say the words "Nikola Tesla"?? I was sitting on the edge of my seat anticipating it and the video just ended. Like that. You were so close to saying it butt you just didn't. It makes me upset

  • Frankenstein's reanimated corpse is the work of alchemy not electricity. Read the book.

  • This is a poor digest of wikipedia articles.

    1) No one knew that lightning was 'energy', or even the same kind of thing as static in Antiquity. In general, electrical phenomena like static was widely considered a 'fluid' into the 19th century.
    2) Many of the 'parlor tricks', like Stephen Gray's, served two purposes: to entertain, and to show something experimentally, i.e., that the human body is a good conductor.
    3) Hauksbee didn't discover that spinning a glass sphere generated static. He built the device because he already knew it would work. People had been making tables of materials ordered by how much static they generated from friction since at least Gilbert's time. Glass was high on the list. It was actually a suggestion of Newton's to replace the sulphur sphere of von Guericke for better results.
    4) The 'electrostatic generator' was not known as an 'electrical generator' because electricity itself was not a unified concept yet.
    5) Benjamin Franklin and his circle were extremely prolific and DID CONTRIBUTE EPISTEMICALLY to the history of electricity. For one, he showed that both lightning and static could charge a leyden jar and perform the same experiments, meaning (to him and most others) that lightning and static had an underlying similarity. Joseph Priestley called this the greatest discovery since Newton's law of universal gravitation.
    6) Galvani did not himself demonstrate the existence of 'animal electricity', which was part of the controversy with Volta. His more convincing proof appeared in an appendix to his last work in which he showed that you could get the legs to twitch without using metal connections. These experiments were popularized by his nephew, Aldini, after his death.
    7) Galvani did not 'inspire Volta to push his work on nerves furthur'. Volta was not convinced of the existence of animal electricity. He thought the leg twitches were the result of using different metal connections. He invented the voltaic pile to prove this effect and disprove the existence of animal electricity.
    8) Volta did not invent the first practical method of generating electricity. You already mentioned electrostatic generators.
    9) The voltaic pile is not the first 'battery'. The term 'battery' was coined by Franklin to refer to a series of Leyden jars. They could store large quantities of charge. They just could not give you a continuous current.
    10) Understanding the voltaic pile does not require knowledge that electricity and magnetism are related. It is a chemical effect. At Volta's time, it appeared that there were multiple kinds of electricity: static, lightning (though Franklin unified this), animal, and chemical. Magnetism and light were on the list, but only by remote analogy.
    11) Faraday did not simply 'get to work inventing electromagnetic motors'. In fact, his famous electromagnetic motor was actually an experimental setup to prove the convertibility of magnetism and chemical electricity. He performed many experiments with different kinds of electricity to show they all produced the same effects, thus 'unifying' the pantheon.

    I don't have the energy to go through the rest. All-in-all, your history is extremely whiggish and poorly researched.

  • no mention of the greatest Tesla.

  • AT time 5:09 you show two drawings of a pair of wires. The red arrows are going the wrong way on wire I2 in second (right hand) drawing

  • I expected far more about Tesla being a faithful follower of this channel, very disappointed at yet another oversight of this great man. Edison is overrated, and if it wasn't for Tesla who went bankrupt thanks to Edison the electrical grid we have today wouldn't even be possible. You mention Edison with all the greats yet he stole ideas, forged tales to promote DC not AC, and maybe helped gain momentum in electricity, but had the worst ideas when it came to networks. Should be recognition of Tesla in the future.

  • Love how hank is trying not to laugh when he says "Newington Butts London".

  • Unless I'm remembering incorrectly, Dr. Frankenstein, in Shelly's novel, used strictly chemistry to bring what would become his monster to life, not in any capacity electricity. Reanimating him via high voltage is a ubiquitous and consistent Hollywood fiction…applied to a work of fiction. Mildly disappointed in this mistake, but interested to know if it could be considered an instance of the Mandela Effect…

  • edison was an engineer, not a scientist

  • oh god, Tesla fanboys are so annoying

  • I was taught that, depressing as it is, it's more likely thatvFranklin's kite in a hurricane experiment was merely a thought experiment, and he (probably) didn't do it.

  • Edison sucks

  • WTF… Where is Nikola Tesla?

  • Tesla >>>>>>>>>>>>>> Edison. You canโ€™t change my mind. :p

  • WHY DOTH THOU NOT SPEAK OF THE GREAT TESLA!!!!!!!

  • Edison STOLE inventions, and their credit from other inventors, HANG 'IM FROM THE YARD THAR!!

  • Crash Course American Propaganda

  • I've watched 27 episodes IN ORDER just to get to hear you sneak peeking about Nikola Tesla and what did you do? eh?! You completely undermined him! Come on, Green. I expected better from you. Disappointed u.u

  • Yeah!!!
    Where's Tesla???

  • Congratulations, you're now a standard unit?

  • i got chiiillls they're multiplyin'
    and i'm loooooosing control

  • How can you leave out Tesla? somebody didnโ€™t finish their homework

  • TALES of TESLA are at LEAST a STEAL on the SLATE! ย Iโ€™m not sure what that means but the anagrams
    are fun.

  • What?? You are not mentioning Tesla?
    What kind of scientist do you exactly are???
    Who is funding your video, something tells me is not patreon.

  • if he admits that reality as we know it is Tesla-based they will turn off his electricity and cut his jp morgan funding… ๐Ÿ˜‚ lolol but at least he got everything else correct on how they made it possible to monetize natural forces such as niagra falls into power into a capitalism empire… DERP

  • No Nikola Tesla :'(

  • They sold 2 electric chairs to the Royal family of Ethiopia, which had no electrical generators at the time. They were used as thrones! Thanks QI

  • when you talk about the history of electricity, you are supposed to start every sentence literally with "Tesla". What a shame.

  • Darwin contributed nothing to biology.

  • New Jersey!!!! (shakes fist)

  • So many puns here that aren't even acknowledged.

    … who first saw the potential
    … [bringing electric light to New York] was blindingly amazing …
    … utterly transform the world …

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