Dutch Golden Age: Crash Course European History #15

Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So in the last episode, we saw the gentry
and merchant class of the British Isles defeat the old aristocrat-backed, absolutist monarchy
in the Glorious Revolution, ushering in a constitutional government. And this points to a wider development in
European history–and for that matter world history. So, we’ve talked a lot in this series about
being able to shift perspectives–to see things from royal perspectives, or from peasant perspectives,
and so on. But students of history must also learn how
to shift the lenses through which they look at the past. Like, we might look at the past through the
lens of food availability, or through the lens of visual art, or through the lens of
Marxist theory, and so on. And the lenses we choose are often about our
present concerns. The way that we look at the past changes over
time, as the present changes. And in the present where I’m currently standing,
one of the big questions is how to distribute power among humans. So today, we’re going to look at history
through the lens of power–by which I mean, who gets to decide the ambitions and priorities
of a community, and we’ll see how the distribution of that power can change over time. INTRO
So, in the early modern period monarchs could coordinate national defense, and they could
try to collect taxes and even try to impose their religious beliefs on their communities. But increasingly over time, economic activity
was driven and controlled by the so-called productive classes–land-owning gentry who
were producing more food per acre thanks to the agricultural revolution, and merchants
who were making money due to expanding trade and imperialism. These classes held the key to government finances,
because they were the ones with the money and land and goods that could be taxed, which
then–as now–meant that they had power to sway governments. And in many cases, these productive classes
used this power to give themselves a say in the running of their country through advocating
for a constitutional government that could keep the monarchy in check. We see this especially in Dutch history, where
these classes brought about constitutionalism and created what has come to be known as the
Dutch Golden Age. It’ll last forever: just like all golden
ages. So, like British reformers, the Dutch had
an active business class, who were backing the struggle for independence from Spain. This struggle involved the seven northern
provinces of the Low Countries allying with the ten southern provinces after 1576 to defeat
the Spanish in the Eighty Years War (also known as the Dutch revolts or the Dutch War
of Independence or I suppose the Spanish probably thought of it as Our Northern Province’s
Illegal War of Secession. It all depends on who’s telling the story. But anyway, by the end of the sixteenth century
the United Provinces of the low countries had become functionally independent from Spain,
though it wasn’t formalized until 1648 in the Treaty of Westphalia. The southern provinces spun off to constitute
Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of northern France, while the seven northern provinces
became the Netherlands. Each province of the Dutch Republic had a
regent who oversaw provincial affairs, while as a group they participated in the States
General, a kind of council of representatives from each province, which in turn chose a
single executive, known as the stadtholder, or stadtholder. Or probably somewhere halfway in between those
that only Dutch people can say. We’ll say Stadtholder. Anyway, all in all, this was a fairly loose
confederation of states, and they often had competing interests. Like, Holland, on the one hand, was the most
prosperous and contributed the most to the overall finances of the group. It was commercially-oriented and generally
favored peace over war. On the other side were provinces like Zeeland
whose privateers seized ships during the chaos of warfare and were therefore somewhat less
opposed to it. Calvinist clergymen favored war against Catholic
Spain and some pamphleteers simply liked war because “it caused all industry and trade
to grow and prosper.”[1] Which is a bit of an oversimplification. Although, whether war is good for business
is one of the big questions of history. It’s definitely not great for people, though,
which I would argue are possibly even more important than businesses? There was also disagreement among the provinces
about the role of the stadtholder: Should the Stadtholder become more of a monarchical
