Music it was an immense empire that of a Turkish dynasty from the confines of Asia Minor fighters of Islam the empire Ottoman in 1453 subjected the empire Byzantine whose constantinople capital it was renamed istanbul in the 17th century at its peak the Ottomans besieged their empire well It stretched over three continents of the black sea to the red sea imposing its law in an incomparable mosaic of towns and beliefs however in a century the empire Ottoman and the impact of his fall was heard from the Balkans to the Middle East Music It was then that the fractures of a world that is ours the end of the Ottoman Empire Music first part the nations against the empire sarajevo capital of bosnia herzegovina in the center of Europe reminds us of the tragedy of the Yugoslav wars the last conflicts of the 20th century Sarajevo suffered for more than three years the siege of the forces Serbian nationalists determined to destroy what had been an example of coexistence between Orthodox Serbs Croatian Catholics and Bosnian Muslims Music an ethnic cleansing operation whose civilians were the first victims bosnians Slavs like the others but descendants of those who were converted to Islam at the time of the conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans in the 14th century the Yugoslav wars they revived old topics concretely the idea that for some strange reason perhaps because of the Ottomans the villages in this area of ​​europe always it had been announced and for that reason the conflict broke out in 1991 and 1992 but the history of Eastern Europe we reveals that it is not like that it is not a story of tensions ethnicities but from a history of complex coexistence between different peoples and religious confessions the goal of historians in the 90s was to combat that topic being very careful not to create another that of an Ottoman and bilic empire and gentle in which Christian Jews and Muslims called each other others judging from the violence and chaos that they followed the Ottoman era can look like a golden age but in reality the social order that reigned in that empire was not egalitarian Music non-Muslims will be inferior to Muslims were subject to a specific tax and could not carry weapons or Christian proselytizing orthodox Armenian and Jewish Catholics they were organized in the 1010 term Ottoman that designated the communities confessional every millet was administered by its responsible clergy as much of the religious subjects as civilians throughout the empire of the Anatolian Balkans of Mesopotamia holy land the system of the millet allowed Jewish Christians and Muslims cohabitate elbow with elbow together but not scrambled an order imperfect but fluid that guaranteed for more than four centuries the stability of the empire an order accepted while the subject peoples they will not claim more identity than their Religión as soon as the policy appeared the system falls apart is what it happened in the 19th century and it was the great challenge of the Ottoman Empire as adapt a system of government that worked in a prepolitical world to a political world the new political world that was going to challenge the empire was born of the ideals of the French revolution of the new aspirations of the people to the freedom and emancipation something irreconcilable with the very idea of empire (applause] the Greeks were the first to question the Ottoman yoke in 1821 a revolt broke out very soon it became a authentic war of independence and pajín the feeling of an identity Greek existed long before began the 19th century was based on the heritage of ancient Greece and about everything in the network christian orthodox john Music that feeling of identity was shared by all of the Christians of the Balkans elite Christian was Greek until the late 19th century all the Christians of the Balkans regardless of their language they had the same spiritual boss the orthodox greek patriarch of constantinople so that it was already for religion by language or by education can say that the Greek identity was dominant for a long time between Christian populations of the empire Ottoman with the Greek revolution the Orthodox Christians of the empire they emerged as a people with a language and a story a Greek nation that aspired to be an independent state an example for the other minorities of the empire to destroy it from within the enemies understood it with the excuse to protect the oppressed Christian people for the Muslim empire great france Britain and Russia supported the Greek independence everyone wanted the Ottoman territories both in Europe and in the East greece in the center of the mediterranean he occupied a strategic position especially for Russia that ambitioned control the straits of Mediterranean climate We can not forget that the powers foreign companies competed in the area the interests of france britain and Russia almost always opposed often two of these powers allied to fight against the third so that Greece was in the middle of conflicting interests specifically among those of Great Britain that was the naval power of Eastern Mediterranean and those of Russia who was looking for an outlet to the sea Mediterranean climate in 1829 Great Britain and Russia they negotiated in london the independence from greece an independence that was going to change the destiny of the empire more than you criticize me the Ottoman Empire he was one of the