Do We Still Need Libraries?


With almost unlimited access to a wide array
of knowledge online, do we still need libraries? And do phones, computers, tablets and other
devices make brick and mortar libraries obsolete? While some think that libraries are expensive
and rarely used, others argue that they’re still essential social spaces that provide
vital resources for communities. Today, I’ll be discussing how libraries
got started and if they still play a useful role in society. The modern library emerged in the 19th century,
but libraries have ancient origins. It’s difficult to determine what the first
library was. According to Yale’s Cuneiform Commentaries
Project, Mesopotamia had three types of libraries, temple, palace and private. One of the first libraries in the world was
built in the 7th century BCE. The Library of Ashurbanipal was located in
Nineveh (modern day Iraq) and was built for the personal use of its namesake. Ashurbanipal built his massive collection
largely through the places that he conquered. But the first great library that was open
to the broader public (and not just royalty or religious figures) was the Library of Alexandria. The collection and the building that housed
it were both built after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. The structure was conceived by Alexander’s
former general Ptolemy I Soter and his son. During its heyday it housed approximately
half a million scrolls. Scholars from around the Mediterranean would
come to study the collections on history and mathematics, among other subjects. So it seems that history nerds are a proud
and particularly ancient people that stretch back thousands of years. Who knew? Sadly, the library has been destroyed. The most popularly named culprit is Julius
Caesar, who set fire to the harbor when he was battling Ptolemy XIII. So it seems like this story is a tale of two
Ptolemys. Anyway, the Greco-Roman world was no slouch
in the scroll storage game, housing dozens of libraries in Rome alone during the Imperial
Era. If you’re starting to see a connection between
conquest and bookish behavior, then you’d be absolutely right. But it appears that both building libraries
and filling them with materials were kind of a pugilistic game for centuries. The Byzantine Empire also got in on the library
scheme with the Imperial Library of Constantinople in the 4th century CE, and an early library
named “The House of Wisdom” was built in Baghdad in the 9th century….and destroyed
when the city was taken by Mongol forces in 1258. And in some cases the collections were filled
with things stolen from other conquered places. But libraries were also ways to let your military
rivals know that you cared about empire and empirical evidence. They were big, fancy, eye catching monuments
that stood as testaments to the culture of learned societies. They were often located in city centers that
drew visitors from the surrounding regions, making them important arteries in early cityscapes. Moving forward from the ancient period and
through the early middle ages, libraries started to take a different turn. Early collections like the Quranic manuscripts
at Chinguetti were more centered around storing and spreading religious dogma. But religious libraries weren’t the only
type. The world’s oldest library still in existence,
the library at al-Qarawiyyin University in Morocco, which opened in 859 CE, isn’t a
religious collection but a scholarly one. Then there was a middle ground, like the Vatican
Library, founded in Vatican City in 1475 CE. It kept religious texts but also state records
and texts on the study of math, law, and history. But whether they were forged in fire or faith,
privately owned or open to the public, libraries before the 18th and 19th century didn’t
operate the way today’s do. In his article on the history of modern libraries,
Associate Professor Thomas Augst notes that medieval archives often chained books to the
desks to prevent theft . In fact, most libraries before the emergence of the modern library
didn’t allow books to circulate or be taken home by patrons. Augst notes that this changed (at least in
the American colonies) when Benjamin Franklin and a group of citizens decided to form the
Library Company of Philadelphia. In the early 18th century they began operating
the library like, “…joint stock companies whose members agreed to pool resources for
their mutual benefit.” They worked together to purchase books, which
subscribed members could check out, bring home, read, and return. This was the first successful public lending
library in the colonies. Augst also notes that part of the significance
of the Library Company of Philadelphia is that they ordered and stocked books based
on the expressed interests of their subscribers, rather than curating the collection based
on a particular ideology. This newfangled library for men and women
