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rounds the Mediterranean basin centuries of ours was the moment of maximum hegemony of the Roman Empire possibly there is no greater symbol of power of imperial Rome that the majesty of its architecture on the cusp of his power the empire Roman dominated 3 continents 20 races and more than five hundred cities and where conquered build the architecture romana extends from italy spain france asia asia from africa to the sea 7 black all the cities were built according to the same go god style columns atrium markets temples basilicas the Roman Empire unified the entire riverbank Mediterranean encompassing some lands where a multitude of cultures unifying them into one civilization governed by them laws by the same modus vivendi the same customs a single citizenship multiethnic whose members did not suffer racial discrimination and that had Italian emperors from other African European provinces and Arab Studies: in order to understand how roma managed build such a vast state and govern it for almost a millennium and we will attack the very confines of the empire in its period of maximum expansion and we will know the secrets of archeology has revealed to us secrets of archeology Rome, capital of an empire according to the legend the Roman city was founded by Romulus in 753 before Christ almost immediately he started his expansion becoming first with the territories of the peoples Hispanics then he extended his domains until you set up an empire that encompassed from the Atlantic coasts of iberia to the river Euphrates historians date the fall of Western Roman Empire in the year 476 after Christ which means that the story of this city and its global preponderance it went on for more than one Millennium how he managed to survive for so long Time the answer is Roman was limited to subjugate other lands he adopted fusing the ways and customs of diverse cultures with the best that roma had to offer started with the fom in france at times a Roman province called galia the archaeologists discovered this way marked by imposing buildings in your tickets the researchers found puzzling slots that objected they had when archaeologists bump into with an enigma of this nature to often manage to come up with important clues in ancient writings on architecture transmitted by medieval copyists in the case of bessón the rubber in the mystery was solved the slots of the thresholds served to hold the tables on which the merchants They exposed their merchandise by arranging the tables parallel to the roadway the shopkeepers enjoyed the maximum visibility for your products and for They were selling better this emphasis on marketing and business is one of the reasons why that the empire remained alive during so much time wherever arrived the Romans had just putting on arms and war step to pax romana in this context of renewed stability trade was already prospering after invading and repopulating new Roma lands recruited the best warriors of that country and incorporated them to your regions the most prominent military came from of the wealthiest families used to be the most educated and qualified and they had the natural aspiration to thrive in the political fabric of the new Regime: if they triumphed on the battlefield as well as in the political aspect of the war had the opportunity to get to senators one of the charges most prominent and profitable of the imperial administration the race military was the fastest means to promote socially but of course is the new soldiers should start at the bottom of the ladder of those destined to the most orientals of the empire where the Emperor Trajan fought the formidable birth heirs of the empire Persian in the galias embarked on a military flotilla and set sail from the port of massilia the current marseilles sailed until sicilia being forced to fight against pirates in the passage of the journey from sicily they continued their journey to the east following the shortest and safest route equitable. that meant following the coast and not venture out at sea of not being inescapably specified the fleet crossed the Aegean Sea leaving behind of itself the peloponnese peninsula and he docked in the port of the odyssey in leave him the warships of those times were very different from ships merchants this ship is called tri reme we know well its appearance thanks to the remains found by marine archaeologists the Roman navons discovered that a order to perform quick maneuvers in full battle and lash out at the enemy the fighting ships owed driven by groups of rowers arranged in several covers the commercial ships in exchange they sailed and did not use oars the combat ships were classified according to the number and disposition of the rowers the thriller was gifted me of three overlapping rows of rowers and each rhythm was handled by two men it was a boat light of about 35 meters in length ideal for its speed and maneuverability to combat piracy the mission of the marines In addition to manning the ship along with the rowers was to board the enemy ships each triple took me on board a crew consisting of about 300 rowers and a hundred marines to In order to cleanse pirates of the waters of Mediterranean and Aegean often the fleet had to pursue its enemies for hundreds of kilometers before hunting them once the tactics reached them it was not about boarding the ship and engage in a hand-to-hand fight but in throwing it to pique and attacking against him and throwing projectiles incendiaries by means of catapults a side ship was at greater risk of be rammed and sunk that your attacker however, that position conferred advantages when using the catapult that’s because the waves caused different effects on the trajectory of the missiles