Chinese History in 20 Minutes – A Summary History of China


中国人常说他们国家有五千多年的历史。 对于确切的历史长度,人们可能持不同意见, 但是考古发现最早的王朝是商朝。 出土的青铜器、玉器和陶器, 最早可以追溯到公元前1600年,距今约有3600多年的历史。 考古学家还发现了刻有象形文字的甲骨, 甲骨文被认为是中国最早的文字。 商朝灭亡后,出现了周朝。 周朝建立了分封制网络构成的王权统治, 由诸侯王统治属地的王国。 周朝初期比较太平, 但是在476BC之后,出现了七个较强的诸侯国, 他们之间战争频繁。 这期间还出现了很多中国古代重要的思想家, 包括孔子和孟子。 经过数百年的战争,秦国和楚国脱颖而出, 最终秦国大败楚国,建立了中国第一个封建王朝,秦朝。 秦朝由中国第一位皇帝,秦始皇统治。 他加强了中央集权的力量,建立了立法律系统, 并在全国统一了度量衡,还有中国的文字。 它们和如今我们所知道的汉字不太一样,但是有着联系。 秦始皇对民众课以重税并开展了很多工程建设,包括修筑长城。 他还下令焚毁大量他所不满的书籍。 秦朝的历史很短暂,秦始皇于公元前210年去世。 他被埋葬在位于西安的一座大型陵墓中。 众所周知,秦始皇有6000个兵马俑, 还有大量宝贝作为陪葬,陪他度过后世。 秦末,刘邦起义反抗秦朝统治,并建立了汉朝。 汉朝建立了基于业绩军功晋升的官僚体制。 在此期间,国家也第一次采用了儒家思想。 孔子经典著作得到了修订,并用于指导国家统治。 汉朝中期出现了王莽篡位的短暂混乱。 东汉保留了大量史料,我们可以了解关于乐府, 祭祀,朝廷仪式,以及新农业技术的信息。 汉朝和罗马帝国基本上处于同一时期。 书经和新颖的文学形式都涌现于汉代, 此外还有纸张的发明,新农具和手推车的发展, 新的冶炼金属的方法以及新草药的问世。 汉朝的政治文化体制非常成功,成为后世效仿的榜样。 汉朝瓦解以后,中国的历史战争不断,而且十分复杂。 国家的统治和边界也发生了很多变化。 北方政权转移到丞相曹操的手上,他的儿子于公元220年继位。 魏国与蜀国和吴国展开了一场权力大战。 这三个国家之间的战争现在在中国历史上充满着传奇色彩。 魏国最终打败了其他的国家,但是自己也很快灭亡了。 在公元256年,西晋成立。 经过短暂的和平时期,并不多久,匈奴入侵。 中国北方被不同的少数民族占领, 也就是大家所熟知的“十六国”。 北魏是其中占领最大面积和延续最长时间的王国。 在公元317年,东晋由晋朝皇室建立, 但是在很大程度上是由土地占有者的支配的。 长江以南一带在东晋也非常混乱。 那个时期常被叫作六朝,一直延续到公元589年。 在这期间,许多宗教盛行起来, 包括道教,它被认为是一种神仙信仰体系。 在这期间,佛教也在中国广为流传。 它起源于印度,但是被中国北方的很多蛮族王国所采用。 经过四百多年的战乱,中国于公元581年,在隋朝的统治下又一次统一。 他们建立了一系列的国家机构,并被以后的朝代所采纳。 隋朝还计划修建一条贯穿全国的大运河。 然而,隋末农民起义不断。 隋朝灭亡不久,唐高祖李渊建立了唐朝。 为了巩固唐朝的统治, 隋朝的许多残余势力和起义军需要被消灭。 唐朝的统治经历了三个世纪, 被视为中国历史上的黄金时代。 唐朝有着强大的官僚体系机构,并实行科举制度。 