Caesar as King? (45 to 44 B.C.E.)

Julius Caesar’s old friend Titus Labienus
had been defeated. The Roman Civil War was officially over, and
Spain had been pacified. After a few weeks of housekeeping, Caesar
headed back to the capitol. On the road to Rome, he met up with Marc Antony,
who at one time had served as Caesar’s political point-man. A couple of years earlier, Antony had conducted
himself like an absolute maniac while Caesar was away on campaign, and in doing so had
found himself in Caesar’s disfavour. Caesar and Antony reunited, and they spent
several days catching up on the road. When it was time for Antony to leave, the
two had mended their fractured relationship. Caesar forgave Antony, and promised to make
room for him in the years to come. But there may have been more to this meeting
than meets the eye. According to some of the ancient sources,
just before Antony headed up the road, a cabal of Senators approached him and asked for his
help in removing Caesar from power. Antony politely turned him down, but the interesting
thing is that when Antony made amends with Caesar, he told him nothing of this conspiracy. What on Earth was Antony was doing? Did he not take the conspiracy seriously? Was he somehow hedging his bets? We have no idea, but it’s interesting. Marcus Brutus, who was serving as the governor
of Cisalpine Gaul, also took this opportunity to come and meet Caesar as he passed through
his province. Caesar was happy with Brutus’s performance,
and promised to fast track his career in the years to come. Governor this year, Praetor next year, Consul
3 years after that. Brutus had a bright future ahead of him. Caesar arrived back in Rome late in the summer
of 45. Instead of heading home, he lingered outside
the pomerium and petitioned the Senate to grant him a fifth Triumph. Naturally, they agreed. Caesar’s fifth Triumph was unlike other Triumph
in Roman history. This Triumph was all about the end of the
Roman Civil War, which meant that it literally celebrated the defeat of a Roman army. This was an illegal and illegitimate Triumph
no matter how you looked at it. But the Senate didn’t care. Caesar’s allies were in control, and if Caesar
wanted a Triumph, Caesar would get a Triumph. The planning of a Triumph was an art, and
Caesar would spend a month or so meticulously going over every little detail. He settled on silver as the theme, since Spain
was famous at the time for its silver mines. The big day arrived, and the whole thing was
unbelievably extravagant. But as you might have already guessed, it
was also in bad taste. Most of Caesar’s propaganda artwork depicted
Romans killing Romans. Many in the crowd would have lost friends
or family to the Civil War, and now here Caesar was rubbing their noses in it. What was meant to be a big public celebration
turned out to be one big downer. As Caesar was approaching the climax of the
Triumph, he rode past that year’s government officials and magistrates. One of the Tribunes of the Plebs, a former
Pompeian, made his feelings known to everybody by refusing stand for the Triumphator as he
passed. Caesar noticed. According to one source, he called from his
chariot, “come on, Tribune Aquila! Take back the Republic if you can!” Caesar tried to play this off as a joke, but
it kinda wasn’t. It really got under his skin. In the days following the Triumph, in what
should have been one of the high points of his career, he bitterly complained about this
one tiny incident non-stop. He would issue some mundane order like “deliver
this letter to so-and-so” and then be like “better check to see if it’s okay with Tribune
Aquila first.” Speaking of taking the Republic back, we need
to talk about the political changes that Rome was experiencing over this period. Just a quick reminder, Caesar had already
been named Dictator for a period of 10 years, and had been granted permission to run for
Consul for 5 years, which gave him unparalleled control over Roman politics. So that’s our starting line. Things were about to get really weird. The sequencing on some of this stuff is kinda
hard to nail down, but let’s just say over the span of 8 months, the following occurred. The Senate heaped all kinds of titles and
honours upon Caesar. They named him Liberator. They named him Father of the Fatherland. They named him Imperator for Life. All sorts of titles, all in the same vein. They allowed him to wear his special clothing
from his Triumph on all future festival days. This would have been a flamboyant purple toga
and a crown of laurel leaves. Very conspicuous. This clothing was deliberately designed to
evoke the idea of monarchy. Sure, it was purely symbolic, but Caesar liked
it, and some found it disturbing how quickly he took to walking around in royal garb like
it was nothing. But that was only the beginning. In the heart of Rome, on the Capitoline Hill,
there was a grouping of statues depicting each of the 7 kings of Rome, along with an
8th statue of the man who drove them out and established the Republic. That guy’s name happened to be Brutus, I mention