the defensive catapult of onboard installed perpendicularly happy ship launched the projectile so that in its route traced to a very elongated ellipse a parabola that corresponded perfectly with the outline and position of the boat enemy was on the other hand had his catapult aligned with its main axis and their ammunition tended to fall inside of a circle that encompassed only a minimum part of the objective frequently the attacker’s missiles white rafael which could decide the result of the confrontation plus the The soldier’s life was not limited to warfare Roman culture demanded a certain dose of refinement and good taste to its citizens this aris ink theater is located on the north-eastern Sicilian coast dominating the sea where many arrive travelers and legionaries to make a stopover on their journeys the most surprising and disconcerting of this building are not so much their architecture and its armament as its location is truly striking but lacks logical explanation since the shows used to celebrate you should direct a theater in a place exposed to the marine winds and in full sun it seems like a very arguably other monuments of this type like empiricism parchment theater in the current turkey have extensive horizons the Hellenistic taste required that all architectural work it was great the truth is that the theater of tildar is just as a good part of the city does not was raised by the Romans but by the Greeks several centuries before during the Hellenistic era the Romans they simply annexed these lands to his empire one of the reasons to explain the vastness and the might of the empire Roman and its assimilation of culture Hellenic that was invited at the beginning subsequently developed as by example the ars music area the making mosaics and finally spread throughout the Mediterranean inland in the same and filias it was raising a flourishing you take away the city from morgan tina sumptuous domus decorated with superb mosaics attest convincingly its opulence one of the clearest samples of his prosperity It was the kindness with which he welcomed his visitors the proof we have in this mosaic where you read in Greek the phrase that you follow well that can interpreted as an expression of welcome all citizens of the empire were equal the circulation of people and ideas was as free as the of goods the governor of the island as well as his stable dwellers extended the celebrated Roman hospitality to all travelers offering them wine and meat all the products of the fertile earth Sicilian a part of the terra firma Italian a country to which virgilio ya bob earthly paradise powerful mother of the crops and mothers of men sometimes the mission of the legions it was not making war but peace in the greek island of santorini you will find a ancient settlement called strip strip It was located in a region permanently threatened by the Earthquakes half of the island disappeared under the sea in the second millennium before Christ the archaeological remains found will feel show that the city had experienced various reconstructions and that he had suffered the effects of more of an earthquake earthquakes caused serious damage to public buildings and individuals and on such occasions the Roman legions perform in the mission to carry out works of civil engineering well excavations clearing of public roads restoration of the sanitary conditions the officers of the imperial army they had the opportunity to distinguish themselves if they met satisfactorily with these public services more towards the east in the confines of empire remains jordan in the 20th century the archeologists unearthed the beautiful city that gaza stayed perplexed when discovering numerous tapas of drain like this with the image recorded from a dolphin this animal is patently associated with the sea however fat was rising in half of the desert very far from the Mediterranean that mysterious meaning underlies these dolphins along several decades of archaeological campaigns was coming to light a rich city that offered clues to studies about the enigmatic relationship of fat with the water one of the most relevant moments of criticism is the lynx to a source admirably adorned the drainpipes worked in the pavement they served the city’s drainage so it was so furrowed by infinity of rills the study of great colonnade that crosses the population threw a conclusion sensational on the cusp of the Hidden columns after arbitration It ran on water pipes fat had a complex system of water supply the liquid element that drowned the acequias during rainy season was channeled I was packing and distributing all the city ​​where it was a few hundred and maximum use of it before evacuating it the various channels the system supposed a great waste but that’s why precisely because of what the city I felt so proud of him thanks to its abundant water supply already his architectural gems like this temple erected in honor of zeus on a Belvedere lookout that sits on three fat terraces offered an image beautiful and cozy irony for your role as one of the main countertop markets the city was next to English the eastern border of the Roman Empire a region of intense traffic commercial the Mediterranean world and the india and china fat had to compete commercially with other civitates of the same area such as palmira and petra so that it I was forced to offer a wide range of quality services and entertainment as their two theaters demonstrate mineral water springs and the circus its hospitality is enhanced by this magnificent site to which he reported a great celebrity to activitas the oval fat square symbolizes the Roman empire an imposing porticoed avenue it crosses the city and flows into the picturesque square obviously the most beautiful