长安,也就是如今的西安,被立为首都。 通过和蛮族部落大量的战争,唐朝的国土不断壮大。 丝绸之路得到了拓展。 农村土地全部由国家管理, 但是可以按照“均田制度”租给人民。 唐朝是绘画,诗歌,陶器,和佛教黄金发展的时期, 国家也融入了许多异国文化元素。 在唐朝,一位杰出的女性统治者篡夺了政权, 她就是女皇武则天。 在唐朝的中期,出现了安禄山起义, 它严重地动摇了国家的中央集权。 在唐朝边境,出现了其他的蛮族部落, 也就是西夏,契丹,还有女贞,它们并建立了自己地朝代。 960年出现了又一次政变,宋太祖建立北宋,定都开封。 他成功的为国家引入了许多强大的将领,并封予他们军事要职。 国家又一次实现了大一统, 建立了强大的政府公务系统, 并且国家重新加强了对儒家思想地重视。 孔子的经典著作得到了学者朱熹的重新解读, 从而诞生了宋明理学。 最终,女贞族攻打宋,包围其首都,北宋灭亡。 这次入侵并没有影响中国南方,南宋成立,定都杭州。 这一时期出现了许多士大夫,诗歌和绘画佳作涌现。 南宋经济繁荣,海外贸易也得到扩展。 他们建立了中国第一支海军,并且提升了火器力量。 宋成功地牵制了女贞族的势力, 但是他们无法抵御蒙古族的侵略。 蒙古族打败了金朝并于1271年建立了元朝。 忽必烈,又称“大可汗”,他也被中国人当作皇帝。 史料记载他的祖父成吉思汗是元朝的创始人。 忽必烈定都大都,也就是如今的北京。 他提高了农业技术,把大运河由北向南扩展, 使贸易沿丝绸之路得到延伸,还促进了纸钱的使用, 并吸引了大量的传教士和包括马可波罗在内的旅行家, 从而加强了与西方的联系,并且在行省制的基础上巩固了国家的统治 。 朝廷也融合了蒙古和中国文化, 并且佛教,道教,和西方宗教得以兴盛。 宫廷中的对抗,以及与中国汉文化的冲突也弱了国家的势力。 在一系列的自然灾害和起义运动过后, 一个由汉族建立的王朝于1368年应运而生,这就是明朝。 明朝经历了很长一段时间的国家的稳定统治。 建立明朝的皇帝也就是大家所知道的洪武皇帝(朱元璋)。 明朝接受来自东南亚以及更远国家的朝奉。 明朝最有名的皇帝之一是永乐皇帝。 他迁都北京,并把南京作为陪都, 还下令在北京修建皇室宫殿紫禁城, 并在北京郊区修建了皇家陵墓。 他任命最亲信的宦官郑和作为舰队司令, 进行航海远航并完成外交使命,其行迹远达中东和非洲。 明朝还创立了特殊的交易机构负责国际贸易。 对外经济活动的迅速发展使得大量白银涌入中国。 在此期间,长城得到了扩建, 许多中国伟大的古典的小说也创作出来。 明末出现了农作物歉收,水灾,和大规模的流行病。 农民起义领袖李自成从中国东北的满洲发起入侵,最终占领了北京。 1644年清朝统治中国。 中国又开始由异族所统治,也就是满族,他们是女贞族的后裔。 之后,康熙皇帝效法前朝的官僚体系, 并沿用了科举考试,和继承了儒家思想。 他使国土面积得到壮大,也增强了国家的实力与自信。 之后清朝被两个实力强大的君主所统治, 他们就是雍正和乾隆皇帝。 他们继续采取了一系列的军事行动拓展了国家的疆域。 同时,在18世纪,欧洲列强通过国际贸易建立了强大的航海帝国, 尤其是荷兰和英国。 人们知道乾隆皇帝曾告诉一个英国的贸易使节, 他的大清帝国不需要欧洲的商品。 英国从中国进口丝绸,茶,还有陶器, 并向中国出口在鸦片,这些鸦片大部分来自印度。 