greatest of that time dominated the middle east from the Territorial point of view the loss of continental Greece and the peloponnese was insignificant does mató I said symbolic megali but symbolically it was very important already that chris bosh was the beginning of the insurrections that marked all the 19th century and they made the empire Ottoman lost the Balkans since not they smoke and that the truck was a great trauma that Turkish history still does not has passed Music the effect was immediate with the backing From Russia the Slavs of Serbia and Romania were they revolted and they got the autonomy they were still vassals of the empire but they took a big step towards independence. how to stop the wave from 1839 on Sultan Abdul Majid initiated a series of unprecedented reforms in the empire the tan simat promised freedom and security to all individuals Ottomans the equality of all Muslims and non-Muslims before the law and before taxes as if it were still possible create an Ottoman citizen faithful to his empire I think the bureaucrats of the empire do not they controlled at all the intensity of the emancipation of the communities they went from a confessional identity pure and simple to a national identity In other words, each confession is determined to be conceived as a national entity and the fact that there were languages ​​like the Serbian judge or Armenian Greek that they constitute in certain way the basis of these communities confessionals accelerated the process of nationalizations Music little by little the millet soto hands are they were transforming nations into nations settled in the identity religious as well as in the language the volcanoes have not stopped assuming heritage that’s how in Bosnia the same people Slavic speaking the same Slavic language it was divided into antagonistic nations Orthodox Christians called Serbs and Muslims vindicating as reaction your own national identity no services nor Bosnian Ottomans in 1875 in the province a revolt of Serbian peasants who accentuates the rupture between the peoples in Bosnia the landlords were mostly Muslims and Christian Peasants orthodox so that a revolt peasant could be understood as a class revolt and at the same time as a revolt explains a historian nationalist will say that the events of 1875 in Bosnia were a nationalist revolt but according to the sources of the time really were both circumstances the region I suffered an endemic man the weather was precarious the bad harvests so it was an ethnic revolt or a class revolt were the two a the time in all the Balkans the Christian peasants took up arms the repression carried out by mercenaries Ottomans the Basiyis ubs was brutal in bulgaria they carried out authentic massacres the western press was doing echo of events europe took party for the Christians of the empire Ottoman the Turk became a figure repulsive he does the worst atrocities ignoring reprisals inflicted on the Muslim populations of the Balkans Music (applause] 1876 ​​was the year of all dangers the Bosnian revolt became the crisis of the East the Ottoman power was wobbled in Istanbul a blow of state dismissed the reigning sultan abdulaziz supposedly his successor murat I had a mental illness in August from 1876 the power was entrusted abdülhamid brother of mural in the imperial mosque of iuc se he defined the sword of osman founder of the dynasty was 34 years old and became the thirty-fourth Ottoman Sultan Music abdulá me was the last hope He tried to play his tricks in a moment in which the empire began to fragment under the effect of internal nationalisms specifically in the Balkans and the pressure of the great powers they thought he was going to be a liberal who would give the empire a constitution a dream that the Ottoman liberals had for some years they believed that this would solve all the problems of the empire that would be a kind of panacea that would prevent the intervention of the great powers abdul hamid fulfilled the dream of the liberals there was a constitution elections a parliament and equality was confirmed among all Muslim individuals and non-muslim He believed that this would nationalist desires in the Balkans that would stop the European powers that they were still demanding reforms shortly the illusions lasted in April 1877 Russia declared war the great problem of the Ottoman Empire was russia russia wanted to destroy that empire because she considered herself the protector of the Slavs specifically those of the Balkans in that era there was a movement Lake loaves considerable that it influenced much in the Russian leadership someone as Dostoevsky only dreamed of the taking of constantinopla with seeing it turned into sari created the city of the Tsars that’s how the denominates go in Russia in that time it was about matters really important Christianity against Islam bread is the same against the Ottoman Empire there were many things at stake in a few weeks the Ottomans were expired Russia and a great plan of dismantling but neither France nor Great Britain nor austria hungary they wanted him to appropriate the booty of empire in June 1878 the great European powers met in the Berlin Congress the Ottomans were represented but they had no voice they were not authorized to discuss about nothing had come the moment of the great deal russia victorious takes the territories of Caucasus got it to be created a new state christian