cities and prominent of the empire even those as remote as you want to owed their importance to the excellent roads that the linked the square or forum like the Romans they called the meeting center more highlight of the city was always the term of a road this forum val gives testimony of the reason fundamental for the long survival of the Roman empire his network of Communication the efficiency of its road infrastructure it is still admirable in our days post offices armed guard constant maintenance of the firm and more than 120 thousand kilometers of roadways fat was the last eastern redoubt Empire from here the Roman legions they could cross the dunes of a infinite desert and find a culture and a different civilization to all how many had known the fearsome town that inhabited the regions between the Euphrates and the Indo made the Romans tremble it was about the birth lands the followers of the Persian Empire the Romans had no choice but to take advantage of their formidable tactics military to defeat such a bellicose enemy 56 tribunes commanded several divisions these tribunes were at orders of a legatus a legacy of emperor the supreme general of the legions below the tribunes the centurions were a force of elite at the helm of the centuries companies composed of a hundred of legionaries fighting births the Romans used their prestigious military practices the chivalry was deployed throughout the francs in the center facing each other directly to the rival hosts it they found four lines of infantry with the centuries forming a variegated formation in order to close all possible holes first to undertake were the velices components of light units that they carried out lightning attacks and they they retreated behind their lines then the spearmen advanced they threw their pilum and then they they engaged in a hand-to-hand fight before retiring at that time the princes intervened and for last the tri ari equipped with pil ump and he turned his back the offensives were carried out repeatedly and in that same order until that the four lines flanked by the ‘equity is the cavalry they threw the last attack if they won in the first battle the Romans rushed a much harder challenge if it fits the siege to a fortified city a pop and doom the legions camped to something else of half a kilometer of its walls and installed their magical menacing war the effective catapults on some pedestals the catapults or ballista throw arrows and if it was necessary stones when the army put site to a city that used stones as missiles in order to open gaps in the walls and facilitate the invasion of troops the projectiles should hit the same point again and again this would be achieved by always loading the catapult with stones of the same weight after making several test shots to choose the right location of the guarantor the missiles weighed up 80 kilos and had a maximum range of 1 650 meters in order to throw them to great speed towards the fence of the city beleaguered the projectiles were placed in a sack located in the center of a rope finished in the arms of an arch thought by a system of ropes interlaced a winch pulls the rope and tensed the bow and when releasing the ring subject to the sack the stone came out shot besides the bombardment with catapults the Romans used other machines of siege the turris the tower was one of your most strenuous assault weapons your front was closed although could open at various heights when it was necessary in the intermediate floors I was going to mount the catapults loaded with arrows and stones on the heights superior soldiers crouched ready to start the attack on the when the towers approached sufficiently to the enemy walls on the lowest floor was the ram as soon as it was possible to open a crack in the wall the tribune ordered your centurions attack and enter triumphant in the city in the wake of Trajan’s victory over the Parthians the Roman Empire reached its maximum expansion the most prominent officers could choose to follow the course no room la honors race the rigorously Regulated Roman ranking with the due honors obtained in the field of battle could get to get a put in the senate your and belong well to the most important assembly of the empire the Roman senators were also combative though in a different way they used the weapons of the diplomacy the impartial application of the law and the wise administration economic and political in order to guarantee the stability of territories won by the army the empire was an immense domain that understood everyone known in that time his legacy is one of the most powerful of universal history the Mediterranean basin centuries of ours was the moment of maximum hegemony of the Roman Empire possibly there is no greater symbol of power of imperial Rome that the majesty of its architecture on the cusp of his power the empire Roman dominated 3 continents 20 races and more than five hundred cities and where conquered build the architecture Roman extends from Italy Spain and france asia asia from africa to the sea 8 black all the cities were built according to the same go god style columns lectern markets basilicas temples the Roman Empire unified the entire riverbank Mediterranean encompassing some lands where a multitude of cultures unifying it to be one civilization governed by them laws by the same modus vivendi the same customs a single citizenship multiethnic whose members did not suffer racial discrimination and that had Italian emperors from other African European provinces already the time in order to understand how rome managed to build such a vast state and govern it for almost a millennium we will travel to the same confines of empire in its time of maximum expansion and we will know the secrets that archeology has