who could read and could afford to subscribe owed a huge debt to the emergence of mass
printing. Because those medieval archivists weren’t
just grumps who liked to chain stuff to desks. The costs of producing a book and maintaining
it were prohibitively high. And since many of the volumes were challenging
or impossible to replace, early libraries also served as guardians of important books. But as mass printing started to pick up steam
in the 18th century and especially 19th century, it suddenly became possible to have multiple
copies of the same book and to lend those copies out. As Augst also notes, libraries have evolved
in their social functions to accommodate the forms and shapes that information storage
has taken at different points in time. So, texts cost more than your house? Chain ‘em to the desk. Mass printed books a little less challenging
to replace and a new fangled invention called the novel taking the world by storm during
the 18th century? Well, lend them out so folks can enjoy. But the subscription libraries early lending
practices had flaws: they still had barriers to access on the basis of gender, class, ethnicity
and race. And you had to be able to afford the subscription. Still, with the emerging popularity of the
novel in the 18th century and the reduced cost of mass print in the 19th century, the
public library in the 19th century through the 20th century played an increased role
in public life. UK Parliament passed the Museums Act of 1845
and the Public Libraries Act of 1850, which gave towns the ability to build their own
museums. And under these laws several public libraries
were established. So the 19th century saw not only an explosion
of new libraries, but also a shift in the way that people thought about them. Now that lending libraries were on the rise,
people were interested and invested in seeing them made into permanent parts of their cultural
fabric. A particular type of library continued to
pop up in places like Boston and New York in the latter half of the century: stateside
public libraries (ones that weren’t bound by subscription services and/or were funded
by taxes). Plus libraries got a boost from the private
donations of wealthy robber baron philanthropists like Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie used his massive fortune to fund
the creation of 1,689 libraries across the US, as well as hundreds more around the world
in places like Mauritius, Serbia, Australia, Malaysia and South Africa, bringing the actual
total number of Carnegie libraries over 2,500. Between 1883 and 1929, Carnegie’s massive
project became a symbol of truly public libraries. But author Paul Dickson (who wrote a book
on American libraries) notes in an article for NPR that Carnegie’s libraries also changed
the cityscapes of places like Washington DC where a Carnegie library opened in 1903. He claims that this library, which went up,
“before the monumental limestone and marble” of the Washington Mall “was one of the first
really beautiful public buildings.” But libraries have also been a site of contentious
debate and social struggle. And to tell us all about that I’m going
to kick it my friend Evelyn from the Internets over at PBS Say it Loud! Thanks Danielle! So as we rolled into the 19th century and
more lending libraries sprung up around the world, the library as a social space became
coded as a democratizing place of access, storage, and circulation. And the rhetoric surrounding libraries in
the US continued to center on the idealization of libraries as open forums that everyone
could enjoy and use to better understand the world around them. But the history of the library isn’t only
a celebratory one, since as Augst notes: “Limitations of gender, class, ethnicity,
and race belied the rhetoric of republican equality, and social libraries helped to institutionalize
a more democratic print culture that valued books not as a form of elite property but
rather a medium of mass circulation. Instead of enforcing status in educational
and social hierarchies dominated by the learned ministry and gentlemen, books acquired social
life through exchange and use…” In her article on the Carnegie funded library
in DC, NPR’s Susan Stamberg noted that in the early 20th century black people remembered
that it was the only building downtown where they were allowed to use the bathroom. But libraries often fell short of their promise
to distribute their wares to the masses without bias. That’s why in the first half of the 20th
century, throughout the struggles of segregation, Jim Crow, and the Civil Rights Movement, black
communities and black librarians have fought tirelessly to ensure the actual democratic
dissemination of knowledge. Like William Carl Bolivar, a black Philadelphian,
bibliophile and journalist who published a column in the Philadelphia Tribune and served
