In 1947, following Britain’s withdrawal from its Indian Empire, India and Pakistan became independent
states carved out of the former British Raj. The partition created
Hindu majority India and overwhelmingly Muslim Pakistan.
Dislocation and violence soon erupted in communities split by the new borders. By the millions, Hindus and Sikhs in
Pakistan fled their homes for India, while Indian Muslims migrated to Pakistan. War broke out over the territory of Kashmir. This violence left up to a million dead and
millions more homeless. In 1965, the two countries fought a second war of Kashmir. In 1971, a rebellion broke out in East Pakistan, leading to a third war on the sub continent and resulting in the formation of Bangladesh. Today, after a fourth crisis in 1999, the two nuclear-armed nations remain
in intense standoff. Will Afghanistan be the next Pakistan-India flashpoint? Read more at brookings.edu/deadlytriangle