清朝在1838年禁止鸦片,大臣林则徐将大量鸦片倾入大海。 所以英国发起了鸦片战争,由于中国的军队实力太弱无法抵抗。 中国被迫打开了五个港口来进行国际贸易,并把香港割让给英国。 在1851年洪秀全领导起义反抗清朝统治, 他被认为是中国当代的耶稣基督,最后被清政府镇压了下去。 1858年爆发了第二次鸦片战争。 英法联军入侵了北京,洗劫了颐和园。 清朝试图通过洋务运动进行改革。 在1897和1898年,西方国家占领了中国更多领土, 英国也扩大了在香港的势力范围。 义和团发起起义反抗西方列强瓜分中国领土和兴起的基督教势力。 他们和西方的八国联军展开了斗争, 砸毁了欧洲人的财产,还包围了北京的外国公使馆。 西方列强纷纷向中国派兵,慈禧太后和皇帝落荒而逃。 这一系列的事件使中国陷入危机。 这时出现了一系列的改革尝试, 革命派孙中山企图找到一个振兴中华的道路, 武昌起义和中国国民革命之后, 孙中山建立了中华民国临时政府, 随后袁世凯就任大总统, 但由于缺乏政府对国家的有力管理, 在宪法下建立国会的构想失败了, 中国陷入了军阀割据的局面。 在军阀混战中, 国民党竭力维护其统治。 共产党于1920年成立了。 1925年蒋介石成为国民党的领袖,名义上统治全国。 1931年,日本占领了中国东北。 1936年,国民党和共产党达成一致联合抗日。 1937年日本侵华,对中国展开了野蛮的侵略, 犯下了大规模杀戮人民和奸淫妇女等战争罪行。 所以你可能对著名的南京大屠杀有所耳闻。 在1940和1941年,国共合作开始破裂, 双方展开全方位的内战,夺取对国家的统治。 第二次世界大战于1945年结束, 共产党夺取了政权,并在1949年10月1日建立了中华人民共和国。 国民党率领他们的军队撤退至宝岛台湾。 从1949年起,共产党对中国开始了一党专政的统治。 毛泽东试图将中国建设成一个社会主义国家, 并使用马列主义作为指导思想。 他实施了土地改革,并在大跃进期间, 采取了农村集体化,并号召进行工业化运动。 不幸的是在工业化的过程中,大批的农业劳动力被转移, 造成了严重的粮食短缺和饥荒。 据历史学家估计,这些政策至少造成了4000万人民的死亡。 1966到1976的文化大革命期间, 毛泽东的政权清洗了大批异见分子, 并且拥护他的红卫兵在全国制造了大规模的动乱和抢劫。 这些暴乱完全打破了国家和人们的正常生活。 虽然历史上对毛泽东政策存在着严重的批评, 但是也有人说他的统治缩小了贫富差距,使人民更加平等。 毛主席也使中国转向工业国,发展了基础设施建设。 毛泽东去世之后,国家出现了短暂的权力之争。 邓小平领导中国进行了改革开放, 开展了对外经济贸易,促进了中国经济的腾飞。 他之后的领导人有江泽民,胡锦涛,还有习近平。 习近平也就是现在的国家领导人。 中国人认为历史是一个周而复始的过程, 有着历朝历代的起起落落。 正如《三国演义》开场白所云: “天下大势,分久必合, 合久必分。” 共产主义的人民共和国成立以来, 一直强调历史一脉相承的连续性, 即历史是建立在过去的基础上的, 与过去存在联系,而不是一段新的历史的开始。 这是否意味着中国的历史不再是一个循环的过程。 当然了,正史是胜利者书写的。 我只能在这个基本的介绍里面涵盖这些内容, 所以希望能给你们一个不错的概观。 不多评论了,我把诠释的空间留给你们吧!