bulgaria officially vassal of the Ottoman Empire but actually under Russian tutelage Romania and Montenegro and Serbia won definitely its independence Music as for bosnia herzegovina it was occupied by austria hungary thus counteracting the Russian influence in the balkans in total the empire of abdul hamid he lost more than 200 thousand kilometers squares in europe Music the authentic history of this era does not it’s just the story of the loss of the Ottoman territories is also the history of the loss of your home to the Ottoman Muslims and the displacement of millions of people a very violent displacement in this era began to identify the refugees as a problem International the crisis of 1876 1878 as well as the expansion of the Russian Empire around the Black Sea that caused the appearance of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees really marked the beginning of the modern era of refugee Music hurry that bet by kilo of cocaine and Chile in corruption the crisis this deposit and make eating biosoap igape and coconut and not only for how it pay everything and without public ceiling yen electricity all social benefit and txiki after the war after the humiliation of berlin abdul hamid closed the parenthesis liberal suspended the constitution of 1876 ​​and from that moment king does not only as a despot but a despot illuminated that did not renounce to save the empire he wanted to textually add to the civilization from the east the good thing about the culture of the West under his reign he modernized the army the justice administration trade and the infrastructures education was a priority in everything the empire academies were created military medicine or law Music in 1888 the orient express performed by first time the paris route istanbul in just three days there were many travelers and elections the modes and western influences istanbul constantino plan was a city of reverie in the second half of the century 19 had totally transformed turning towards modernity although the reign of abdul hamid was a period of oppression of repression of autocracy it was a beautiful time for istanbul a good time around the pear palace the very sarah bernard visited him I think twice and product of this modernity appeared a new social class a petty bourgeoisie financial people who benefited in some way the survival of the empire Europeans were also interested in the Ottoman Empire Survive France and Great Britain they had invested in the trade and in the societies of railroads and mining and even the Ottoman Empire Bank the state bank relied on French and British capital one dominant position reinforced by the system of capitulations treaties renovated since the 16th century that granted Europeans privileges important in the bosom of the empire as free trade and the exemption from taxes rates from the 19th century the capitulations were granted to all the western nations were a guarantee of inviolability a kind of total safe conduct basically they provided everything foreigner who was under his [1]4.40[2]Protection. the right to do what you want without that the Ottoman authorities it would annoy the inviolability of extraterritoriality it was an almost colonial privilege the existence of the capitulations is a violation of our rights he wrote insult to Tunja me but what could do Music had a margin of maneuver limited to come to power he found a bankrupt unable to repay debts contracted in the French and British in 1881 the administration of public debt that limited its power corruption but a consortium that reached into how many income are from the state needed to guarantee the solvency of the empire and the satisfaction of the debts was a direct violation of sovereignty fiscal of the empire there was a lot of resentment bitterness because he was getting into a modernization program and that modernization in the sense of Westernization implied the idea that the East was unable to transform yourself without any external stimulus producing a kind of inferiority complex that it can still be seen in turkey a strange mixture of love and hate towards THE WEST we love him and we want to imitate him to be like he and at the same time we feel rancor for dominating by having canceled our own model e for a long time france and great Britain protected the integrity of Ottoman Empire guarantee of its stability but at the end of the 19th century they changed the priorities European imperialism it was in full swing looking for new resources of new markets France had conquered Algeria Ottoman in 1881 seized Tunisia the next year it was his turn to Egypt that was occupied by Great Britain through the Suez Canal was approaching to india the jewel of his colonial empire for the Ottomans it was a betrayal but for a power that until then I had been discreet it was the opportunity to get into the Ottoman game Music Germany became a great economic power competed with Great Britain and in the end it surpassed it until it could be measured with United States that’s very important Germany is placed thereafter between three first commercial powers of the world in a context of globalization of unprecedented exchanges the intervention of germany in the east and specifically in the Ottoman Empire should be understood in this context and in 1889 the Kaiser William -second made an official visit to istanbul abdülhamid received him with pageantry as symbol of the new friendship