as an organizer of and contributor to the American Negro Historical Society because
he wanted to change the way black history was being preserved and spread. Or Regina Anderson Andrews, who became the
first African American supervising librarian in the history of the NY Public Library, working
there from 1923-1967. Or Eliza Atkins Gleason, who became the first
African American to earn a PhD in library science in 1940. And Professor Michael Fultz traces the history
of black libraries in the South during the first half of the 20th century in his article. Fultz notes that after the Civil War, black
communities prioritized the building of public schools before the building of libraries. But by the early 20th century black run libraries
began to spread nationwide and continued to develop alongside the fight for desegregation. And now that you know, you can wrap things
up! Thanks Evelyn! So I’ve traced the history of libraries,
but that leaves us with our final burning question: Do we still need them in the internet
age? Well in the 20th century and into the dawn
of the 21st, the relationship between violent conflict and libraries was sadly reinvigorated. And in places where battles raged and human
life was lost, the destruction of the library often got folded into the fallout. Take for example the library destroyed during
the Siege of Sarajevo in 1992, the destruction of libraries in Baghdad in 2003, and the obliteration
of Chinese libraries by Japanese forces during WWII. But despite the arresting symbol of cultural
loss that burning a library represents, some brick and mortar libraries are suffering a
decline in budgets or usage, in the wake of easy access to online alternatives. But the numbers can often feel contradictory. One 2015 editorial review from the NYTimes
asserted that 37 million people a year visit New York’s libraries, a number that is greater
than the total number of visitors at, “…the city’s baseball stadiums, its basketball
and hockey arenas, all its performing-arts spaces, city-owned museums, gardens and zoos.” But a 2016 Pew report also found that in 2015
only 44% of Americans visited a public library in the past year, a number that was down from
53% in 2012. But even though the debates over numbers can
leave us more confused than ever before, here’s one final number one on the pile: the same
Pew survey found that 76% of Americans surveyed felt like libraries served their communities’
educational needs well or pretty well. Those in favor of libraries note that they
can be one of the few places within a community that offer all of their services largely free
of charge. Just like the library funded by Carnegie in
DC would let everyone use the restroom, some library visitors today are from vulnerable
populations that need clean, safe, and accessible spaces. Like kids who use libraries to gain access
to the internet to complete their homework, or take advantage of library programs to fill
the gap between the end of the school day and when their parents come home from work. Or senior citizens who use libraries as social
hubs for various activities. Or out of work adults who use the library
for continuing education and for seeking new employment opportunities. Librarians often fill the gap left by other
social services for children and adults alike by helping folks to navigate the resources
in their communities, scheduling ongoing programing, and helping us all be lifelong learners. I’ve even seen millennials and Gen Z folks
online arguing that libraries should stay open late, like coffee shops and bars, because
they would offer a social alternative to spending money and drinking if you wanted to hang out
with your friends. Which I’m not against and if anyone here
wants to organize a late night library social where we all read in solidarity, then hit
me up. So while the debate over the costs of their
edifices rages on, libraries continue to occupy a very fraught liminal space between relic
and living archive. They house all of our social, cultural and
political history, ideas, and contentions in one place. So even though our eyes and search engines
may make it seem like everything has shifted online, our bodies are still out here knocking
around in real time, craving social interaction and community. And if most of us love them when they’re
around and mourn them deeply when they’re lost, it seems like at least for now the library
as an IRL institution is here to stay (even when budgets get pinched and squeezed). So what do you think? If you guys want to learn more about big bookish
history be sure to watch the other episodes in our YT learning fund series on class in
US Culture, including the History of Student Loan debt. And if y’all want more great and hilarious
content on black history and culture be sure to check out Evelyn and Azie on Say it Loud!