unveiled for us secrets of archeology Rome, capital of an empire according to the legend the Roman city was founded by Romulus in 753 before Christ so he immediately started his expansion becoming first with the territories of the peoples Hispanics then he extended his domains until you set up an empire that encompassed from the Atlantic coasts of iberia to the river Euphrates historians date the fall of Western Roman Empire in the year 476 after Christ which means that the story of this city and its global preponderance it went on for more than one millennium and how he managed to survive for so long the answer is román was not limited to subjugate other lands he adopted fusing the ways and customs of diverse cultures with the best that roma had to offer started with the fom in france at times a Roman province called galia the archaeologists discovered this way marked by imposing buildings in your tickets the researchers found puzzling slots and object had when archaeologists come across a riddle of this nature often they manage to find important clues in ancient writings on architecture transmitted by medieval copyists in the case of bessón the home in the mystery was solved the slots of the thresholds served to hold the tables on which the merchants They exposed their merchandise by arranging the tables parallel to the roadway the shopkeepers enjoyed the maximum visibility for your products and for They were selling better this emphasis on marketing and business is one of the reasons why that the empire remained alive during so much time wherever arrived the Romans had just putting on arms and war step to pax romana in this context of renewed stability the commerce flourished after invading and repopulating new Roma lands recruited the best warriors of that country and incorporated them to his legions the military more highlights came from families more affluent people used to be the most educated and qualified and they had the natural aspiration to thrive in the political framework of the new regime if they triumphed on the battlefield as well as in the political aspect of the war had the opportunity to get to senators one of the charges most prominent and profitable of the imperial administration the race military was the fastest means to promote socially but of course is the new soldiers should start at the bottom of the ladder of those destined to the most orientals of the empire where the Emperor Trajan fought the formidable birth heirs of the empire Persian in the galias embarked on a military flotilla and set sail from the port of massilia the current marseilles sailed until sicilia being forced to fight against pirates in the passage of the journey from sicily they continued their journey to the east following the shortest and safest route equitable. that meant following the coast and not venture out at sea of not being inescapably specified the fleet crossed the Aegean Sea leaving behind of itself the peloponnese peninsula and he docked in the port of the odyssey in leave him the warships of those times were very different from ships merchants this ship is called trireme we know well its appearance thanks to the remains found by marine archaeologists the Roman navons discovered that a order to perform quick maneuvers in full battle and lash out at the enemy the fighting ships owed driven by groups of rowers arranged in several covers the commercial ships in exchange they sailed and did not use oars the combat ships were classified according to the number and disposition of the rowers the triple was gifted me with three overlapping rows of rowers and each rhythm was handled by two men it it was about a light boat about 35 meters of ideal length for its speed and maneuverability for fight piracy the mission of the marines In addition to manning the ship along with the rowers was to board the enemy ships each triple took me on board a crew consisting of about 300 rowers and a hundred marines to In order to cleanse pirates of the waters of Mediterranean and Aegean often the fleet had to pursue its enemies for hundreds of kilometers before hunting them once the tactics reached them it was not about boarding the ship and engage in a hand-to-hand fight but in throwing it to pique and attacking against him and throwing projectiles incendiaries by means of catapults a side ship was at greater risk of be rammed and forget that your attacker however, that position conferred advantages when using the catapult that’s because the waves caused different effects on the trajectory of the missiles the defensive catapult of onboard installed perpendicularly happy ship launched the projectile so that in its route traced to a very elongated ellipse a parabola that corresponded perfectly with the outline and position of the boat enemy was on the other hand had his catapult aligned with its main axis and their ammunition tended to fall inside of a circle that encompassed only a minimum part of the objective frequently the attacker’s missiles white rafael which could decide the result of the confrontation plus the The soldier’s life was not limited to warfare Roman culture demanded a certain dose of refinement and good taste to its citizens this gray ribbon theater is on the north-eastern Sicilian coast dominating the sea where many arrive travelers and legionaries to make a stopover on their journeys the most surprising and disconcerting of this building are not so much their architecture and its armament as its location is truly striking but lacks logical explanation since the shows used to celebrate day erect a theater in a place exposed to the marine winds and in full sun, it seems like a very arguably other monuments of this type like empiricism parchment theater in the current turkey have