the two emperors sketched the plans of a new railway line is would extend from berlin was it going through Mesopotamia towards the gulf Persian and its oil fields at the gates of protected territory Great Britain later taking advantage of a trip through Holy Land Guillermo Segundo scored a goal in damask when officially proclaimed friend and protector of the peoples Muslims this meant two things in the first Instead, the declaration made the ottomans was the proof that the kaiser and not I wanted the disintegration of man sick but quite the opposite is committed to keep his unit was warmly welcomed as an ally europe that differed from the others great powers to pretend stabilize the empire but this statement was also a taking position with respect to traditional powers present in the British French and Russian region clearly announced the commitment Kaiser politician in the area the Germans knew how to take advantage of fact of being a new nation a nation and an empire that until then he had not betrayed the interests Ottomans had not participated in the exploitation of resources there was no been present in the great game of east and pronounced in favor of what that others always forgot the Muslims (applause] it was a very skillful political coup and the Sun so current Hamid converted to Islam in a political and strategic argument first order the Ottomans wanted to prevent the experience of the Balkans marked by the development of the different national identities based on religion and history reproduced in the Arab world balkanization had supposed the division and the secession of entire territories of the that the power of the empire depended Ottoman if in the Arab world that LOCATION the empire would be reduced to the Turkish territories something the Ottomans I wanted to avoid at all costs on the one hand abdul hamid was perfectly aware that one day or another the empire would lose the Balkans and that the shrinking of lesser Asia more or less defined already as anatolia it would be inevitable you had to protect the hard core of the empire that according to him was the core Turkish through a Muslim periphery who could form said periphery Muslim Albanian Kurds and Arabs Music abdul hamid was not only sultan temporal sovereign was also khalifa commander of the believers leader spiritual of Sunni Islam an attribute that dated back to the 16th century and to the conquest of the holy places of the mecca and medina by the Ottomans decided fully assume this role and do of Islam a new foundation for its empire a readjusted empire in which the Muslims already reached the three quarters of the population in 1900 for his anniversary abdul hamid inaugurated a new line of railway the sacred line of the hijab that united istanbul with the mecca and that he remembered that the Ottomans were the guardians of the pilgrimage and that they reached beyond the borders of empire I believe that his goal was to convert Ottoman Empire in a great power Muslim in a large Muslim state or the last great Muslim state of the history since iran was almost there under control as well as afghanistan the others were colonized was a way to play great power worldwide because from Algeria to indonesia was in contact with a Muslim world very important in number and extension and that gave him the feeling that effectively the Ottoman Empire was a great power to diplomatic level since it extended all over the world Music the caliphate’s policy developed mostly from the interior of the Syrian Ottoman Empire Palestinian Mesopotamia and Yaz Yemen Arab provinces forgotten during long time they recovered the favors of Sultan the railroad brought them closer center of the empire schools were opened and academies the local elites were promoted and integrated into the army and in the administration and although in beirut and damask it resonates call for autonomy and cultural renovation the provinces Arabs remained loyal to the empire (applause] the peoples of the Arab provinces they were aware of what had happened in the north of Africa the occupation British of Egypt in 1882 many politicians of beirut and damask they truly understood that if they claimed independence and they left the empire Ottoman would be exposed to an occupation european we are really in a pre age national the Ottoman order was maintained in the Arab provinces feeding the illusion of a stable stable empire in your new borders but to what price in oriental anatolia a minority Christian began to be interested in the independence. the Armenians spread among the empires has taken Russian and Persian they claimed a religion a language and an old story a threat to the Ottomans at the heart of what considered as the hard core of their empire Anatolian Turkish Muslim in 1894 a revolt broke out in sa solum as retaliation some Armenian populations they were massacred was a prelude to the genocide of 1915 Music that massacre definitely marked a rupture in imperial history not only in the 19th century but imperial in general since the idea that you could exterminate a population that with impunity was considered legitimate I think the notion of homogenization ethnic was also there can be seen clearly in some 200 elements thousand victims in a population of one million and a half it is not little that we really say there was willingness on the part of the state of changing data demographics but also to mark the story Armenian