Comments 100

  • This episode marks the first 3 person fan pick episode in the history of Origin of Everything! I’d like to thank Chaeyoung’s Peach and Wowman542 on Youtube and Matt Palka! (who I got to have a vidchat with as part of the perks I gave away for Project for Awesome) who sent in suggestions for this topic. Also special shoutout to Wowman542 for putting me on to Stacks and Facts, an awesome Youtube channel about library science!

    I'll be hanging out answering questions in the comments for the next hour, so send me your thoughts!
    -Danielle

  • Last night I watched PBS's brilliant LIGHT FALLS with physicist Brian Greene. On the other end of the spectrum, there's this sort of dumb PBS lowest common denominator stuff. Anyone who would argue for closing libraries should be shot.

  • Woah, who knew libraries had such a long, intricate, and interesting history! Can't wait to see what you teach us about next!!

  • Yes we will always need libraries? 📑📙📓📕📖📘📔📚
    You can't touch a book on the internet.

  • Yes we need the library! Because people need resources. And it's free to the public.
    I go to Mary Vinson Memorial Library. I go about every two weeks. Checkout 📚 mostly fiction and sometimes nonfiction.

  • Can we please do a movie about Regina Anderson Andrews? New York had its problems and so I’m sure she had her challenges…. We need to get to know this woman!

  • I think that Pew Survey question was also a bit poorly worded, if that's how it was reported. For example, I have not set foot in my public library for two years so I would say I have not visited one in the past year; however, I have rented e-books and audio books on a phone app through my library during this time, so I am still using its services. That wording could mean that the percentage reported is lower than reality would reflect, which could be detrimental depending on how these survey results are used. :/

  • You are on point with everything in regards to this topic, especially about libraries experiencing slashed budgets. I work at a public library, in which the librarians are not told how much they have left in their budget until the end of the fiscal year. As a result, they order a lot more materials than what they usually do to maintain that budget for the next year. If they didn't do this, the Board of Trustees would decrease our budget, assuming that if we don't spend a lot, then we don't need a whole lot.

  • Libraries are indispensable to a functioning democratic state, providing in the first line an access to information for everyone.

  • I love libraries. I use them for audiobooks, ebooks, and physical books. I have money for books, but why buy them, when my tax money already paid for them. Also, why hoard them where no one else can use them. In my mind, the library is the one place in life that is absolutely fair. I even collect library cards as a hobby. Libraries for ever!

  • Meanwhile there's no public library even bookstore in my town 😞

  • Say it with me… Li_braie_ries. Not li_berries.

  • We only need them for the free WiFi lol

  • I think libraries will always be relevant as long as they change with the times. For example, most have a lot of ebooks you download online.

  • Libraries are needed far more than expense accounts for politicians. Help fund public libraries by defunding political expense accounts. I have to buy my own lunch, and pay for my travel. They should too. I want my taxes going to well funded, staffed, and stocked libraries. 24 hr libraries would be great!!!!

  • Yes we do still need libraries! Now more than ever! We need these (free to all) public institutions with no hidden agenda to learn, browse, grow, discover and enjoy without artificial intelligence , algorithms, Influencer's or predictive behavior engineered advertising. As stated in this video, no one class or group of people should dictate to any other group what access to knowledge they may or may not have, pursue, or possess. Some of the best days of my life were spent in libraries drifting freely through the ages from author to genre to topic. What blissful (self) discovery! It's vitally important as a free society that our culture supports access to an open unbiased social learning environment to all of its citizens.

  • We really do need libraries! In fact, when I was a toddler back in the early 90s, I was diagnosed with a speech problem. The one thing that helped me in speaking was not just speech therapy, but also going to the library to read books! And surprisingly enough, I was really good at reading even with the developmental delay! And ever since then, I got a college degree in Library Science! Take libraries away and, children like myself in the early days, will not get the same help I got!

  • We don’t need books so no need for libraries. We don’t need schools, therefore no need for teachers, custodian staff. We don’t need order.takers in fast food restaurants because they can have very low paid Indian take orders. Then it can be transferred locally. This is very efficient. Newscasters can work from low-paying countries. It’s savings, savings and more savings. We can remove 80% of workers. Period.

  • Of course we need them, first not everything is online. Second digital info is more sensitive for wrong info and if there happens something to the electricity or the server where its standing on its lost.

  • Since they are not quiet anymore, NO.

  • Information will always be valuable

  • It will get to the point that libraries will be like my 1958 Impala, not practical like my Ford focus but fascinating for historical reference. It's quicker finding facts on line if you avoid obvious fake facts….