extensive horizons the Hellenistic taste required that all architectural work it was great the truth is that the theater of tildar is just as a good part of the city does not was raised by the Romans but by the Greeks several centuries before during the Hellenistic and Roman era or they simply annexed these lands to his empire one of the reasons to explain the vastness and the might of the empire Roman and its assimilation of culture Hellenic that was imitated at the beginning subsequently developed as by example the ars musicae area the making mosaics and finally spread throughout the Mediterranean inland in the same and filias it was raising a flourishing you take away the city from morgan tina his sumptuous domus decorated with superb mosaics they vouchsafely testify to their opulence one of the clearest samples of his prosperity was the kindness with which welcomed its visitors the test the we have in this mosaic where you read in Greek the phrase that you follow well that can be interpreted as an expression welcome all citizens of the empire were equal the circulation of people and ideas was as free as the of goods the governor of the island as well as his stable dwellers empty the extensive celebrated Roman hospitality to all travelers offering them wine and meat all the products of the fertile earth Sicilian a part of the terra firma Italian a country to which Virgilio already speaks earthly paradise powerful mother of the crops and mothers of men sometimes the mission of the legions it was not making war but peace in the greek island of santorini you will find a ancient settlement called strip strip It was located in a region permanently threatened by the Earthquakes half of the island disappeared under the sea in the second millennium before christ to the archaeological remains found in strip show that the city ​​had experienced various the Mediterranean basin centuries of our it was the moment of maximum hegemony of Roman empire possibly there is no greater symbol of power of imperial Rome that the majesty of its architecture on the cusp of his power the empire Roman dominated 3 continents 20 races and more than five hundred cities and where he conquered he built the architecture romana extends from italy spain france towards minor from africa to the sea 7 black all the cities were going according at the same and grand style columns atrium markets temples basilicas the Roman Empire unified the entire riverbank Mediterranean encompassing some lands where a multitude of cultures unifying them into one civilization governed by them laws by the same modus vivendi the same customs a single citizenship multiethnic whose members did not suffer racial discrimination and that had Italian emperors from other African European provinces and Arab Studies: in order to understand how roma managed build such a vast state and govern it for almost a millennium we will travel to the same confines of empire in its time of maximum expansion and we will know the secrets of archeology has unveiled for us secrets of archeology Rome, capital of an empire according to the legend the Roman city was founded by Romulus in 753 before Christ almost immediately he started his expansion becoming first with the territories of the peoples italics then he extended his domains until you set up an empire that encompassed from the Atlantic coasts of iberia to the river Euphrates historians date the fall of Western Roman Empire in the year 476 after Christ which means that the story of this city and its global preponderance it went on for more than one Millennium how he managed to survive for so long Time the answer is Roman was limited to subjugate other lands he adopted fusing the ways and customs of diverse cultures with the best that roma had to offer started with the fom in france time is a Roman province call galia the archaeologists they discovered this path marked out imposing constructions in their entries the researchers found puzzling slots that objected they had when archaeologists bump into with an enigma of this nature to often manage to come up with important clues in ancient writings on architecture transmitted by medieval copyists in the case of weight in the home in the mystery was solved the slots of the thresholds served to hold the tables on which the merchants They exposed their merchandise by arranging the tables parallel to the roadway the shopkeepers enjoyed the maximum visibility for your products and for They were selling better this emphasis on marketing and business is one of the reasons why that the empire remained alive during so much time wherever arrived the Romans had just putting on arms and war step to pax romana in this context of renewed stability the commerce flourished after invading and repopulating new Roma lands recruited the best warriors of that country and incorporated them to his legions the military more highlights came from families more affluent people used to be the most educated and qualified and they had the natural aspiration to thrive in the political framework of the new regime if they triumphed on the battlefield as well as in the political aspect of the war they had the opportunity to get to senators one of the charges most prominent and profitable of the imperial administration the race military was the fastest means to promote socially but of course is the new soldiers should start at the bottom of the ladder of those destined to the most orientals of the empire where the Emperor Trajan fought the formidable birth heirs of the empire Persian in the galias embarked on a military flotilla and set sail from the port of massilia the current marseilles sailed until sicilia being forced to fight against pirates in the passage of the journey from sicily they continued