with a very traumatic page to prevent other types of protests or CLAIMS Music European public opinion was outraged in the press of the time was caricatured Abdülhamid as the sultan red the great bleeding the butcher Music However, European governments do not Armenians intervened officially protected from the congress of berlin they were abandoned to their fate Music Music the empire focused on anatolia asia smaller but in the Balkans was preparing its fall in the last territories European empire in Macedonian they faced from then on Greek Serbian nationalists and bulgarians Music Music Greek nationalism was expansionist and of course I coveted Macedonian continually referred to the Macedonia of antiquity to the king Philip and Alexander the Great who were ubiquitous in the movement Greek nationalist from the beginning but very soon in the second half of 19th century appeared in turn the Bulgarian national movement that he also claimed Macedonian as long as the Serbian national movement claimed a northern part of Macedonia also had movements locals all acted as if they did not there was the Ottoman Empire the different Christian nationalisms are they clashed violently between them curiously with much more violence that when they fought against the empire Ottoman who despite everything was still representing the state in that area it was a process is not that suddenly discover in what felt greek Bulgarian or Turkish only it was about prove that Orthodox Christians of Macedonia were all Greeks or Bulgarians a combat that lasted for decades a fight that took place in the schools in the churches and in the press hours from 1905 1906 the combat became very violent between greece and bulgaria was unleashed in a authentic war in front of the Ottoman officers that’s when it started to emerge other issues the Muslims of the region were only the lungs or they also had a national identity the answer came from the ranks of the Ottoman army on July 3, 1908 in Thessaloniki a group of young officers are mutinied were Muslims just like the other Ottoman military came from the union and progress committee the main opposition force to the Sultan and they also claimed their identity Turkish successive defeats and withdrawals of the empire they had been humiliated they wanted to end the regime authoritarian of abdul hamid and save the empire they called the young Turks in three weeks they put the balkans to red alive were not a threat to the power on July 23 the old sultan abdul hamid had to reset the liberal constitution of 1876 the same which had suspended in 1878 was unleashed the euphoria in a moment of freedom and of unprecedented fraternity in a famous speech ismail in see one of the leaders of the revolution declared we are all brothers and there are no Bulgarians Greek Romanian or Jewish Serbs in our empire we are proud of be ottomans there was the fraternization between the communities Christian and Jewish women in the Balkans the socialist revolutionaries they published pamphlets saying that by The reform had come end turkey was a democratic state a modern state emancipation was and the Armenians left the armed conflict there was a kind of drunkenness of freedom in the big cities of country there was something cartoonish something funny the embraces between religious and seeing Muslim magnets it is true that there was a certain effervescence specifically in the case of media of communication the press began to recover after 30 years interesting things happened between 1908 and 1912 in istanbul the paradox of the revolution of the young turks was that it seemed to save to the Ottoman Empire but in reality provided to all these elements Centrifugal still budding more audience more chances of Express oneself that was the paradox and the young Turks realized immediately what that they proposed in the first instance was keep the Ottoman Empire keep the requests of non-Muslims as long as the Turkish element dominates the empire the young patriotic Turks they were slowly transforming into nationalists of the consucc the nationalist current born in greece a century before finally arrived at the center to the nucleus hard of the Ottoman Empire I was condemned in the chaos that followed of the revolution. Bulgaria with the support of Russia proclaimed its independence austria hungary annexed bosnia herzegovina the Ottomans were unarmed in Istanbul was plotting the counterrevolution the young Turks they accused the sultan of backing her Music On April 27, 1909, Abdul Hamid was dismissed and exiled in Thessaloniki Music Music his younger brother reza pitt happened to him with the name of mehmet fifth it was proclaimed in the joop mosque although the splendors remained the new sultan would not be more than a While the government was in the hands of the revolutionaries Music in the spring of 1911 at the request of the revolutionaries fifth magnet traveled to Macedonia with the in order to revive the Ottoman power in its last European possessions was acclaimed from Thessaloniki kosovo the religious dignitaries paraded side of collegiate illusion of unity because nobody was unaware that the whole area the Ottomans were escaping even the known Muslim Albanians for being the last bastion the belt of iron of the empire revolted in half of Greek and Bulgarian Serbs the Albanians claimed their identity national based on their language, their culture and Muslim faith without