  • Digital libraries can be surreptitiously altered and censored with a few strokes on a laptop.

  • I am taking an online course, so I do read electronic books, but I still get real, paper books from our local library all of the time, easier and cheaper than going to a book store and buying one, and I like reading a book that doesn't need a battery

  • Yes yes yes yes books forever!!!

  • YES!!!!

  • That's a FUCKED UP question. YES! I do not want our knowledge dependent on an internet server!

  • We still need libraries. The average citizen thinks of a suburban branch library, which is okay; but they don't see the collections of books and materials in central public libraries — not to mention university libraries — that contain information which cannot be accessed through the Internet. People who depend on these range from students to activists to journalists and community leaders, not just senior citizens checking their stocks in The Wall Street Journal.

  • If no libraries existed on empire blast would destroy all information

  • Absolutely! Period!

  • Great video. I think libraries will continue to evolve, like everything else. They will become even more multimedia.

  • I love libraries. Libraries are needed more than ever, but weirdly, most folks don't seem to know it.
    I do not like the new cataloging that my greater municipal area has recently begun, by subject like a book store.

    Thanks. I hate it! dewey decimal works.

  • YES WE STILL NEED LIBRARIES!

  • I ask my myself this question every time I choose among my hundreds of digital books on my tablet. The benefits are many, but take away my charging ability and I'm bookless and sad. So yeah, we need libraries.

  • Really love your shows!!! Very educational

  • We still need libraries because I said so!

  • do we still need cages for kids liqour stores strip joints skate parks bars beauty salons cop overtime pay teachers schools

  • LIBRARIES HOUSE THE HOMELESS SO THEY DON'T INTERFERE WITH YOUR BUSINESSES!

  • Many people here in the US vote at Libraries. If they get rid of a local library I feel that is attack on the local vote. Besides, books are important. And it's the only place to get a book for free to read. If you are poor and don't have access to the internet or have the cash to buy a book this is the place for you. BUt, people with money can use it too, because it's for everyone. Libraries store the heritage or humankind. They are essential for an informed electorate.

  • YES!! Yes we do. Especially as long as they have closed stacks.

  • Wikipedia is open source, and in my life history has been changed in this source. So we still need the original texts so that we do not forget our history.

  • As a military brat and then a military wife, I found the local library a welcoming, familiar place. While it is true that the Internet provides some rare/out-of-print, etc. books, the local library offers immediate access to a quiet place to think, study, relax and even read for pleasure. Not only do I believe we "still need libraries", I see the growth of the "Little Free Library" movement as a promotion of literacy, community sharing, and neighborly caring for one another. It does not negate the importance of the large local library, but can enhance it. Book mobiles are wonderful, and should have more financial support. Many work long hours and find it difficult to get to a library after they are off (hence: the idea mentioned above as a social-gathering library). People share their favorite books in Little Free Libraries — and some of those books are not particularly welcomed in many public libraries. Churches have often had little libraries, as do private schools. These also are supportive to the education and edification of its people. These too may have materials not found in local public libraries. The "politically correct" movement affects Friends of the Library groups, who have cleansed many public libraries across the U.S. of books for over 30 years now. Books that extol the "traditional family" (Dad who works and is married to Mom, who either works/volunteers only part time so she can be there for the children when they get home from school, and provide a good meal for the whole family, etc.), conservative Christian books, etc. are generally not welcomed in most public libraries. Another good reason for conservative people to be involved in the provision of good books into the local public library, church library, school library and/or Little Free Library.

  • Yes, yes, yes!

  • Yes.
    I repeat yes.
    That is all.

  • Yes we do.

  • Short answer: Yes

  • Go to flushing queens public library. It's wall to wall people all day long!

  • Do we still need libraries?

    A question for the antiquated idea we have of libraries than what libraries really are today.

  • Yes we still need them. The PDF book is good but it depends on communication and computer infrastructure. A book is physical and can last for many many years as is.