that for no reason whatsoever, let’s just move on. With the Senate’s permission, Caesar added
a 9th statue to this lineup. Of himself. Yikes. Caesar was also named the Prefect of Morality,
which was a made up thing, and was given the power to kick people out of the Senate if
they exhibited bad public morals, which naturally could be interpreted to mean literally anything. He didn’t really need this power since he
had already packed the Senate with his political allies, but now if anybody ever got out of
line they could be gone in a flash. As you can see, all of these changes were
moving in the same direction. But Caesar wanted to make it even more blatant,
so he got for himself a special golden chair that from now on would sit between the two
Consuls during Senate meetings. Now I don’t know about you but where I’m from
we might call this a throne, but the Romans would have disagreed. Thrones were for kings! This was just a special golden chair reserved
a guy who dressed up like a king and acted like a king. Totally different. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and
there’s even more to come, but you get the idea. Caesar spent these months cobbling together
a collection of powers that essentially transformed him into a monarch in all but name. I’m reminded of how Hemingway said that people
goes bankrupt gradually, and then suddenly. The Roman political system had been in a state
of degradation for years, decades, generations even, but then the whole thing collapsed in
on itself in a matter of months. Sure, this was precipitated by the Roman Civil
War, but it’s not like Caesar walked in there and overthrew the government. He didn’t have to. What happened instead is that he pushed up
against Rome’s political institutions, found nothing pushing back, and then took whatever
he wanted. What did this unchecked power reveal about
Caesar? It revealed that what Caesar wanted, maybe
what he had always wanted, was to destroy Roman politics. He wanted a crown. He wanted monarchy. Healthy political systems are extremely stable. Warts and all, the Roman Republic was a (mostly)
healthy political system. Caesar destroyed it, and he did so deliberately. This decision would result in untold human
misery and death in the years to come, and the horrifying fact is that even if Caesar
could have known this, I’m not sure that he would have cared. That’s egomaniacal, and in a way it can’t
help but eclipse everything else he ever did. Some in Rome’s political class were able to
see what was happening, but they were wholly ineffective at stopping it. Cicero wrote a helpful little guidebook outlining
how he thought the Republic ought to be be restored, but Caesar’s subordinates wouldn’t
even read it. In September of 45, Caesar stepped down as
Rome’s only Consul, and had two loyalists elected to serve out the rest of the year. It’s interesting to note that Caesar had apparently
decided that the office of Consul was no longer needed to dominate Roman politics. That could be done from his special golden
chair that was definitely not a throne. On December 31st, in what would have been
his last day in office, one of these new Consuls unexpectedly dropped dead. Caesar stopped everything and called for an
emergency election so that new Consul could serve out the rest of the term. Some other loyalist name Caninius won, and
he would be in office for a grand total of something like 4 hours. Cicero was livid. All Caninius wanted was the prestige of having
been elected Consul, and Caesar was happy to just give it to him. Never before had the consulship been used
in this way. Cicero was right to be angry. Caesar was showing everybody that it didn’t
really matter who the Consuls were anymore. The whole thing was outrageous. Around this time, Caesar really buckled down
and started preparing for his next military campaign. The Parthian Empire had sided with Pompey
during the Roman Civil War. They were not a significant factor in any
way, but still. Tensions were high, and many prominent Caesarians
wanted revenge. On top of this, Rome’s last major clash with
Parthians had ended in a humiliating defeat, and there was a vague sense among Rome’s general
population that somebody needed to wipe the slate clean. So that was one issue. War with Parthia was on the horizon. A totally separate and unrelated issue was
that the Dacians were openly crossing the Danube and raiding the province of Illyricum. In fact, this had been happening since Caesar’s
time as Illyricum’s governor. Instead of dealing with this problem back
then, Caesar had sent Illyricum’s legions to fight in the Gallic Wars. Since that time, the whole situation had spun
out of control. Caesar’s plan was to cross the Danube and
spend a year campaigning in Dacia, after which he would march directly to Parthia and spend
two years campaigning there. The plans for after the Parthian campaign
are a little more vague, but from what we can piece together the idea was to was to
