MUSIC (applause] MUSIC for the contemporary world the most representative culture of the South American Andes is about the empire inca MUSIC however the imperial history of the Incas represents just a century Music long before they in the Andean region they developed many cultures of nature dazzling to know this world pre-Inca is an adventure always disturbing the importance of their political and religious structures their incredible technological developments and its complex form of association irreversibly ended in the world of the Incas ancient cities hidden funerary gods latent and unfulfilled dreams are reproduce along and across the Andean territory as a sign of a unpublished model of coexistence that can project to our present who they were and how they lived peoples that preceded the Incas Music aft at the beginning of the Spanish invasion to the territory of the Inca state these they had a hegemonic control of their territory from the coast the sierra and from Colombia to Chile and Argentina some of the manors that the they preceded they were under their orbit through agreements and others simply they had been militarily subdued the Andean world, however, known forms of organization imperial less extensive but equally effective towards the remote beginning of time many had tried the dream that the Incas crowned a millennial dream started in a landscape that was hardly something less than a hostile desert Music it is difficult to think that there is and they finished the roots of civilizations dazzling there the first gods were born first laws the first disagreements until recently egypt mesopotamia china and india were considered for their age and complexity as the only civilizations mothers of humanity Music Music however more than four thousand years before the foundation of cartago 2 thousand years before the reign of Ramses first and a thousand years before hammurabi there was a political complex in Peru and cultural whose center was the city sacred of caral the passage of time has left scarce traces of the big city the reconstruction of your buildings is hard and arduous however in this apparent poverty there are the oldest signs and rich of the Latin American world understand what this trace of dust is to begin to understand the complexity of our time the city de caral has an antiquity of more of five thousand years is until today the First city of the state of America in it the interests of men around rules specific and concrete coexistence and they included religious thought the technological and scientific innovation and social stratification Music The unknown around Caral was revealed by the team of archaeologists of the University of San Marcos led by ruth shady caral was a archaeological site known by several decades there has always stood out for its monumental architecture and perhaps that architectural complexity is that colleagues thought it was a place approximately one thousand before Christ it did not occur to anyone that he could do older than myself when I started the archaeological prospecting in the valley of supe in 1994 I went to recognize a site that does not had been investigated yet in extension and that’s how we started the works that have continued until the present who inhabited it how to they organized that dreams pursued that nightmares reached them great questions that an outburst of wind allows to discover for interpret the history of the world caral represents the evidence of the end of the primitive world and the consolidation of the accumulation patterns that they ended up dividing those who already know those who have of those who do not for the first time a state because there is a centralized government over a group big social is divided with minor authorities or if there is a system p efe generated for the first time extended on a surface of 50 hectares possesses 32 architectural ensembles among which are the temple of the amphitheater the main pyramid and the gallery pyramid only channel there are 18 settlements in the valley of supe of different extent of different complexity comprised the territories of costa sierra and jungle be by The first time in Peru, a axis of interaction between societies that populated the various regions of So we have knowledge products and experiences that from the jungle they moved to the Sierra de la Sierra coast and everything was an axis that enriched the general process of this society Music this first experience of coexistence between the different ecosystems will project in time so each of the great states Andean will establish this relationship harmonic between the sea and the mountains the importance of the site archaeological is that it testifies cultural process that gave rise to the oldest civilization in america and it is as old as the more old ones identified in the old continent of mesopotamia egypt india and China walking among the vestiges of the city ​​you can appreciate the vast architectural knowledge that they owned their dwellers caral was a large urban settlement and we are facing a society hierarchized there are distinctions As for the way of living, there are houses of the officials next to buildings then we have the houses of the servers that are much smaller and there are the houses in the periphery that they are even smaller then it shows that there is a way of life different according to the position that the individuals had within the social organization the qualitative leap of conception urbanistic and architectural defined channel as a dwelling destined to the gods and those who ordered their construction can not be anything else that its intermediaries the city