  • I am a true lover of public libraries. Today I still use the research skills I learned and developed in libraries, when I search the web. Imo, the prevalence of fake news is in part due to the number of people who can't do research to find out if their information comes from a valid verifiable source. Public libraries are the poor man's university.

  • YES WE NEED LIBRARIES?

  • I didn't even watch I came straight here 2 say YES!

  • tell it like it is, Christians burned the library at Alexandria (conquest may have built libraries but religions destroyed them)

  • What are other channels that are similar to this one that ya'll love?

  • And God forbid the power goes out. We STILL NEED libraries

  • Can we do an introductory video on the varieties of masculine presentation (and by that I mean independent of bio-sex)? We have what, the hyper-masculine way of presentation. We associate this (rightfully or wrongfully) with the working classes for whatever reason. We do not associate it with the middle or upper-middle classes. Why?
    We also associate a macho way of presenting oneself (at least in the U.S.) with what we might think of as less privileged minorities (right or wrong). Latinos (or latinx), African Americans, and to a lesser extent Native Americans, or Hmong/Cambodian Americans.

    Next, we have middle class machoism. It is more muted than its working class counter-part. It might die off in adulthood for some. It starts in childhood, and extends to puberty (the time boys wish to prove their manhood). This is where psycho-social development meets (intersects with) class awareness and class conflict/competition (which might not be realized until adulthood) also emerge as themes passed down in educational institutions, and for some (but not others) they are internalized as part of one's being.

  • Are you insane. Of course we do. Upon an EMP all data will be lost. The writain word exsits 7000 yrs later.

  • It is harder to change information when it is printed and widely spend. If it is only online or in one location it is easier to 'spin' for the 'good of the people'.

  • Today they are places for homeless to poop

  • All general histories elaborated by Americans stop being general once they start talking about the US. Yes, Ben Franklin and the other guys invented everything, sure.

  • I don't want to live in a world without well stocked public libraries. They have only gotten better, more useful and more necessary since the tech revolution/internet age.

  • we could have free and democratic access to information and free public spaces already, but we would need to reorganise society horizontally. until that time, love me a public library!!

  • Here we go … FAHRENHEIT 451!!

  • Yes we do but done differently.
    I tried to go get a library card last year and they needed like a dozen forms of fucking documents and shit. I just walked out.

    Just take my driver's license, copy it, get my current address info and give me a damn card you asshats.

  • YES! Now drop the 🎤!

  • 24/7 libraries would be awesome.

  • INTELLIGENT HUMANS ALWAYS HAD LIBRARIES OR A WAY OF RECORDING HISTORY.THE POWERS ALWAYS DESTROY AND BURN STUPIDLY. IF WE WERE NOT SO DESTRUCTIVE WE WOULD BE FAR MORE ADVANCE AS THOSE BEFORE THE FLOOD.THE NET AND WEB CAN CRASH ANYTIME. GIVE ME MY BOOKS. TODAY THE WEB AND NET GIVE ME SOME ACCURATE KNOWLEDGE.WE NEED TO READ AND HAVE ACCESS WHEREVER WE GO. I READ WHAT I WANT TO. WETHER PUBLISHED OR NOT.YOU NEED ALTERNATIVES ALWAYS WITHOUT IT WHERE IS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION. ACCESS INFORMATION FROM ALL SOURCES .

    KNOWLEDGE

  • Great video but the title is misleading :/

  • Of course we do! Many thanks Danielle and your friend for saying it loud and right!!

  • Maybe it's because I'm a librarian but YES!

  • I'm sorry to say you are wrong.The first libraries were built in Africa our ancient black ancestors.everthing started in africa.There were Libraries in ancient eygpt and Timbuktu.

  • I think we need libraries becauae they are peaceful to study in and they have less distractions.

  • Hold the heck up, was that AN IMPERIAL AFFLICTION?

  • Yes. Because electronic devices hurt my eyes.