swing north of the Black Sea and then march all the way back to Rome. All told, this would be a massive expedition. Caesar began the long process of recruiting
and transporting as many as 80,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry up to Illyricum. In December of 45, he sent his great-nephew
Octavian to oversee the training of the legions. Once everything was ready, the plan was for
Caesar, Lepidus, and Antony to depart with the legions, and for Octavian to return to
Rome and take Lepidus’s place as Caesar’s official #2. At some point during this process, people
started to speak of an ancient prophecy that said that only a king could defeat the Parthians. Cicero makes it very clear that no such prophecy
existed, and that this was just a wild rumour that sprang out of nowhere. Who started this rumour? We can’t say for sure, but I have my suspicions. Early in the year 44 B.C.E., the Senate decided
to bestow another title upon Caesar. This one’s a biggy. They extended Caesar’s 10 year Dictatorship
indefinitely, naming him “Dictator Perpetuo.” Dictator for Life. This was a turning point. Up until now, Caesar’s critics could always
comfort themselves with the fact that many of Caesar’s powers would expire after 10 years. This was no longer the case. Caesar’s critics had some real soul searching
to do. Immediately after naming Caesar Dictator for
Life, the ancient sources say that the Senate took an loyalty oath to Caesar. The exact wording was “I pledge to preserve
Caesar’s life, or may Caesar outlive me.” But in the last few decades, scholars have
been rethinking this. We now know that “or may so-and-so outlive
me” was a popular turn of phrase during this period. By the time the ancient sources were writing,
the phrase had fallen into disuse, and so when they say that the Senate took a loyalty
oath, they may be mistaken. Just be aware that this still being hotly
debated behind the scenes. As I’ve mentioned, many in the Roman political
class were alarmed at Caesar’s growing authoritarianism. But at this time, three incidents occurred
in rapid succession that turned that alarm into a full blown panic. Here’s the first incident. One day, after voting to invest Caesar with
even more titles and powers, a bunch of Senators decided to go and present the legislation
to Caesar in person. One of the Consuls at the time lead the procession,
Senators followed behind, lictors escorted them, it was a whole thing. Caesar was off overseeing a construction project,
and was in the weeds talking with one of his colleagues. As the Senatorial procession approached, Caesar
didn’t acknowledge them. He just kept on talking. After a long moment, somebody got Caesar’s
attention and was like “it appears that the Roman Senate would like a word with you.” In response, Caesar lazily looked over, looked
back, and returned to his conversation. Not only was this behaviour extremely rude,
but the Romans placed a lot of cultural importance on standing for certain occasions. Being approached by a Roman Consul was absolutely
one of those times when a person was expected to stand. And this wasn’t just a Roman Consul, this
was a Roman Consul with a Senatorial delegation at his back. By making such a big show of not rising to
his feet, Caesar was broadcasting to the world that in his opinion he outranked a Roman Consul. Caesar’s critics were justifiably outraged
at this behaviour. Here’s the second incident. As the sun rose on a winter morning, one of
the statues of Caesar appeared with a diadem on its head. A diadem is a special kind of headband worn
by monarchs, particularly eastern monarchs. Clearly this was some kind of subversive act,
so two Tribunes of the Plebs ordered it taken down. A few days later, Caesar appeared before a
crowd for some kind of public event, and was greeted with cries of “King! King! King!” Caesar turned to the crowd and replied, “Not
King, but Caesar!” This was a pun that doesn’t work in English. King, or Rex, was a common last name in Caesar’s
time, so on one level the joke was like… “you’ve got the wrong guy, I’m not Rex, I’m
Caesar!” But the pun also worked on a second level,
as if to say “I can see how you would be confused, because the word Caesar and the word King
are synonymous.” The crowd immediately got the joke, and according
to the ancient sources, they didn’t like it. They went dead quiet. Some believe that the people calling out “King!”
may have been Caesarian plants, and judging by the crowd’s reaction that sounds right
to me. The same two Tribunes of the Plebs ordered
those who had started the chant arrested. Caesar intervened, and was like “it’s fine,
no need to stir up trouble.” The Tribunes did not like this, and later
issued a written statement saying that Caesar was trying to interfere with their lawful
duties. At the next Senate meeting, Caesar denounced
the two Tribunes, and then went one step further and accused THEM of planting that diadem from
days earlier just to make him look bad. Caesar had packed the Senate with his political