testimony that architecture implies math knowledge of stability geometry of the materials so that a construction pyramid of more than 20 meters does not come down It also implies knowledge of astronomy applied knowledge in agricultural technology then all that cluster of knowledge did he show the prestige from the city rebuild the wonder of the city is a delicate job that requires archaeologists their maximum attention to each traveler is more than a part decisive of a building on them rests on a spiritual content and another political that in some sense are what See Table 1 at this stage of development civilization the state used a lot of religion it is religion that served to coerce society if it does not comply with the work you have to give in such date to such god then you will go wrong fear has been the tool on the which were built most of the mother societies however channel The city offers a distinctive version does not have evidence of military presence not even defensive type perhaps it can be assumed that during more than a thousand years a human group numerous could coexist in harmony without the violence that turns out to be the sign dominant of universal history Music if this was possible channel is not just a discovery is also a hope militarism seems to emerge more forward in this first stage of the development of society the state represents in front of the gods to men is still human later with the lord of sipán the state or the rulers are divine somehow you can deduce that the time of the gods it was a time of peace the time of men began its countdown the city was the first victim of these new times Music the city of caral was occupied believes way uninterrupted until the thousand years and after that the city was abandoned definitely we work the hypothesis that others were formed poles of development in other parts of the territory the peru other societies that had been participating without being the center they started to also develop a model of life civilized both in the north and in the south and generated other outbreaks that they incorporated other societies and that’s what I think I replace and prestige to caral progressively channel is the most transcendent discovery of the recent archeology is there where it find the matrix of the Andean world first link of a series of cultures that end up leading to the famous Inca stadium a chain that demands stop in a series of cultures that will give us the final DNA of a time as majestic as unusual Music between 1500 before Christ and 500 of our era the most finished representation of what has occurred in call the first cultural horizon Andean is located in the city of Chavín from the northern sierra of Peru in the province of Huari and even more beyond the current territory of ecuador Chavín culture established its area of influence and predominance near there at the end of their time of glory was developed another important Andean culture in the surroundings of Lima Music Lima is currently the capital of Perú. the Spanish conquerors the they called the city of kings and they established the seat of government there colonial Music probably its strategic location near the sea and an interest in weaken the influence of the old Inca capital sought determined his treatment Music between the year 200 and 700 of our it was around the valleys bordering on the rivers rímac chillón and lurín are he developed the lime culture there the patterns were combined classics of Andean societies the sow the hydraulic works the road construction the exchange and fishing many of the concrete vestiges and spirituals are revealed today by the sea in the shrine of pachacamac pachacámac and is linked about the coastal mythology it was a pilgrimage center of very important devotion and the Incas in one they kept giving me the due importance to such an extent that there was a language without pachacamac a luck of monastery and religious the cult of the sun and the point the girl is Incas was an important religious center for them The Incas understand the importance of laboratory and incorporate it as a center of pilgrimage and they do not take in agreeing with the local curacas the construction of new buildings Music a similar strategy carried out the Incas when they proceeded to conquer from the Aymara village in the vicinity from Lake Titicaca by then the majestic ceremonial center of tiwanaku had been abandoned Music We are in the most important place and more impactful than it has been and huanacu in terms of its architecture and guanaco is a group of peoples a set of ethnic groups in tiwanaku it was spoken the roof closed the Aymara was speaks of the puquina closed the chip to her there was a huge amount of languages ​​as well as people Music the titicaca lake located at 3 thousand 850 meters above sea level was not only one geographical feature was the symbol of a millennial empire in the one that laid the foundations of the Andean organization for tiwanacotas was in his capital where he it produced the origin of the world the creator god wiracocha emerged from the waters of Lake Titicaca and it was him who placed the moon and the stars in the sky and who sent to his helpers to create the animals and to plants. It was he who carved stone men gave them life and delivered them to World we have three large periods that understand in tiwanaku the villager period that starts approximately towards the year 1000 500 thousand 600 before Christ this village period will last until the beginning of our era starting from the beginning of our era thanks to the consolidation of the territory increase in the population in the diversification in production