figure, or should the United Provinces continue to function as a kind of republic? So we’re talking here about big differences
about fundamental matters, like war and peace and how power should be distributed within
the confederation. And these differences prevented the kind of
focused central government that England built after its Glorious Revolution. But nonetheless, the States General had greater
unity in economic policy—that is in its strategy for backing trade—than the English
did, whose conservative aristocracy were always battling the commercial classes both before
and after the English civil war. So despite a measure of political disunity,
the Dutch Republic prospered in the seventeenth century and in spite of warfare, it actually
became a comparatively tolerant state. In fact its prosperity made it a kind of mecca
for all sorts of artisans and business people who wanted to participate in Dutch hustle
and bustle. [[TV: BARUCH SPINOZA]] The republic became
a center of printing for people whose thoughts had been censored elsewhere. For instance, philosopher Baruch Spinoza denied
the immortality of the soul and didn’t believe in a transcendent deity. Those were pretty radical ideas in 17th century
Europe, and in fact, Spinoza was banished from his Jewish congregation in his early
twenties, but he continued his philosophical labors, and he was able to continue publishing. It’s also worth noting that, like most philosophers,
Spinoza did have a day job–he ground lenses for microscopes and telescopes. Meaning that he was very good at shifting
historical lenses. I feel like I should apologize to my friends
and family for that joke. Except. That I’m not sorry. But Spinoza’s Portuguese Jewish ancestors
had settled in Amsterdam in the sixteenth century, and Jewish people from Spain also
migrated north to escape persecution by Isabella and Ferdinand and their royal descendants. Pilgrims and many other religious non-conformists
also went to the Netherlands, as did many Huguenots after the French revocation of the
Edict of Nantes in 1685. The citizens of the Dutch Republic were among
the most diverse in Europe at the time, and that contributed to the Netherlands prosperity. So thriving businesses arose at the time,
especially ones deriving from the early maritime networks its merchants had developed in Japan,
Southeast Asia, and the New World late in the sixteenth century. Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge was one person
who saw overseas trade as key to advancing overall Dutch prosperity. Along with other military men and adventurers,
embarked on securing the spice trade for the Netherlands
This largely involved expanding trade networks with present day Indonesia. Matelieff de Jonge wrote a book called Discourse
on the State and Trade of the Indies that described the Indonesian islands and the broader
southern oceanic region, and the Dutch government took notice of the riches promised by the
spice trade, so they authorized the creation of trading companies whose military forces
didn’t just take territory, but also sought to advance trade, at times acquiring goods
or establishing trade routes via force or the threat of it. These Indian Ocean trade networks were highly
developed, and Europeans were new to them, and relatively inexperienced. Especially the Dutch. The Spanish and Portuguese had been at it
for more than a century. And so despite armed trading companies, gaining
the upper hand in trade took the Dutch generations, although they would use alliances with local
leaders and military might to become imperialist powers in time, and eventually extract far
more than they invested in the well-being of colonies. But before all that, Holland’s merchants
began bringing back an array of plants and commodities, which stimulated innovation,
while its geographic positioning enabled its ships to access north-south and east-west
trade routes. And as English merchants and leaders became
wrapped up in decades of political disputes and lethal combat among themselves, the Dutch
began to outperform them in trade. Soon the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese
as the primary Atlantic slave traders, although the English would eventually overtake them. But by the middle of the 17th Century, the
center of economic activity in Europe had migrated from the Mediterranean and Italian
city-states, north. The Dutch were thriving. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. The Dutch took advantage of their independence 2. and reduced war expenses by 3. 1. expanding their shipping capacity and 4. 2. building a network of canals connecting