  • We go to our public library at least once per week. They have programs and storytime for my son, I get cookbooks and other books, and they have community gardens onsite that people without yards can rent out and plant their own vegetables and things. So yes, let’s keep the libraries!

  • we do need libraries ..when i was 8 years old i had this desperate desire to learn ..i thank everyday for libraries..

  • We do indeed. I say this as a guy with a personal book collection of over a thousand plus two Kindles. En passant, large tracts of terra firma are still pretty much offline, so no other way. Moreover, the virtual never is a full replacement for the tangible. Anyone here who likes the feel and smell of old books?

  • interesting info. I didn't know that Malaysia have Carnegie library. But from my search, its already demolished. 🙁 https://www.upi.com/Archives/1982/03/18/Rare-Carnegie-Library-in-Malaysia-to-be-demolished/9717385275600/

  • Yes. Hands on materials, access for those who have no other options.  It is a meeting place for groups and individual personal social interaction and many other reasons.

  • Yes because not everyone can afford computers or Wi-Fi

  • edifice

    /ˈɛdɪfɪs/

    Learn to pronounce

    nounFORMAL

    noun: edifice; plural noun: edifices

    1.

    a large, imposing building.

    synonyms: building, structure, construction, erection, pile, complex, assembly; property, development, premises, establishment, place

    2.

    a complex system of beliefs.

    "the concepts on which the edifice of capitalism was built"

    Origin

    late Middle English: via Old French from Latin aedificium, from aedis ‘dwelling’ + facere ‘make’.

    Translate edifice to

    noun

    1. 大厦

    2. 建筑

  • This was such an interesting video, thank you for making it!

    I love libraries for a pretty "selfish" reason, they save me a TON of money. Instead of buying books (which I love to do but, ya know, bills.) I can borrow and read whatever I want for free, it's very liberating 😅😅

  • So, just today, I was playing a boardgame called Tammany Hall, and I used a few antiquated anti-Italian slurs (for comic effect). I got laughs, but was chided for using those terms. And I said "Anti-Italianism is the deadest prejudice we have". Unless you consider most gangster films anti-Italian or the Mario series, or the fact that we haven't had an Italian POTUS to be anti-Italianism, it's dead. My friend said "Well that's the thing about prejudice, it could come back". I still think he's "crazy", and it is not coming back any time soon. Am I wrong? Also, when did anti-Italian prejudice die, and what was its origin in the U.S.?

  • I still use libraries. I'd rather read a book first before purchasing it.

  • the 3 main reasons why we still need (for my school) is

    1. for my to study
    2. doing my homework
    3. staying there for the rest of the lunch period because i have no friends 👹

  • Could you imagine if people were just putting forward the idea of a public library today? I can hear the fox news commentary:
    "The left wants to give out books, wifi access, computers and printing to any shmuck who shows up, and they want YOU to pay for it!"

  • The fact is, libraries are one of humanities greatest inventions and will stand the test of time plus there's something special about holding a physical book with its smell and feel while a e-book just doesn't have that.

  • Such..a wonderful piece of ..information..Thank.u

  • I saw the title and I was just like “uhm excuse me?”

  • Love your look.

  • I was enjoying this until u made it a race issue. U r blockd

  • Libraries are not just about info. It’s the only place you can go in the US without the expectation of spending money. It has programs, clubs, workshops, classes, conferences, and pretty much every resource you need.

  • Yes, it's an information hub for a community.

  • Stupid people think we dont need libraries. Or are non readers. And don't understand Why reader's shouldn't have to buy every book they read. Its wasteful once a book is read its collecting dust. unless its the best book in the world and u want to reread like lord of the rings books that u keep reading to see new things they missed. Digital libraries are disappearing because publishers make no benefit to lend books taking there books back. Because the reserves digital books you own for a limited time. Digital books are limited in ownership apparently

  • Definitely!,
    So that I can rather Roguishly ask a young Library Assistant if they can Locate a Book called "Fly Fishing" by J R Hartley!.

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