new farming systems that are going doing in tiwanaku the exchange of surplus products in order tiwanaku is transformed into a state is the time of the great constructions is the time where there is that predominance religious i nor and guanaco had been the center political and religious of a broad territory that towards the year 500 after Christ was already constituted as an important reference that materialized in his imposing urban conception the temples are related to the part of the Andean worldview many of them are playing a role related to what their cults are their gods and above all let’s see the importance of astronomy in each of these temples its cohabitants 12 really the calendar who are giving them the dates for the parties as for the time of the planting the pyramids the high confusions that are related to the sun the moon and stars the stars are also the gods of the capacha what are the constructions at ground level floor like the house she and finally the shrines in 70 years that are more linked to the divinities of the fertility fertility the temple semisubterráneo owns a plant quadrangular with walls of red sandstone that were sustained through 57 pillars on its walls are 157 interlocking heads that represent a diversity of ethnicities that results decidedly disconcerting MUSIC there they represent different races that in no way could they be known by the inhabitants of Chihuahua many are the hypotheses on purpose of its significance for some it represents the morphology of the various peoples submitted by the tiwanaku empire for others it is a trial of wiracocha for the creation of the couple original that people and the world Music the tiwanakotas projected and carried out monumental works among which highlights the wonderful door of the sun whose original location is still an enigma the door of the sun is showing us a calendar calendar complex solar and lunar character and at the same time agricultural the winged characters so 15 each time they show 30 10 of the month that we are going to have eleven smaller soles the twelfth that is the solar god in the central part that is us showing also that division of two months in the year at a thousand meters from the place is the area of ​​the puma punku whose initial structure was chosen by the Incas for their banquet ceremonies and celebrations in this area we can find jobs of what has been the Handling of stone blocks over 180 tons of weight that were moved from the mountainous area that we have where the quarries are where the blocks of stone for the construction of these Texts one of the biggest blocks is just this platform that has a weight of 185 tons were part of the temple the magnificent time that was right towards the exit in the background you can see the mountain of Lima is not exactly towards what is one of the main here the two main protective capos of this Site Monaco has a great importance not only for the highland area but also its importance goes to lie in the influence that has had in the prehispanic cultural development in many cultures largely from America Music the Aymara people is today one of the most representative communities of that past and most of the population Bolivian current is descendant direct from this ethnic group the imprint of their culture defined the relationships that would repeat themselves in the different Andean towns until the arrival of the European invasion one of these bases was undoubtedly the food technology we had several systems in the part in agricultural economics let’s have what are pecans or the cultivation terraces in the parts high where preferably it is production of male potatoes nowadays We have more than 400 varieties of potatoes that have been justly produced of tihuanaco therefore the influence the importance it has had in the region has been quite large we also have in the cochas or cochas which are artificial lagoons only in this valley do we have more than 400 that served as storage for the water for both agriculture and the grazing of the camelids and the greater tiwanaku technology is what constitute their supports that are millions and watered through channels where they could they grow 3 4 times a year we not only have the development in agriculture but also in what it is grazing camelid breeding thanks to them it became industrial known dried meat production like chamki this innovation technological allowed the intensification of exchanges prosperity did not take long to produce the need for territorial expansion in looking for space for agriculture and at 700 a q ceases to be a state with a theocratic religious is transforming into a state expansionist militarist where opening its borders is growing and it they are forming new cities that are distributed to the coast of peaceful as well as much from Peru even entering towards Argentina and Chile and this is going to bring social convulsions at the same time we are going to have problems of climatological character let’s see a prolonged drought that to accept the economic base of tiwanaku that was sustained in agriculture this collazo makes that they were going to be fulfilled disintegrate to divide into small Groups. towards the end of the first millennium as so many other Andean cities tiwanaku is abandoned had reached more than six square kilometers of extension and it came to have more than 30 thousand inhabitants iguana was an important venue that it housed the Inca himself and he became an important base operative for your conquests towards the territorial south tiwanaku was a center producer of knowledge and spirituality the importance of tiwanaku transcended its apogee and its drop