allies, so of course they went along for the ride. One Senator went so far as to demand the death
penalty for the two Tribunes. For making Caesar look bad, I guess? Instead, Caesar decided to appear “merciful,”
and the two Tribunes were stripped of office and banished from the city of Rome. This was a shocking show of force, and the
worst part is that nobody even tried to stop it. Caesar’s critics were beginning to see the
writing on the wall. The Roman Republic was on the verge of plunging
off of a cliff, and the vast majority of the political class did not care. Something needed to be done. Here’s the third incident. A little less than a month later, on February
15th of the year 44, everybody came out to celebrate Lupercalia. Lupercalia was a fertility festival where
a bunch of male priests would strip down to loincloths or nothing at all and run around
the Palatine hill, tracing the path of the original pomerium. These priests carried fake whips, and any
woman touched by a whip was said to become extremely fertile for the coming year. Women would spill into the street to try to
block the runners, the runners would use their fake whips to clear a path, the whole was
stupid fun. Caesar had made good on his commitment to
Antony, and the two men were now serving side by side as Rome’s two Consuls for that year. Antony made the strange choice of volunteering
to lead the Lupercalian runners. It’s not every day that you get to see a head
of state running naked through the streets. To each their own, I guess. Caesar wisely chose to keep his clothes on,
and watched the day’s celebrations from a raised platform alongside other high ranking
officials. Since this was a festival day, he wore his
flamboyant purple toga and his laurel leaves. When Antony was finished running, he approached
the raised platform and presented Caesar with – most English translations say a crown, but
it was actually another diadem. The crowd went silent. Was this it? Was Caesar going to crown himself right here? Was this the moment where Rome becomes a monarchy
once more? After milking it for a moment, Caesar pushed
the diadem away, much to the relief of the crowd. Antony then ascended the platform and presented
it to Caesar for a second time, according to one source actually putting it in Caesar’s
lap. The crowd fell into another stunned silence. All Caesar had to do was put it on his head,
and the world would be forever changed. Instead, Caesar rejected it for a second time. The crowd burst into wild applause. He told the crowd that there was only one
true King of the Romans, and that person was Jupiter Optimus Maximus. He ordered the diadem taken Jupiter’s main
temple and put on display. So what should we take away from this incident? It’s highly dramatic, and it seems to have
played out a little too perfectly. In my opinion it’s pretty clear that Antony
and Caesar coordinated the whole thing ahead of time. Cicero reached the same conclusion. He later asked Antony, “would you have us
believe that you found a diadem on the street, or did you instead bring it from home?” Some say that this Lupercalia incident was
Caesar testing the water. If the crowd had been into it, he would have
accepted the diadem. Others say that this was a performative rejection
of the crown, staged so that he could continue to wield his other king-like powers as he
wished. I’m kinda in the first camp. Caesar was vain. He liked being flagrant and wearing his Triumphator
outfit during festivals. He liked his special little golden chair that
was definitely not a throne. He liked all of the pomp and circumstance. My feeling is that in his heart, he wanted
a crown. Around this time, perhaps literally on the
same day, a priest named Spurinna who specialized in divination approached Caesar and told him
that his life would be in danger until the Ides of March, or March 15th. Divination is not a thing, so where did Spurinna
get this idea? Remember last year, when a cabal of Senators
tried and failed to recruit Antony to their cause? That particular group fell apart, but it was
not the first or the last conspiracy of its kind. Since that time, Caesar’s authoritarian behaviour
had become extremely alarming, and Senators were talking about it behind the scenes. Spurinna was enmeshed with this group, he
may have been a Senator himself, and if not he certainly fraternized with them. The most likely scenario is that Spurinna
overheard something, but when he told Caesar about it he wanted to keep it nice and vague
so that he didn’t implicate any of his friends. But where did that specific date come from? The Ides of March? It was widely known that Caesar was planning
to leave on campaign shortly after the Ides. By giving that date, what Spurinna was really
saying was that Caesar’s life would be in danger so long as he remained in the city
of Rome. Spurinna was exactly right. There was a conspiracy, and Caesar’s life
was in danger. The conspirators had not yet decided when
or how to strike, but they were in perfect agreement that Caesar could not be allowed
to leave the city alive.