their journey to the east following the shortest and safest route equitable. that meant following the coast and not venture out at sea of not being inescapably specified the fleet crossed the Aegean Sea leaving behind of itself the peloponnese peninsula and docked in the harbor on the side says to in leave him the warships of those times were very different from ships merchants this ship is called trireme we know well its appearance thanks to the remains found by marine archaeologists the Roman navons discovered that a order to perform quick maneuvers in full battle and lash out at the enemy the fighting ships owed driven by groups of rowers arranged in several covers the commercial ships in exchange they sailed and did not use oars the combat ships were classified according to the number and disposition of the medicines the thriller was giving me three overlapping rows of rowers and each rhythm was handled by two men it it was about a light boat about 35 meters of ideal length for its speed and maneuverability for fight piracy the mission of the marines In addition to manning the ship along with the rowers was to tackle enemy media each triple took me on board a crew consisting of about 300 rowers and a hundred marines to In order to cleanse pirates of the waters of Mediterranean and Aegean often the fleet had to pursue its enemies for hundreds of kilometers before hunting them once the tactics reached them it was not about boarding the ship and engage in a hand-to-hand fight but in throwing it to pique and attacking against him and throwing projectiles incendiaries by means of catapults a side ship was at greater risk of be rammed and sunk that your attacker however, that position conferred advantages when using the catapult that’s because the waves caused different effects on the trajectory of the missiles the defensive catapult of onboard installed perpendicularly happy ship launched the projectile so that in its route traced to a very elongated ellipse a parabola that corresponded perfectly with the outline and position of the boat enemy was on the other hand had his catapult aligned with its main axis and their ammunition tended to fall inside of a circle that encompassed only a minimum part of the objective frequently the attacker’s missiles white rafael which could decide the result of the confrontation plus the The soldier’s life was not limited to warfare Roman culture demanded a certain dose of refinement and good taste to its citizens this theater of toasting and is in the northeastern Sicilian coast dominating the sea where many travelers arrive and legionaries to make stops in their cruises the most surprising and disconcerting of this building are not so much their architecture and its ornament as its location is truly striking but lacks logical explanation since the shows used to celebrate day erect a theater in a place exposed to the marine winds and that not only seems like a very arguably other monuments of this type like empiricism parchment theater in the current turkey have extensive horizons the Hellenistic taste required that all architectural work it was great the truth is that the theater of ink aris just as a good part of the city does not was raised by the Romans but by the Greeks several centuries before during the Hellenistic and Roman era or they simply annexed these lands to his empire one of the reasons to explain the vastness and the might of the empire Roman and its assimilation of culture Hellenic that was imitated at the beginning subsequently developed as by example the ars music area the conception of mosaics and finally spread throughout the Mediterranean inland in the same and filias it was raising a flourishing you take away the city from morgan tina his sumptuous domus decorated with superb mosaics they vouchsafely testify to their opulence one of the clearest samples of his prosperity was the kindness with which welcomed its visitors the test the we have in this mosaic where you read in Greek the phrase that you follow well that can be interpreted as an expression welcome all citizens of the empire were equal the circulation of people and ideas was as free as the of goods the governor of the island as well as his stable residents extended the celebrated Roman hospitality to all travelers offering them wine and meat all the products of the fertile earth Sicilian a part of the terra firma Italian a country that Virgilio called earthly paradise powerful mother of the crops and mothers of men sometimes the mission of the legions it was not making war but peace in the greek island of santorini you will find a ancient settlement called strip strip It was located in a region permanently threatened by the Earthquakes half of the island disappeared under the sea in the second millennium before Christ the archaeological remains found in strip show that the city had experienced various reconstructions and that he had suffered the effects of more of an earthquake earthquakes caused serious damage to public buildings and individuals and on such occasions the Roman legions played in the mission to carry out works of civil engineering well excavations clearing of public roads restoration of the sanitary conditions the officers of the imperial army they had the opportunity to distinguish themselves if they met satisfactorily with these public services more towards orient in the confines of the empire there is jordan in the 20th century the archaeologists unearthed the beautiful City of Gaza were perplexed when discovering numerous drain covers like this one with the recorded image of a dolphin this animal is patently associated with the sea however fat was rising in half of the desert very far from the Mediterranean the mysterious meaning underlying these