there are still many events to be deciphered the culture still lacks a proper name the language the religion and some feats close to his people have been come to succumb Music according to legend the city of chan chan was founded by a mythical leader who I would have come from the sea his name was talca namo with him begins the history of the warren Chimú who exercised their vast territorial influence between 1100 and the 1450 of our era along a thousand kilometers of coastline for more than 50 kilometers land inside in chan chan they came to live more than 50,000 inhabitants and the harmonica and serene beauty of the city with its worked mud walls is still in foot the chimus protected specifically his agrarian conquests and they did not hesitate to exercise their power military to ensure control of the waterways that guaranteed the sowing projected and performed aqueducts dikes and canals ditches and wells combined the cultivation of corn peanut chili cotton and its missing craftsmanship was fundamentally would use and develop an effective use of the cattail that served for the realization of houses and rafts its maritime technology is still visible in many fishing villages Music the coup leaders extended to the north and south of chan chan and nothing he seemed to question his hegemony Music nothing until they ran into the armies of the Inca pachacutec the conquest of chan chan was not a easy company cappa chimú commands his town when the Incas are planted at the doors of their that the Chimú refuse to join the Inca and by several times they reject the massive imperial army the victory will only be the Incas reaffirm their alliance with the curacas of rimac and a new larger army and more powerful finally ends up in the surrender of cappa chimú MUSIC their leaders are banished and their lands are shared among the allies Incas MUSIC the citadel of chan chan however has come to this day with your mud silences to take for granted that when it came to the Chimu no surrender is final the territorial and spiritual control of Andean world remained for more than five thousand years settled in different villages in the valley of supe in chavín in huari in tiwanaku in chan chan and in cuzco its state organization was evolving towards increasingly complex forms that However, they do not abandon the principles fundamentals that give cohesion the more time passes the more Andean they are Music one of the keys to its operation is the integration of all your inhabitants in a collective dream strongly regulated by the state Music one of those dreams between the year 100 and the 600 after Christ was manifested in a complex and high organization sociopolitical identified as culture moche or mochica in the Moche culture or Mochica emerges and develops in a territory about 700 kilometers that cover much of the valleys of the The north coast of Peru in the Mochicas they begin to suffer approximately in the early years of the Christian era and they end up we assume six or seven century of ours was a long period in which will develop an extraordinary culture supported by the investigation of desert Music the conquest was one of the forms by which land was obtained servants and slaves and wealth but would be from its production artistic where the Mochicas they would get eternity that does not they secured the weapons MUSIC the metallurgy works constitute an important sample of the ability of the Mochicas and they have no just an unusual formal quality also a symbolic character that we allows to establish some {0}8.2.1{/0} {1}    {/1} {2}Considerations.{/2} about their ways of grouping the presence of a strong ornamentation in the representation of your gentlemen is the sign of a hierarchical society that monopolizes not only political decisions and military It is also the base from which you can presume the sacred nature of their rulers gold as metal we know they did not have no commercial value but I was reserved exclusively for ornaments of the sovereigns when an important character dies has some gold ornament goes with the boom because nobody can use it on concept of use of any foundation any outfit is very associated with people and also these ornaments they should accompany not for life and the underworld where I had to follow exercising its role is to assume the Functions Music Moche ceramics went through all the Possible stages of manifestation artistic and is without a doubt one of the most attractive and delicate of the history of humanity from the abstract primitive motifs until its sophisticated narrative sequences from its military themes until the erotic in each of the cases can see the quality of its craftsmen and the affirmation and personality of a culture their modeled heads possess a degree of technical realism expressiveness and sensitivity that they have rarely achieved other artists maybe less anonymous many were a society whose economy is advanced in the AGRICULTURE it was essentially a town of desert farmers do not the take advantage of the nominal of certain developing a technology hydraulics that allowed to divert the course of the rivers that come down from the Andean mountain intercept reported of sea to take them to the dry areas do not get the water because the coast does not is on facebook is a region desert they manage to develop a system of extraordinary irrigation that even today the Peruvians in this region do not we can overcome in their territory they report today on their greatness two monumental works the huaca del sol and the huaca of the moon and the huaca of the sun It is 18 meters high and its base rectangular has an extension of 136 by 228 meters this pyramidal