400 miles of major cities 5. which improved communication and trade
regionally. 6. Amsterdam flourished, 7. growing to over 200,000 people by late in
the century. 8. And as it grew, land reclamation and civil
engineering advanced, 9. along with the now-famous design of Amsterdam’s
houses, 10. many of which are still standing. 11. In fact, I lived in a 17th century Dutch home
while writing The Fault in Our Stars. 12. But speaking of innovation, Dutch painter
and inventor Jan Van der Heyden devised a long-burning wick, 13. which brought cities nighttime illumination 14. and a reduction in crime. 15. He also created portable pumping devices to
extinguish fires, 16. which drastically reduced the destructive
power of urban fires beginning in the seventeenth century. 17. Meanwhile Dutch artists, including Van der
Heyden, excelled in painting some relatively new portrait subjects: 18. common people, 19. and their everyday lives and domestic
interiors, 20. and the commodities that increasingly
filled their homes. 21. Many of these commodities came from distant
lands 22. and included Chinese porcelain, Middle
Eastern carpets, and imported textiles. 23. In addition, the paintings of Johannes Vermeer, 24. alongside those of Van der Heyden, 25. featured maps and globes, 26. testifying to the cosmopolitanism of the middle
and upper classes. 27. But even ordinary workers in Dutch cities
might have a painting and books for intellectual and visual nourishment, 28. which was a stark contrast from just a
century or two earlier. Thanks Thought Bubble. So with the Dutch now commanding trade in
a way that the English could not, Oliver Cromwell’s government sought to take back control of
the seas with the Navigation Act of 1651. It mandated the use of English ships for any
goods using English ports, whether in Britain itself or in its colonies. This was one example of legislated mercantalism. Now, we’ve mentioned this before, but mercantalist
theory sees the global economy as finite. We now understand that the size of the global
economy’s overall pie can get bigger and smaller, but at the time Mercantilist theory
saw the overall economy as stagnant, which meant to become wealthier, you had to take
wealth from other places. Tarriffs for instance, were a common feature
of mercantalism–with a finite economic pie, a nation should only export goods and take
in gold for them; it should never buy foreign goods because that would mean losing wealth
to a competing nation. Now, this obviously happened most dramatically
in colonized regions, but it also happened within Europe, as nations sought to take wealth
and possessions from one another. Three separate times between 1652 and 1674,
the English provoked warfare with the Dutch in order to gain an upper-hand in trade. For the most part, the Dutch prevailed in
the first two of these wars, even getting some relaxation in the Navigation Acts as
part of peacemaking. But one exception was the Treaty of Breda
that ended the war of 1665-67, when the English gained permanent control of New Amsterdam
(now known as New York). This effectively knocked the Dutch Republic
out of what would become the lucrative North American sphere of trade and settlement, and
also indirectly led to They Might Be Giants’ third best song. But the third of these wars from 1672-74 concerned
politics more than mercantilist issues. It aroused high passions over enhancing the
role of the stadtholder and bringing William of Orange to become perhaps stadtholder for
life. If you’re wondering why the Dutch soccer
team wears orange, by the way, that’s why. In 1672 an angry mob, believing that William’s
rise was being prevented by brothers and high officials Johan de Witt and Cornelis de Witt
proceeded to lynch, flay, and cannibalize those brothers. The fight over how concentrated power should
be, and who should have that power, clearly wasn’t over. So even as it continued to prosper, the Dutch
Republic was profoundly politically divided by the end of the 17th century. Meanwhile, Great Britain, its rival on the
seas, had more or less resolved its political questions and created the ground rules for
an effective monarchy and its relationship with the commercial classes. and that meant the Dutch Golden Age receded. As golden ages always do. England meanwhile, was rising again–although
only temporarily. Next time we’ll see how eastern Europe was
faring during the seventeenth century. Thanks for watching; I’ll see you then. ________________
[1] Quoted in Geoffrey Parker, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the
Seventeenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), 237.