Comments 100

  • Hey could someone ask Tribune Aquila if it's ok to like this video? Thanks.

  • The Roman political system was already broken when Caesar came to power. That's the environment that created Caesar, and he dealt it a lot of damage, but it was Octavian who finally killed it for good.

    Also his most egomaniacal moment was when he slew thousands of people in his self-appointed mission to conquer Gaul. Feeling no compunction about the feelings or lives of Romans when he came back to Italy is fairly natural after that amount of slaughter.

  • Thank you for this video. I really don't understand the worship of this guy. So many people claim to love democratic institutions these days yet worship Caesar, who only cared about Caesar and the glory of Caesar.

  • Here's my take on the Loyalty Oath debate.given the substantiating evidence surrounding Caesar, this loyalty oath probably meant actual fealty to a king, not just something close friends would say to each other. Especially making the richest and most powerful people who are also your chief political rivals say it is different than an oath among comrades.

  • I swear, if these videos continue into the first century, there's going to come a point where, in the middle of a video, he says, "Meanwhile in Judea, this radical Jewish prophet was crucified on mysterious charges. This isn't very important now, but trust me, in future videos, it will be."

  • Isnt civilis is a disease?

  • Caesar > Some rich assholes

  • What the hell… why all the caesar movements sound so great to me? why i hate the republic soooooooo much? i stand with caesar. Death to the republic, Hail the Roman Empire !!!!

    Everyone here is certainly in favor of Caesar, its good to see that amount of loyal roman imperialists here =) cheers to all =)

  • I fear men who value more the fictional life of a political system than the lives of its citizens. The republic was a filthy aristocracy that crumbled because rich people refused to give up power. I'm glad it ended and I am thankful to Caesar

  • I like Caesar, but boy did he really stretch it here. He was basically asking to get shived on the senate floor.

  • I like Caesar, but boy did he really stretch it here. He was practically asking to get shived on the senate floor.

  • watching blocks move in 4k, nice

  • More videos!!!!!! <3

  • The idea that Caesar, a man who became famous for having sex with other men's wives, was made the judge of other people's morality, is complete lunacy.

  • ceasar was kinda stupid…

  • Caesar didn't need a crown because he was already a king.

  • Caesar should have been more like stalin !

  • What's a BCE fams

  • Guys, I've got a bad feeling about this

  • I'm a simple man. I see a new Historia Civilis video, I click the like button.

  • The ram has touched the wall, no mercy!

  • Great and informative video about my favourite historical period.

  • Niiice video! You've got a great text ability.

  • 20:41 I can imagine Cicero being so fed up he would call Marc Antony an idiot.

  • Is there anything on yous sources that talks about ancestral aliens? History Channel would be thrilled

  • I see a lot of Cesareans here 😕😕

  • As a long time watcher I just want you to know that if Cesar doesn't die in the next video I AM GOING TO PLUNGE SOMEONE OFF A CLIFF….seriously though love these so much and the red box merch is honestly awesome.