being Ottoman the betas and a minority brotherhood but influential contributed to shape this singular identity we we claimed a voice we asked independence we did not consider that the sultan was our peace and the state Ottoman persecuted everyone who I would like to create an Albanian state they could act during the day that’s why they were welcomed in our centers some say today that we were submitted to the Turks but it is not like that it is true that we shared the same faith Muslim but politically we were delivered to Albania and no other homeland, that was the position of the vectra sis Music the Albanians would have remained loyal to an empire that had recognized his autonomy but the new power responded with force to their applications in Kosovo the insurgents Albanians went underground the break had been consummated you to duo Music the Balkans waited for the signal to definitely confront the empire the sign came from tripolitania libya the last Ottoman province of African continent that Italy ambitioned in September 1911 Rome the Ottoman army went on the offensive resisted but could not prevent the advance Italian read it the Libyan occupation showed that the empire could not defend itself had come the turn of serbia montenegro greece and bulgaria that joined in a Balkanic alliance and in October of 1912 they declared war mercenaries Albanians joined them (applause] the Ottoman army greatly weakened after what happened in Libya was crushed Thessaloniki the city of the revolution of 1908 was occupied by the Greek forces the Ottoman army did not resist and the fact that the city that yesterday to without opposing resistance with was considered as a humiliation that to this fall the one of edirne followed to him two steps of Istanbul was a double humiliation tufted days thereafter the speech was radicalized it was a extremely hostile speech against of Bulgarian Greeks and Serbs the idea that the set of Christian communities were enemies of the empire generalized the idea that Europe had betrayed the empire of that Europe had not defended empire spread widely those territories were essential they were not a annex of the empire the Turks settled in the Balkans a century before the taking of Constantinople founded their second capital in the middle or in adrianapolis the balkans will be the richest areas and the most open the most modern at the end of the 19th century salonic was a modern city and you’re more modern than they are wood was a showcase of modernity all this was lost in 1912 1913 when they lost Salonica which happened to be crack was a terrible trauma a the nations of the Balkans won the empire took the revenge of four centuries of occupation but as they were going to be divided into Macedonian Ottoman rivalries arose the Bulgarian ambitions if they opposed the from greece and serbia and all are they faced those of the Albanians they resumed the war facing the ancient allies was no longer a war of liberation of some peoples against a same teacher but a war of Nations nations willing to eliminate to the other to exist to eliminate who speak another language or vindicate another faith entire cities were massacred expulsions violations conversions forced everything was done to clean the territories more than 400,000 people they were forced to move Muslims in its vast majority was the origin of what we now call ethnic cleansing what occurred in the nineties is an example of a practice that began at the end of 19th century and exploded at the beginning of 20th century as weak states resort to the violence against ethnic populations through their own armies or through paramilitaries with whom they have a close relationship but INDIRECT said paramilitary units offer on behalf of these states a political violence with the objective to change the situation on the land this collusion with nationalist aims between a state and paramilitary groups goes back to the Balkan wars bush the partition of the territories originated atrocities established by a peace treaty in 1913 the new Balkan borders announced future conflicts an Albania was created independent but their borders were confused and questioned the cradle of Albanian rebellion Kosovo was attributed to Serbia already a highly victorious symbolic that erased the humiliation that supposed for the Serbs the battle of Kosovo Pollie the battle of the field of the blackbirds that the Ottomans won in 1389 the symbol of his domination of the Balkans in 1989 on the occasion of the sixth centenary slobodan milósevic President of Serbia announced the rebirth of Serbian nationalism Music it was an immense empire that of a Turkish dynasty from the confines of Asia Minor fighters of Islam the empire Ottoman Music it was an immense empire that of a Turkish dynasty from the confines of asia minor fighters Music it was an immense empire that of a Turkish dynasty from the confines of Asia Minor Islam fighters the ind Music it was an immense empire that of a Turkish dynasty from the confines of Asia Minor fighters of Islam the empire Ottoman in 1453 subjected the empire Byzantine whose constantinople capital it was renamed istanbul in the 17th century at its peak the Ottomans besieged their empire well It stretched over three continents of the black sea to the red sea imposing its law in an incomparable mosaic of towns and beliefs however in a century the

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