construction is probably the most imposing of Peru its significance is complete with another smaller waka but equally suggestive is the huaca de la The Moon these cows are undoubtedly the result of a communal work probably one of the many services of reciprocity that demanded their rulers and give us to understand the importance of this center ceremonial many of the mysteries of this culture warrior have begun to rebel at from a surprising discovery the burial chamber of the Lord of sipán the tombs of sipán were discovered following the start of a looting in the main monument is discovered a tomb with some objects of gold and a real fever broke out golden of the town we immediately started a job of archaeological rescue in a situation very dramatic that is part of all the history of this excavation we achieved stop looting 87 we start the excavation work that led us some weeks later one of the archaeological discoveries more important old peru the grave from the lord of sipán the important thing of this discovery is that for the first time it is possible to present to the world the tomb intact ezkaba scientifically single gram ancient but this tomb offered a series of revelations that allowed set a more finished picture of the Mochica organization from the richness of its multiple meanings when we found the grave of this character we realized immediately by the variety and by the shape of the garments the emblems we are facing one of the most men important of your time in usually we archaeologists have a very typical nomenclature for those tombs tomb 1 rumba dor we went a little to the idea of ​​not only rescue objects archaeological but also the human presence and the spirit of a town we could not call them grave 1 and musically we did not know the name true of this character but reflecting on the characteristics of the Mochica organization as Manor and the no the town of sipán we do not call in the tomb of the lord of sipán made No. it is an open area with adobe walls measuring five meters why? in the center was the coffin of the mister de sipán made of wood and wrapped up in their outfits and badges of command both sides were the burials of two companions males one of them located in the same position that the lord of sipán would be presumably an opposite military leader to him is another character of rank that was identified as a boss of protocol a dog accompanies them probably following the traditions that identified them as guides in the trip to the beyond the central part of the funeral chamber was the coffin contained the play the mister of sipán that wrapped the body of the Lord at the time of his death this game was composed of a wonderful set to be ordinary from ornaments of gold silver copper and copper golden clothes costumes to pay part of them are emblems of rank in the southwest corner of the camera I found a child of approximately 10 years the roof and robert made the guardian who took care of the grave and the guard had his feet amputated like a symbolic signal that he should not leave your guard post to the eternity finally the last companion was placed on one of the walls in seated position eat watchful taking care guarding his lord’s camera this set of companions were in that were part of his royal entourage that they had the obligation to accompany him in his death the disposition of the bodies and the Finding more than 200 vessels sculptures that represent characters of importance define the notion of death as a journey towards eternity in which the noble is accompanied by an entourage that has been sacrificed to such effect experts have determined despite the delicate state of his remains that his age would range between 45 and 55 years probably suffered a incipient osteoarthritis in his spine c studies can not determine the cause of death but has been ruled out that it has been produced in a violent In Sipan, a total of 13 tombs that belong to diverse times and in the complex hierarchy of the Mochica rulers at the top was the lord of sipán like a triple military and political authority civic under the priests below the military leaders and then the courtly environment that was composed by military assistant and assistant second level religious always the main characters to the center of the ring the characters of minor Range but the most important thing is every grave reflects character error and function in life the Andean societies possessed a strong religious degree the condition eternal of its leaders implies a profound ritual that probably Prepared well in advance the end was perceived as one more step on the site the jar of them is It follows that the separation between life and death was observed with some naturalness the laws Music life and death gods and men sowing and harvesting duality of the Andean being allows to explain the world through opposites that form a single entity the wonder of the Andes do not reside extraordinary knowledge of chichas navigation or in the dazzling huacas of the sun and of the The Moon neither in the religiosity of the villages of the valley of Lima or in the incredible engineering works hydraulics of the nazas the wonder of the Andes should be sought in the ability to preserve your space vital and its subsistence beyond bloody confrontations and profound processes of change perhaps unknowingly we continue those same traces that offer us the opportunity to star in a new reality as those men are advanced looking for same feelings security progress stability and well-being a balance complex that involves living constantly on the edge of good and of evil or the laws

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