  • 284 Pompeian scum disliked this video

  • Destroying political systems…. sounds exactly what Senator Mitch McConnell is doing.

  • A gradual decline until a leader emerged that just ignored all boundaries and ended up toppling everything… Where have I heard the first part recently..

  • Excited to see how Ceaser conquers Parthia. Gotta get revenge for the Parthians pouring Molton Gold down Crassius's throat

  • If that planned expedition has anything to do about it, next episode is going to be fucking epic.

  • 14:59 Caesar: I AM THE SENATE!😈

  • 2:34 anyone else see circles in between the squares?

  • Probably my favorite video so far, legit considering buying merch cuz of how good this channel is.

  • I'm kinda sad that Rome, the series, completely skipped over Labienus… yet it makes sense; his and Caesar's friendship took place almost entirely in the period before what was covered by the show.

    As for Marc not being a narc about the whole conspiracy thing, my guess would be that some of his friends were involved in it, and he had no way of giving up the rest of the conspirators without selling his friends out (those others would've ratted them out before getting killed). Which, of course, would've been exactly why the conspirators made sure Antony's friends were involved.

  • You showed your bias in this video.

  • 16:29 I'm pretty sure Caesar only meant king after Julius Caesar. According to Behind the Name, Caesar probably meant hairy. It was probably just a family name before Julius Caesar.

  • I love how everyone is saying Rome wasn’t stable politically yet right as it fell Europe the continent fell into the dark ages for roughly a thousand years

  • Oh god, just binged all of these. Amazing work.

    Please say you’ll continue after SPOILERS the assassination. Would love to see Octavian take center stage

  • Hey,Historia Civilis. I have quite a lot of issues about the Dacia part in 11:12 .
    The problems at the minute of 11:12 are:
    – Dacia was an Empire who stretched from South Germany to the South Balkans at the Aegean Sea;
    -Caesar declared Dacia a threat,because it sided with Pompey(like Parthia) and for it's big size(>1,000,000 square kilometres);
    -You didn't mention the "Mighty King" Burebista who united the dacian tribes into an unified entity and defeated the Celtic tribes from the Balkans,Central Europe and Middle Danube(he was known as the Celtic Slayer);
    – Dacia was an Empire.
    I don't want to be critical of your video about Caesar(it's awesome dude) but I want to show you some facts about ancinet Dacian Empire under Burebista. And if you read my comment about Dacia,Historia Civilis we will talk about this issue and the error at 11:12. I love your videos.

  • That Luprecelia incident was tense

  • Has he finished the Alexander the Great series??

  • Great video. It sounds like Caesar went a bit power crazy but I think many of the reforms he made had a big influence on other governments that followed the Romans. The Republic of Venice which was created by Romans had a Doge (Duke) who was a bit like a King and served for life but he was elected to his position by ordinary citezans. The government of Venice lasted for over 1,000 years and many other Italian city-states also had this type of government.

  • I can definitely understand why they killed him now.

  • Healthy Roman political system died along with Marian reforms and Sulas come to power. Caesar just destroyed it's rotting corpse.

  • "Divination is not a thing"
    Triggered evangelical would like to chat

  • This is blatant anti-Caesarian propaganda! Did the Senate or the Pompeians put you up to this?

  • While I like all the videos that HC has published until now, I think that this one leaves much to be desired.
    It looks as if Cesar wanted to crown himself as king, destroying the Roman Republic.
    I think that it has been clear that the Roman Republic wasn't a democracy, but an olygarchy. And if the patricians overthrew the kings, it wasnt to share the power with the masses but to hold the power themselves.
    I think that during all the history, Cesar has been presented as a dictator, with the modern meaning of dictator, against the democratic republic. And I dont think that it was correct.
    Cesar was part of the Populares, the faction opposed by the Optimates. And the Optimatees was the conservative faction.