dolphins along several decades of archaeological campaigns was coming to light a rich city that offered clues to studies about the enigmatic relationship of fat with the water one of the most relevant moments of criticism is the lynx to a source admirably adorned the drainpipes worked in the pavement they served the city’s drainage so it was so furrowed by infinity of rills the study of great colonnade that crosses the population threw a conclusion sensational on the cusp of the Hidden columns after arbitrations there were water pipes Heras has had a complex system water supply liquid element that drowned the acequias during the rainy season it canalized embalsaba and distributed by the whole city where he made himself hundreds and maximum use of it before evacuate it through the various channels on system supposed a great waste but that was precisely why the city was so proud of he thanks to his abundant water supply and your jewelry architectural like this temple erected in honor of zeus on a Belvedere lookout that sits on three fat terraces offered an image beautiful and cozy irony for your role as one of the main markets of antiquity the city was next to English the eastern border of the Roman Empire a region of intense traffic commercial the Mediterranean world and the india and china fat had to compete commercially with other civitates of the same area such as palmira and petra so that it I was forced to offer a wide range of quality services and entertainment as their two theaters demonstrate mineral water springs and the circus its hospitality is enhanced by this magnificent site to which he reported a great celebrity to activitas the oval fat square symbolizes the Roman empire an imposing porticoed avenue it crosses the city and flows into the picturesque square obviously the most beautiful cities and prominent of the empire even those as remote as you want to owed their importance to the excellent roads that the linked the square or forum like the Romans they called the meeting center more highlight of the city was always the term of a road this global forum gives testimony of the fundamental reason for the long survival of the Roman empire its network of communications the effectiveness of its road infrastructure is still admirable still in our days post offices armed guard a constant maintenance of the firm and more of 120 thousand kilometers of roadways fat was the last eastern redoubt Empire from here the Roman legions they could cross the dunes of a infinite desert and find a culture and a different civilization to all how many had known the fearsome town that inhabited the regions between the Euphrates and the indo made the Romans tremble it was about the birth lands the followers of the Persian Empire the Romans had no choice but to take advantage of their formidable tactics military to defeat such a bellicose enemy 56 tribunes commanded several divisions these tribunes were at orders of a legatus a legacy of emperor the supreme general of the legions below the tribunes the centurions were a force of choose at the helm of the centuries companies composed of a hundred of legionaries fighting births the Romans used their prestigious military practices the chivalry was deployed throughout the francs in the center facing each other directly to the rival hosts it they found four lines of infantry with the centuries forming a variegated formation in order to close all possible holes first to undertake were the velices components of light units that they carried out lightning attacks and they they retreated behind their lines then the spearmen advanced they threw their pilum and then they they engaged in a hand-to-hand fight before retiring at that time the princes intervened and for last the triana and equipped with pilum hilario the sword the offensives were carried out repeatedly and in that same order until that the four lines flanked by the ‘equity is the cavalry they threw the last attack if they won in the first battle the Romans rushed a much harder challenge if possible in the series or a fortified city a pop and doom the lessons were camping to something else of half a kilometer of its walls and installed their threatening machines war the effective catapults on some pedestals the catapults or ballistans launched arrows and if necessary stones when the army laid siege to a city ​​that used stones as missiles in order to breach the walls and facilitate the invasion of troops the projectiles should hit the same point again and again this would be achieved by always loading the catapult with stones of the same weight after making several test shots to choose the right location of the guarantor the missiles weighed up 80 kilos and they had a maximum range of 1 650 meters in order to throw them to great speed towards the fence of the city beleaguered the projectiles were placed in a sack located in the center of a rope attacked in the arms of an arc thought by a system of ropes interlaced a winch pulls the rope and tensed the bow and when releasing the ring subject to the shah or the stone shot besides the bombardment with catapults the Romans used other machines of siege the curries the tower was one of your most strenuous assault weapons your front was closed although could open at various heights when it was necessary in the intermediate floors I was going to mount the catapults loaded with arrows and stones on the heights superior soldiers crouched ready to start the attack on the when the towers approached sufficiently to the enemy walls on the lowest floor was the ram as soon as it was possible to open a crack in the wall the tribune ordered your centurions attack and enter triumphant in the city in the wake of Trajan’s victory over the Parthians the Roman Empire