Comments 100

  • You should apologize to my family and friends for that joke… Cause I'm already finding a way to use it

  • I mean the merchant classes and gentry still control the government, so yeah.

  • Looking forward to hearing about eastern europe. As a french, I am a bit sad we are not taught more about the history of our direct neighbours.

  • No, that's not how you pronounce it..

  • As much as I enjoyed this episode, I feel like you really glossed over how ludicrously violent the Portuguese control over trade in the Indian Ocean was. They basically shot their way in, set up fortifications at every entrance to the sea, and then set up a protection racket forcing every merchant in the area to pay them for the privilege to go about their lives. The Dutch usurpation of this system was no less violent, wresting control of Portuguese operations as part of their war against Spain, whose ruler was also the King of Portugal at the time.

  • Who else here is only just now realizing that John Green wrote The Fault in Our Stars?

  • How do so many people watching this channel not know that John Green is John Green?

  • The Dutch maritime network did actually start in the baltic sea region with the trade for timber and grain, which were relatively rare commodities in the Low countries due to its wet and swampy nature. Those trade routes were named “moedernegotie” and paved the way for more daring expeditions to the far east.

  • Don't say "through a lense of Marxist theory". Use the term "historical materialism", which is what you mean. Marx was a historian and the idea that history was moved by material conditions rather than a small group of important people having ideas in a vacuum is very important whether you're a Marxist or not. So either acknowlede it or go back and change your explanation for why peasants received a better deal after the Black Death to the pre-Marx idea "Suddenly the king decided to improve the lives of peasants."

    You already make very heavy use of historical materialism. Just own it! (Do not actually own it. Other people should also be able to make use of it.)

  • Hi John, why is the map turned sideways on 2:52

  • Z E G M A K K E R

  • Noice video, but oh wow! Looking forward to next video, that's what I wanted to see 😀


  • I like when John Green tells us the kind of lens he's going to read this history through and then the material smoothly goes with it. I don't know if it's this or writing books that he considers his main job, but Crash Course always makes me thankful somebody out there really cares about quality education.

  • The (((Dutch))) were the first to ship Africans to the Americans

  • John must have taken a pay cut to not lose this job to John Green-bot

  • 9:58 Is that an armadillo on the mantle?!

  • "The fight over how concentrated power should be, and who should have that power, clearly was not over."

    And it still isn't over.

  • Also, some of the Hugeonots settled in Virginia eventually, and the English continues their long tradition of mispronouncing other people's names, and in the modern day we pronounce the 'T' at the end of Hugeonot.

  • After John mentions the de Witt brothers being flayed and cannibalized, I was expecting him to make a self-aware joke about the dangers to brothers who work together and end up dominating an element of commerce or other part of life, say, educational and amazing content on the internet. 🙂

  • What are the top two TMBG songs?

  • K O K O S N O T E N

  • Most people seem to think stadhouder means cityholder. That's not correct. It means placeholder. A stadhouder is a placeholder for the king. This function was kept in the republic even though there was no king anymore.
    Stad means city in Dutch. But the original meaning is place. A city is of course a place. The Dutch word stad is related to the English word stead. Stadhouder = instead of holder.
    In England the function of stadhouder was also known. It's called steward.

  • Has that power distribution changed over time🧐? Don’t thinks so Johnny boy……”WP”

  • Seeing Belgium orange on the map while the Netherlands is purple grinds my gears

  • @12:35 Everybody gangsta till the Dutch start eating people. 😉

  • I see that sneaky "More light than heat" reference Thought Bubble…

  • Oh God, John, I've watched all your videos and I didn't know, that you wrote "The Fault in our stars"🙈 I always thought you are a teacher of history or something like that… Oh God, my life will never be the same…

  • G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • More Marxist theory lens, please. Americans in particular do not understand power distribution or dialectical materialism.

  • HOLY GUACAMOLE! I just assumed there was a different John Green who was the famous author. My mind is blown right now.

  • 3:19–3:27 There wasn't one stadtholder, and he wasn't appointed by the Estates General.

    Rather, each of the seven regional Estates elected it's own stadtholder. It just happened to be that the majority usually appointed the same person (while the two northern states usually picked another guy from the same house of Orange).

    Otherwise, great video!

  • And now I'm going to have that song stuck in my head ALL DAY.

  • In the Eastern Europe episode plizzz mention the Croat Catholics in Bosnia

  • That VOC mentality….

  • Wait, you’re THAT John green (Fault in our Stars). Huh I learn not only Europe history today.