Comments 100

  • Oh… Standard English + beautiful voice~ You are gonna bend me, dude.

  • Chinese history is interesting.

    Greetings from an Albanian.

  • Thank you for this presentation.

  • the map is wrong!always show it smaller!

  • Very well explained but China history goes way deeper than this.
    The warring kingdom (the 7countries at war) could be detailed to write books. And three kingdom has two versions of literature.
    A historical version and a literary novel known as 三國演義 which is one of the four Chinese classics.
    And also wei did not conquered all three. It was jin which conquered wu.

  • Hello, I was wondering if you could help me with my understanding of Chinese history. I did Chinese history like 10 years ago and I found that it had a very cyclical nature to it: A bad dynasty makes enough of the peasants angry that they revolt with the aid of some barbarian power and then a new dynasty is established. Then, after some generations the new dynasty becomes corrupt, peasants become angry and revolt with the aid of some barbarian horde. A new dynasty is established, and so on and so forth . Would you say this is accurate? I understand that I have left out details and over simplified it, but would you say that is a good overview to give someone who just wants an elevator version of Chinese history?

  • Too bad Mao killed all the intelligent chinese. Now, only stvpid chinese exist because of Mao's selective breeding

  • very well researched, good job! Surprisingly pronunciation of names were also correct, this is quite rare. You were also able to give some background info of foreign origin rulers, which is good.

  • REAL CHINESE GOVT DIED IN 1644 , AFT 1645-1911 CHINA WAS UNDER CONTROL BY MANCHURIAN (WHICH CLOSE TO MODERN DAY KOREAN ), AFT 1949 CHICOM TAKE CONTROL OVER WHOLE CHINA, THEY ARE ORIGINAL FROM USSR. FEW REAL CHINESE FROM MING DYNASTY and REPUBLIC ERA 1911-1949 NOW LIVE IN TAIWAN

  • Very informative. Thank you for uploading this!

  • Where did the first people to enter China come from?

  • Very cool blog on Chinese history I discovered. Check it out! https://sinoblogcom.wordpress.com/

  • Why she always uses the smallest territory of each dynasty…

  • would be nice a story -assassins creed style.

  • only the time and the names are right ,but most of the other information has been lost or mislead, that make the video totally bullshit

  • Thank you for this clear concise overview of Chinese history.

  • Well done. There seems little doubt that China has had to suffer greater horrors than those reigned down upon them by the Communists.

  • Thanks for the great video. So much information for a newbie who decided to learn about Chinese history. It's overwhelming, but you gotta start somewhere.

  • Congrats for this very good video.

  • Two things in Chinese blood, rebellion and unity. 造反和统一。

  • Excellent video, thank you kindly. What an amazing country with such vast potential.

  • 清代非华夏

  • The first dynasty is Xia(夏)

  • 第一次知道 隋原来这么小

  • Really nice presentation. I am wondering whether you are an English native speaker that learned Chinese well or a Chinese that speak English so well.

  • Good review. The flag of ROC is wrong. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China

  • 汉语说的很标准

  • You missed the Xia Dynasty

  • I enjoyed this video very much. Thank you for sharing.

  • fukin english

  • Great lecture! Learned lots!
    Does China have any equivalent to "dark ages" (the Greek dark age, the Medieval dark age) or enlightenments (the Greek enlightenment, the Scottish enlightenment)?
    What is a reliable minimum death toll for the great famine forward? I would like Chinese sources, preferably Mainland since anything else may be, or be called, "propaganda".

  • Yuan and Qing are not really Chinese so you can't really classify them as Chinese Dynasties. They are foreign invaders and Chinese are under occupation rules during those years.

  • Not a single word mentioned about the first Empress Dowager, Mi Ba Zi who led the Qin for several decades? Isn't she the one who started to conquer "the world" (天下) because her husband Ying Si, Hui Wen Wang wished to?
    Isn't the bureaucratic system of promotion by merit executed by Empress Dowager Xuan (芈八子) 4 generations before Qin Shi Huang?
    There were new findings that the tomb may be her's, but the most famous one will still be Qin Shi Huang though…

    Beside that, your mandarin is pretty good, i cringe watching every other similar videos by lao wais.

    Please correct me if there is a mistake

  • It's interesting to note that China's history fails to reveal any expansionist sentiments. For brief periods China has been partially occupied by foreign, albeit regional, powers but China itself rarely seeks to invade or subjugate other nations/peoples. One wonders if this attitude persists today.