    On the other hand, during all his life (as it was indicated in some of HC videos), Cesar forgave and tried to talk with the oposition more times than the other way around. And now, suddenly, he made a 180º turn? I dont buy it. I think that it isnt as clear as it has been showed in this video.

  • Your videos just get better and better.

  • Hello I was wondering if you could continue this series after Caesar’s death into the 2nd Civil War between Antony and Augustus and all that jazz. I discovered this series yesterday and I’ve spent all day binge watching it. It’d be a real shame to stop, so if you have the time and motivation to keep it going, I know you’d get a lot of support from me and the other people who’ve loved this series.

  • Make an autobiographical video, Mr. Civilis. I can't be the only curious one about the best history professor I've had.

  • How long until I get to see several colourful dots stab a bright red dot to death?

  • 20:42
    I have honestly never seen a more befitting way to address Marc Antony

  • Hhmmm starting to feel some modern revisionist ideals coming from civilis sadly. First off the republic was anything but stable. Second off we have no sources, zero that Caesar ever wanted anything more than to just be seen as Pompeiis equal and Senate power house. He loved the intellectual challenge of the Senate. Which is just one reason he stayed so long in Egypt after winning his civil war. He had no political challenges left.

    If he wanted a war and to be king he sure did everything he could to hurt his own cause. Like transferring his 2 owed legions to Pompeii during the negotiations, of which he would station is Italy. He had just a single legion stationed in northern Italy. His entire army was in Gaul. Pretty stupid for a man who is widely considered one of the greatest generals to ever live.


  • Jesus Christ what a bunch of Optimate propaganda. People often say that winners write history, but that's clearly not the case in general, and certainly not the case when it comes to Caesar. Who wrote the history? Members of the senatorial class, who resented being stripped of their power, and people like Plutarch, who had been assimilated into that class. (The irony being that Plutarch, a Greek, would never have held the rank he did in the Roman state under the old, thoroughly chauvinistic, government the Optimates were desperate to preserve.) But OP does not see fit to critically examine his sources.
    Even Cicero, writing privately to friends (as in the creator's only contemporaneous source, "Letters to Atticus, Book 13") is far more measured in his criticism of Caesar than the creator of this video.

  • no spoilers in the comment section…

  • Historia, I can't believe you would spew such propaganda against our rightful Emporer, shame! shame on the house of Civilis, shame!

  • Yo boy Caesar thru

  • Divination is not a thing? You sure about that?

  • The roman republic was a mostly healthy political system? When it had little legitimacy as seen by the lack of pushback against Cesar?! When it has little legitimacy in the eyes of the people anymore for lack of debt jubilees? Feel free to check out the economist Michael Hudson's article "Debt Slavery – Why It Destroyed Rome, Why It Will Destroy Us Unless It’s Stopped

  • Apologist for oligarchy.

  • Alexander the Great in Bactria !!! Do that one ! Pleaseeeee

  • I do not fully agree with your claim. First, 44 B.C.e Caesar had almost everything he wanted as a Roman. Why would Caesar covet the throne in the danger of being called a tyrant? The tenses are Romans, Senators of Rome, and members of the leading Roman family, who, more than anyone, have tamed Roman politics and the Roman way of thinking. Caesar was proud that he was a Roman man who decided his own destiny without a king and was proud to stand in the heart of Rome where no king could enter. If Caesar becomes king, what happens to the sacred world, the pomerium, where the king can never enter, regardless of his or her country?

    Furthermore, to be a king is to worry about his future generations and to fight power with his servants without any safeguards.

    The status of the Roman life dictatorship is greater and higher than the kings of any region known to Rome at that time. Will you give this up because of the throne?

    Didn't Augustus give up on the charm of this life dictator and give himself up as the first Roman citizen? Moreover, if Caesar is king, he will not be in war as king of Rome. Caesar was a man who gained wealth, gained honor, and gained power through war. Still, Rome cheers on the victorious Imperator and the chant is powerful enough to play Jupiter for a day. Do you think Caesar would be quietly tied up himself in the city of Rome without preparing to tie the rivals like Augustus?