  • I'm related to Samuel and Jan van Hoogstraten the famous Dutch painters from the 1600s. Their brother Francois is my ancestor.

  • Dutch people represent!

  • Cool video!

  • So no more Crash Course Literature then? has that been canceled?

  • i watch you for years now and i never knew you are the same john green who wrote "paper towns"

  • "In fact, I lived in a seventeenth century Dutch home while writing The Fault in Our Stars."
    Weird flex but okay.

  • 12:00 With all due respect to TMBG, I prefer the original by The Four Lads.

  • People are more important than businesses ? That’s some radical thinking 🤔.. too bad Moscow Mitch doesn’t understand that.

    Also, on Netflix there’s a show called Versailles that follows Louis XIV and rivalry with William of Orange and aristocracy .

  • Ferengi Rule of Acquisition #34 Peace is good for business.
    Ferengi Rule of Acquisition #35 War is good for business.

  • It should be mentioned that there were multiple stadholders at a time. The stadholder of Holland (The Williams, Maurits and Frederick Hendrik; who were often also the stadholders of other provences) were the most powerful, but not the only stadholders. Other provences also had (sometimes shared) stadholders.

  • So you begined with 15 century western europe and you only now begine with eastern europe? In XVII Century,why?

  • Finally. I've been waiting for this one.

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Why did they have to eat his liver? Can someone please explain this to me? History never ceases to amaze me.

  • Not a word about tulips?

  • 12:45 they were ripped apart and cannibalized. William of Orange wanted power so much he egged it on.

    Worse part? De Witt raised him as a son when he was abandoned by his parents. Gave him protection, an education, etc

  • I don't know, but I laugh at that Spinoza joke. lol

  • Stop romanticizing power that was fueled by genocide and exploitation of non-europeans

  • This is my favourite part in history, the only time I feel patriotic as a dutch guy. (Ok and when the national team plays football.)

  • Please add Episode #14 (English civil war) to the European History playlist… Thanks! I frequently binge Crash Course series while doing chores, and it's nice to listen to…

  • Het land van rood, wit, blauw en de gouden leeuw;
    Plunderen de wereld, noemen het de gouden eeuw.

  • OMG, does THIS mean Hank and John are going to fight…until one of them is EATEN? LoL.

  • G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • As usual, excellent information!
    Also, cheers to Thought Cafe for the easter eggs in your office. When are you going to write 'The Sequel' and 'More Light than Heat', anyways?

  • I'm glad he's not sorry for the historical lenses joke. It made me laugh.

  • The Dutch also have achieved success in America by creating dairy farms and small private Calvinist schools where people with no Dutch ancestry hear the phrase “You ain’t Dutch, you ain’t much” throughout their time at said schools.

  • Blessed Spinoza insisted that his name be translated every time his work was translated, that's why you'll see varients on his name as Benedict, Benedito, etc. Baruch is Hebrew for blessing or blessed, and if you're going to talk about him in English, he would have wanted you to call him as such.

  • 4:21
    Businesses are people, my friend.
    – Mitt Romney, being relatable

  • Sometimes I forget that John wrote The Fault in our Stars

  • I got inordinately excited at 11:46 because my grandparents are from Breda 😄

  • "extracting far more they invested?" Isn't that the whole point of an investment?

  • I can't wait for every single one of these episodes.. thanks so much John Green!!

    for real for real.

  • Yahn van dur haiden, nice

    I mean close enough, but it's always cute to hear English people butcher my last name 😂

  • Johan De Witt wasn't just some high official. He was the equivalent of the Dutch Prime Minister. A Dutch mob killed, gutted and ate their Prime Minister and his brother.