  • Fantastic! I don't care what anyone else says, I think it was great. Thank you for your effort. I was impressed. Good stuff!

  • EXCELLENT VIDEO

  • Awww why Europeans bully China, look at China now WE"RE ALL FUCKED

  • The info of this video must be outdated. There is now evidence of the legendary Xia dynasty which preceded the Shang.

  • I'm having trouble discerning what you are, but either way you sound good as a wise young man or a wise grown woman =)

  • Well done, I like the way you move from English to Chinese, your pronunciation is very accurate, except maybe "Sui and Xi" but on the whole very good.

  • Excellent. I just finished updates on my book "Can China Say No?"

  • 纠正:中国第一个朝代是夏朝(虽无文字证明)。唐朝安史之乱只是由盛转衰,黄巢起义才是重创唐朝统治。唐朝之后还有五代十国(视频中忽略了的时代)。宋朝并未实现大一统,因为周边还有西夏和辽。宋朝的建立者叫赵匡胤(庙号太祖)。成吉思汗(孛儿只斤·铁木真)只是建立蒙古,建立元的是孛儿只斤·忽必烈(庙号世祖)。李自成是从北京西南地区向上攻打北京的。从满洲入侵的是满族(后金)。袁世凯的北洋政府国旗是五色旗,不是青天白日旗(那时国民党的党旗),中华民国的国旗也是青天白日满地红的旗。中国共产党是1921å¹´7月1日成立的。中国内是没有提到过关于批判毛泽东的政策的,过多的是提到文化大革命对人民的伤害。最后,历朝历代的朝代版图有一些偏差

  • No one but a fool would argue anything possitive came about from Mao. That's just ridiculous and insulting.

  • Your Mandarin pronunciation is brilliant!

  • Go China

  • What? What are you saying.
    Buddhism is from Nepal not india.😠😠😠

  • THE BEST DOCUMENTARY I HAVE EVER SEEN ON THE ENTIRE CHINESE HISTORY.

  • Hey I want 2 more minutes!   It reads 20 minutes but the video is only about 18 minutes long.  You owe me two more minutes!!!!

  • thanks for this it helped me with my presentation

  • Uncle Deng is actually a Ghost Valley Disciple, shaping current China.

  • Bull shit, the Portuguese was in Macau in the 16 century, first European colony in China and the last Colony to return to China. You don’t know any thing about Chinese history!!!

  • The narrator pronounces all the Chinese involved correctly, he must be a fluent mandarin speaker. And most of the information is accurate.

  • Great work, thank you.

  • Very helpful and informative. Thx!

  • I came here as I was inspired by the drama I recently watch, I was moved and curious how strong chinese people in the past.. how they conquer territorial war.. I realized its really great to learn the chinese history..Though we do have this history subject in PH elementary level, I want to learn more about it. 😄

  • not to interrupt you beautiful history lesson but your should check your northern border line remember why you build your so called "great wall of china"

  • What a weird little planet we live in.

    I wonder when the things we DON'T know about will come to light.

    Unknown civilizations , technologies, etc. Not to mention possible implications from religion, spirituality, and the concept of other sentient beings in this corporeal reality (other planets containing life)

  • 中国1921成立,国共1937合作,你居然说1940合作破裂。。。日本不打了?饿死4000万人?你也真敢说。

  • 1 Chin
    2 China
    3 Chinese
    ? Oder name?

  • The mysterious cycle of China’s history:

    Step 1: A great leader comes out of a civil war and unifies the whole China.
    Step 2: The great leader kills his subordinates who contributed to his unification of China, because they are potential enemies of the great leader.
    Step 3: China enjoys more or less 70 to 100 years of peace under a new dynasty.
    Step 4: People began to feel discontent as the gap between the haves and have-nots widens.
    Step 5: Small riots pop up everywhere over China, as desperate people become outlaws. (← We are here now)

    Step 6: A massive rebellion erupts to destroy the dynasty. China dissolves into a long period of civil war.
    Step 7: The cycle goes back to Step 1.

  • Chinese thinks northern people as a barbarian people, but Chinese people still eating human meat in China now in 21st centry.