  • So you're telling me that if Caesar wasn't such a douche, he probably could've maintained further power.

  • First time i've disagreed with some points made. Great video all the same

  • The guy who has all the power and toys a king has – except the title. So he has many other titles – for all to pretend he's not a King.
    How familiar this sounds… The Chairman, The Chancellor, The Spokesman of the Party, The Supreme leader, The President, Il Duce, Der Führer…
    All that pretention should be a warning. But often it also comes so late, there's nothing much to do, all the control machinery is already in the hands of the Extreme Big Brother/Sister of His/Her People.

  • I think Caesar was testing the waters with the diadem incident too, because that would explain why Antony offered the diadem to him twice. If the crowd had booed when he pushed it away the first time, then Antony could offer it to him again, and this time Caesar would accept it. And if the crowd cheered like it did the first time, he would look good by rejecting it twice. The incident would be a win for Caesar either way.

  • Shame, he should have ruled for a thousand years

  • I kind of feel like Caesar may not have went as far as he did with his power grab if the senate was not so impossible to work with literally his entire political career. If you can't get anything done by going through the proper channels then you start trying to find ways to bypass the proper channels. But I guess that is just opinion and conjecture on my part. I can't wait for the next episode!

  • This video brought to you by Marcus Junius Brutus

  • I can't wait to see what happens next…..allways those cliffhangers.
    I bet Caesar becomes king, if tribune Aquilla agrees of course! xD

  • Downvoted this video for using B.C.E

  • The internet is going to explode at the death of Caesar, and this wonderful channel will skyrocket further into glory.

  • These are really good videos. Hope you make more.

  • What does "E" stand for in B.C.E? Wasn't it B.C before?

  • Im actually so keen for the next vid

  • I loved Caeser before this video. I never knew any of these facts, thanks bro

  • Well y’know that’s fine HC but Caesar is fking Caesar and we love him❤️

  • The series on Caesar has been fantastic. Looking forward to more!

  • Historia Civilis is cucked. Obviously triggered by Ceasar lol

  • I love your channel so much!!

  • these are aLWAYS SO EXITING, all know how it will end but i can't w8 for your next episode, great work.

  • Ave, True to Caesar

  • Please do Alexander the Great, Punic Wars, Sulla vs. Marius, please man!

  • I think it's kind of a stretch to say that Caesar destroyed a healthy system. It was unhealthy and you can look to Sulla and Marius's nonsense as an example.

  • I've binge-watched this guy's videos about caesar for like 3 days, I NEED TO KNOW WHAT HAPPENS NEXT

  • Caeser was a dick . I used to like him when I didn’t know anything about him

  • I didn't get a notification for this. Which really sucks because it went up on my birthday.

  • Was Antony naked when he gave Caesar the diadem? I don’t want to know

  • The Emperor series of novels by Conn Iggulden is so great. It follows the life of Julius Caesar. I recommend it to any fans of history.

  • I believe in SPQR it’s mentioned that there was quite a bit of debate over wether or not to award this quadruple triumph to Caesar. It wasn’t as cleanly awarded as you insinuate in the video. Or am I thinking of a different triumph? 🤔🤔

  • Excellent video as always man!

  • Only the Romans could bullshit themselves into NOT calling Caesar's golden chair a throne. After all, they could bullshit themselves into saying that executing prisoners a war, mere minutes before the triumphator was to sacrifice two white bulls to Jupiter, was totally NOT human sacrifice. Talk about bullshit.

  • There's nothing inherently wrong with violence as a means of gathering power. That's how nearly every nation has been established or maintained. If anything, peace is dysgenic.

  • Surely your next series is on Napoleon

  • Hey great videos love the content! I was wondering if you could make a video about the greeks living under roman rule and maybe a deep dive on the conquest and the thoughts of both sides thanks

  • You honestly have the best history videos on youtube!

  • I need to ask the Tribune Aquila if I can comment on this video and say how much I enjoyed it…Wait….Whoops

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