  • The land owning class doesn't produce, it just owns the land that the farmers use for production, therefore they're not a productive class of society

  • 5:48 I didn't realize Weird Al is so old

  • Can you fellow nerds remind me of the painting's name at 0:53? Thank you kindly

  • I would like to see a political cannibalization and defenestration cross-over

  • Finally, he's going to talk about Eastern Europe after 4 months

  • I love the Netherlands, great country

  • How eastern Europe was doing in the 17th century RIP polish not very Lithuanian commonwealth
    Prussia getting it going
    Russia doing Russian things.

  • That's nobody's business but the Turks

  • I find the comparative analysis of this video to be rather sloppy in its execution. Yes the Dutch and the English had divisive political situations on there hands but it wasn't as simple as merely one of them being chaotic while the other dominated. In fact one could say that both suffered similarly during the same periods of time.

    The Orange dynasty derives from a landholding aristocratic family that held the Principality of Oranje in Southern France and were related to a branch of the ancient medieval dynasty, the House of Nassau, which ruled territory in the HRE. After this family inherited the Principality of orange, it began to acquire massive properties through inheritance in the low countries and eventually in the early 15th century began to be appointed by the Dukes of Burgundy to positions of power in the region. When Spain inherited the Low Countries from the Burgundian line this service continued for the first several decades of the 16th century. With the Dutch Revolt though, William I (The Silent) joined and led the revolt until his death anyway. The Orange dynasty were basically a group of land owning, European Princes who like many in the era held disjointed territories.

    After the death of William II just two years I think after Charles I was beheaded, it left his son William III as a toddler and it began a stadtholderless period, during which the DeWitt's rose to power. The Cromwellian regime even cut deals with the DeWitts to keep the Orange dynasty out of power since they were inter-married with the Stuarts (William III's mother was a daughter of Charles I).

    Late in the 17th century, even with its problems with England, disaster came in the direction of France. The English and French joining together in the third Anglo-Dutch War nearly ruined the country. And this meant that the Dutch were keen to remove the threat coming from England. This is why William III was interested in the English throne, because it would prevent another Anglo-French alliance.

    Charles II and his brother James II had been gravitating closer and closer to France and Louis XIV, who had sheltered from for a while from the Cromwellians. This led to the secret treaties and the alliance in the third Anglo-Dutch war as well as the conversions of James II to Catholicism and Charles II followed suit on his death bed. William III meanwhile had married James II's daughter Mary, in an attempt to maintain the peace. Meanwhile the crisis of the war had eliminated (one way or another) opposition to the William III becoming stadtholder.

    When Louis XIV revoked the edict of Nantes it meant that a large number of Huguenots had fled to both London and Amsterdam. The presence of these refugees stirred fears of Catholic oppression in both places and led to the hunger in England to avoid a Catholic dynasty and also caused opposition to an expedition that would have normally existed in anti-War, anti-orangist Amsterdam to melt away.

    In the series History of Britain, Simon Schama said that England concluded with the Glorious Revolution that "it didn't need leviathan, it wanted more a Chairman of the Board and Dutch William fit that role to a tee". The next big political shift in England and Britain as a whole would occur as the that Chairman of the Board role would shift to the Prime Minister during the first two Hanoverian Kings and only with George III, was there an attempt to just restore things to where they had been with William and Anne, but by then it was too late.

    From 1672 onward the Orangists would not really be challenged for control of the stadtholdership again. Meanwhile after 1689, the British had settled on a Constitutional monarchy. Therefore it is incorrect to say that Dutch became politically chaotic while the English got their act together, both countries largely had their act together. The decline of the Dutch golden age came from the fact that the Dutch monopolies would be challenged by the naturally stronger English and the English could always fall back on their Island and colonies while the Dutch would forever be exposed on land to Germany and France. William III got his wish though, his rise to power created basically a Dual Monarchy over the "maritime powers" as they would have been called in the 1690's and this meant that there was a powerful bloc to the north that would check French expansion and in both the war from 1689 to 1697 and the Spanish Succession War this block, would fight alongside the Hapsburg's against the French.