  • 中国的夏朝呢?

  • And the Chinese communist party have destroyed their own culture good job you stupid fuck’s!

  • I heard that a lot of Chinese history is considered distorted and re-written by the communist party for political purposes and to make it fit in their own narrative. I wonder if it's true and if it is then how much of it was re-written.
    Chinese themselves are not the most trustworthy people. Their historical content are highly romanticized. Even now, their government consistently lies about their GDP, their companies constantly tries to scam others and they have a reputation for stealing other peoples technology and making knockoffs.

  • THANKS FOR SHARING YOUR HISTORY OF CHINA BECAUSE IT HAS HELPED ME TO UNDERSTAND MANY UNANSWERED QUESTIONS.

  • Good introducing. Thanks

  • lol six dynasty and eastern jin, wrong it should be the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Final Unification of the North called Former Qin

  • One thing I want to mention: I am not an expert in chinese history by anyones standarts, However I do study european history and I know something about the methodes. Now I cannot read any of the original sources, not fluent in mandarin I guess, but it is my understanding that the label "barbarian" was put on the invaders by the various chinese dynasties. If I am correct about that, you should think about weather or not you want to keep up that label yourself. At least in european history this label (like in the case of Julius Ceasars Bellum Gallicum) was used as a means to intentionally dehumanise his enemy. I would guess that similar moitves are at least possible in case of the chinese dynasties.

    Other than that very informative video, I am also impressed with your pronounciations! As someone who has dabbled in but never quite gotten manderin I must say: you sound amazing!

  • China rises now. we British though had a very nice pretty blue woad. we still do. see? Peter l. Dollins,

  • the cycle of infighting is so repetitive…warring states, 3 kingdoms, chinese civil war

  • a very nice explanation, thank you! in a shourt time give whole information about china!

  • so brexit?

  • 中国的文化很漂亮, 非常感谢。

  • I would wager a guess that the actual history of China is close to 4,261 (The years of Babel is 2242 plus the current year of 2019 = 4261).

    It is NOT coincidence that the first society of China was Shang/Soeng…his is derivative of the Chinese characters for God, 上帝.

  • China is a beautiful country, never invasive on anyone based on religion and to have such few fights, looks like chinas making a move and ready for something big. whether it be saving the world (I believe this is true) or simply taking over I will be respectful and have my heart in god.

  • Love your voice, I wish you’d do audio books 😃

  • "some would argue that Mao made China more equal" woohoo! everyone is starving together!! equality is GREEAAAAT!!!!

  • lol Dluent in Mandarin.com i guess u never mention how Chiang the KMT leader made china economy worse, then the ppl in china rebels him and support to communist

  • blablabla boring

  • yara youu

  • You've summerized the Chinese history incredibly good; thank you & I appreciate your work.

  • My family is from Jamaica. But I am Chinese in my heart!

  • I say it's around 4000 years . Because, my ancestors came from China too. 5000 years is when people are start to create states in China but not necessary Chinese country.

  • Ancient China offshoot is scattered even beyond the present day Chinese country. For instance, the Khiamniungan Naga tribe genuine historical foothold based on folk tales,Lore's,culture, language and more is more or less an offshoot of bigger China family.

  • im a singaporean and i must say china is truely fascinating.

  • Im afraid the Communist Party was found in 1921 not 1920

  • Eastern Jin dynasty – Dong Tan trieu.

  • Yongzheng ung chinh.

  • THIS AIN'T A TWENTY MINUTES VIDEO YOU LIED !

  • Oh, I know you, your voice is so familiar, good mandarin.

  • Emperor Nasi Goreng built the Great Wall of China.

  • the first dynasty is not shang… the first dynasty is xia

  • Excellent way to know Chinese history what I am looking for long time,Thanks

  • Incomplete without truth
    https://medium.com/@PacoTaylor/ancient-chinese-secret-these-14-phenomenal-photos-reveal-there-were-indeed-black-chinese-6261468b4102
    https://www.trinicenter.com/FirstChinese.htm

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