reached its maximum expansion the most prominent officers could choose to follow the Russian north um the honors race the rigorously Regulated Roman ladder with the due honors obtained in the battlefield could reach get a seat in the senate your and belong well to the assembly more important of the empire The Roman osservatore were also combative though in a different way they used the weapons of the diplomacy the impartial application of the law and the wise administration economic and political in order to guarantee the stability of territories won by the army is the empire was an immense domain that included the entire known world at that time his legacy is one of the most powerful of universal history bush the Mediterranean basin centuries of ours was the moment of maximum hegemony of the Roman Empire possibly there is no greater symbol of power of imperial Rome that the majesty of its architecture on the cusp of his power the empire Roman dominated 3 continents 20 races and more than five hundred cities and where conquered Roman architecture extends from italy spain de france asia minor africa to the black sea all the cities were built according to the same go god style columns lectern markets basilicas temples the Roman Empire unified the entire riverbank Mediterranean encompassing some lands where they had flourished crowd of cultures unifying it to be one civilization calm by the same laws by the same modus vivendi the same customs a single citizenship multiethnic whose members did not suffer racial discrimination and that had Italian emperors from other African European provinces and Arab Studies: in order to understand how roma managed build such a vast state and govern it for almost a millennium we will travel to the same confines of empire in its time of maximum expansion and we will know the secrets that archeology has taken off for us You secrets of archeology Rome, capital of an empire according to the legend the Roman city was founded by Romulus in 753 before Christ so he immediately started his expansion becoming first with the territories of the peoples italics then he extended his domains until you set up an empire that encompassed from the Atlantic coasts of iberia to the river Euphrates historians date the fall of Western Roman Empire in the year 476 after Christ which means that the story of this city and its global preponderance it went on for more than one millennium and how he managed to survive for so long the answer is román was not limited to subjugate other lands he adopted fusing the ways and customs of diverse cultures with the best that roma had to offer started with the fom in france at times a Roman province called galia the archaeologists discovered this way marked by imposing buildings in your tickets the researchers found puzzling slots that objected they had when archaeologists bump into with an enigma of this nature to often manage to come up with important clues in ancient writings on architecture transmitted by medieval copyists in the case of bessón the rubber in the mystery was solved the slots of the thresholds served to hold the tables on which the merchants They exposed their merchandise by arranging the tables parallel to the roadway the shopkeepers enjoyed the maximum visibility for your products and for They were selling better this emphasis on marketing and business is one of the reasons why that the empire remained alive during so much time wherever arrived the Romans had just putting on arms and war step to pax romana in this context of renewed stability the commerce flourished after invading and repopulating new Roma lands recruited the best warriors of that country and incorporated them to his legions the military more highlights came from families more affluent people used to be the most educated and qualified and they had the natural aspiration to thrive in the political framework of the new regime if they triumphed on the battlefield as well as in the political aspect of the war had the opportunity to get to senators one of the charges most prominent and profitable of the imperial administration the race military was the fastest means to promote socially but of course is the new soldiers should start at the bottom of the ladder of those destined to the most orientals of the empire where the Emperor Trajan fought the formidable birth heirs of the empire Persian in the galias embarked on a military flotilla and set sail from the port of massilia the current marseilles sailed until sicilia being forced to fight against pirates in the passage of the journey from sicily they continued their journey to the east following the shortest and safest route equitable. that meant following the coast and not venture out at sea of not being inescapably specified the fleet crossed the Aegean Sea leaving behind of itself the peloponnese peninsula and docked in the harbor on the side says to in leave him the warships of those times were very different from ships merchants this ship is called trireme we know well its appearance thanks to the remains found by marine archaeologists the Roman navons discovered that a order to perform quick maneuvers in full battle and lash out at the enemy the fighting ships owed driven by groups of rowers arranged in several covers the commercial ships in exchange they sailed and did not use oars the combat ships were classified according to the number and disposition of the rowers the thriller was giving me three overlapping rows of rowers and each rhythm was handled by two men it it was about a light boat about 35 meters of ideal length for its speed and maneuverability for fight piracy the mission of the marines In addition to manning the ship along with the oarsmen

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