    Ironically, the implementation of several Dutch inspired policies such as the Bank of England in the 1690's, meant to strengthen once again the ability to fight the French, actually empowered the English at the expense of the Dutch. So in a number of ways, to save the Dutch from the Anglo-French alliance, William III indirectly paved the way for English domination of the trade and the seas in the 18th and 19th centuries, to defeat Louis XIV.

  • great job. kind regards,
    a dutch history teacher

  • The telling of history depends on Perspective? How about the people of the 17 provinces were never Spaniards? They lived in NW Europe, not the Iberian peninsula. What next? The people of the today’s Kenya could by perspective, be called British?

  • 2:23 Why is everyone in the first half of the 17th Century, like, the same dude?

  • "War is good for business."
    -Rule 34 of the Ferengi Rules of Acquisition

    (Not to be confused with Rule 34 of the Rules of the Internet)

  • Wait, THE Jaden Smith?

  • Whoa crash course still can afford john green? Cool man.

  • I pronounce it Statler like Statler and Waldorf. <Insert snarky old man joke here>

    I know I'm a bit late, but no Moors? Kind of a big oversight. The Moorish Conquest directly contributes to formation of modern Spain. Not just a patchwork feudal states but a kingdom and later on a nation. That formation creates a lot of career militarymen. Militarymen who might have overthrown the king and queen unless they got them out of state fast and what do know. There is a newly discovered continent to send them to tame. Its worth remembering the history isn't always serious men talking serious matters. It is just as much a chain of consequences and connections to previous events.

  • 13:16 Here come the Swedes, Russians, and the Turks….

  • I think that starting with the question "how should humans distribute power" will lead to a more progressive set of insights. I think a more conservative question to ask would be "how should humans live to thrive". One puts the emphasis on amoral political constructs, while the other emphasizes the personal morality of the individual persons. Therefore one would see the Dutch success from its government's actions to create a wealthy system, while the other would lend more credit the ethics emerging out of Calvinist Protestantism.

  • Eastern Europe in the 17th century: Spoiler alert: It's the time when it irrevokably lost any and all relevancy in history.

  • Jaden Smith studio?

  • How did you manage to NOT talk about Rembrandt, the VOC or tulips?

  • So Dutch were the first to introduce Slave on America right?

  • Great episode, as always. But I can't help but be hyped for the next episode. Finally an Eastern Europe focused episode !!!

  • john green's beard is cool

  • 1. I'm surprised you didn't mention the fact that the Netherlands effectively gained a monopoly on trade between Europe and Japan.
    2. I hate to think that your oversight of this was political, but one of the main reasons for the economic growth of the Dutch Republic was the creation of the first corporations and multinational corporations. The Dutch invented the joint stock company.
    3. One of the major factors that allowed allowed the Dutch to overtake England for time was the English Civil War and continuing religious conflict. This wouldn't be settled until the Glorious Revolution.
    4. Speaking of which, William III, stateholder if Holland, married Mary Stuart, daughter of the future King James II of England an VII of Scotland. William & Mary invaded England and overthrew their respective father-in-law and father, after he and his Catholic second wife had a healthy son. The last hurrah of the Dutch golden age was William of orange becoming William the third of England and serving with his wife Mary II

  • I'm at the point where I watch these for fun instead of when I need to study. (Good job)

  • Hey indonesian here

  • Jaden Smith Studio? Woah! 😲

  • Another thing that bothers me about the course – why did it start with the renaissance ?. How can you understand Europe if you ignore 1000 years of medieval history ? The founding and partition of Frankish Empire, the Islamic conquest of Spain, the spreading of the Christianity, the rise of the Vikings, the founding of many European states, the fall of Byzantine Empire, the crusades – these are many of events the that shaped the history of Europe. Why ignore this ? The European history course should start with the fall of Roman Empire.

  • I love learning from this. Please continue this noble endeavor.

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