A Brief History of Sudan(s)


the youngest country on earth is South
Sudan in 2011 they broke off from Sudan into their own country however the story
of the youngest country has ancient roots and many of us don’t really give
this region the time of day so for this week to advance the brief history series
let’s talk about Sudan and it’s long long history hi I’m Tristan this is step back be sure
to subscribe at the bell notification to get history every week alright so
let’s start with a few quick facts about the country of Sudan it’s located in
northeastern Africa and its name comes from Arabic and it actually means the
land of the black people and before it split into two separate countries in
2011 it was the largest country in Africa with a size of about a quarter of
the United States the one thing about Sudan that really sticks out that you
need to know though is that it’s always been at this cultural crossroads between
the Arabic Islamic Middle East African traditional cultures to the south and
the Mediterranean culture to the north so let’s start by going back to the
first known entity that existed in Sudan at least in the recorded history
let’s talk about the ancient kingdom of Kush so for those who aren’t in the know
Sudan has a history very much entwined with ancient Egypt both of them followed
the Nile River and so the Sudanese people have always had this cultural
relationship with the Egyptians and so the earliest sources that we have about
Sudan come from ancient Egypt the word Kush even comes from the ancient
Egyptian word for wretched people so yeah you can see that this is going to
be a bit of an antagonistic relationship that being said Sudan did have a lot of
influence from ancient Egyptian culture and their language also their religion a
lot of the Egyptian gods were actually worshipped in ancient Kush as well and
there was a lot of trade that happened a lot of the gold that went to Egypt came
from the ancient kingdom of Kush as well as ivory incense and a red gem called
carnelian ancient Egypt also practiced slavery so often slaves were brought up
from Sudan as well and Kushite soldiers were a large part of the
Egyptian military you might also hear them referred to in the history books as
Nubians however the two societies were at arm’s length until the Middle Kingdom
in Egypt around that time we found that the Egyptians started to build forts
around the Nile River and they had a stronger emphasis in making sure that
gold flowed from Kush into Egypt so there’s a lot more
of a exploitative relationship but this all ended when a group of Canaanite
nomads called the Hyksos conquered the egyptians and after that conquest
when egypt had basically crumbled for a little while they cut off their
relationship with Kush in the wake of egypt destruction at the end of the
Middle Kingdom the Kushites were able to re-establish an indigenous monarchy that
is until the rulership of pharaoh Ahmose I who is known for
reincorporating Kush into the Egyptian kingdom once more from then on the
egyptians ruled Kush via a Viceroyalty in the region and the egyptians
maintained the loyalty of the kushite people by taking the children of
prominent chiefs in the region and taking them to the pharaoh’s court to
serve as pages and this has been a lot changed in kush this is when the
Egyptian religion began to move in the more well-off Kushites began to worship
the Egyptian gods and earnest it was also when the Egyptian language made it to
Kush and the ancient religion of the Egyptians would actually persist in
Kush and in Sudan actually until the 6th century and as the ancient Egyptian
kingdom collapsed the Kushites began to see themselves as the cultural inheritor
of the Egyptian Way and in the 11th century BCE you do see once the New
Kingdom begins to end the end of Egyptian rulership over Kush which would
continue all the way until actually like the 19th century and of course if the
loss to the Egyptian came the loss of writing in the region as well so a lot
of the historical record starts to get a little sparse until several centuries
later and it wasn’t until the 8th century BCE that the Kushites began to
emerge on the world stage as a independent power except that now the
tables will be turned and the Kushites were going to expand their influence
into Egypt a Kushite king named Kashta actually led a invasion into upper egypt
in southern egypt and ruled from thebes one of the major cities in the egyptian
kingdom for 10 years his successor Piye actually conquered the Egyptians and so
for a while there was an Egyptian kingdom ruled by a Kushite royal
family which meant that there was at least for some time
black Pharaohs the last Kushite Pharaoh actually ruled until the years
663 BCE and it was not due to any sort of internal strife that was due to the
common thing that leads to the end of Egyptian civilizations foreign invasion
for the entire time the Kushites ran Egypt they were in a cold war with a
neighboring Middle Eastern Empire called the Assyrians
so in 663 the Assyrians invaded and conquered Egypt because Egypt is very
easy to conquer the Kushites were pushed back into Nubia afterwards and the
Assyrians installed a native kingdom in Egypt this was a critical blow and over
the next few years it appears that the Kushan Empire collapsed in some form or
another again historical records a little vague here
the new indigenous kingdom that the Assyrians would put in place would move
into Nubia and attack the Kushite Empire in 590 BCE the Egyptians pushed
into and conquered and sacked the Kushite capital of Napata the
Kushites moved to a new city called meroe from here on historians tend to not
refer to it as the kushite empire anymore now refer to it as the meroe Empire and
they actually flourished a lot in this period they built these stone markers to
document their own history they built pyramids very much like in
Egypt albeit a little bit smaller as tombs and they even made a new meroitic alphabet based on the language that was indigenous to the region so no
longer using an Egyptian law and the Merotic Empire had a very centralized
government that actually had this very interesting form of succession it was
very matrilineal so based on mother’s bloodline at the same time it also
relied on handing down leadership two siblings before passing on to the next
generation which means that younger brothers would rule in Meroe until the
end of all of the siblings in that generation and move on to the next level
which in my mind would probably mean that it leads to a lot of staccato
succession where you’d have a long string of old men all dying before moving on to
the next generation and as it did through all of history and a lot of its
trade was linked to the Nile River which meant that they were still linked into
the Mediterranean system so a lot of Mediterranean stuff started coming
towards them and they still kept that role in Mediterranean culture but on top
of that with their access to the Red Sea they actually had a lot of contact with
Indian traders which meant that the Indian Ocean trade routes also came
through and traders from India making it to Meroe meant that the Meroans also
had a lot of Indian influence in their cultural development however they were
always finding themselves in conflict with a tribe in Nubia called the
Blemmyes and they actually managed to stay alive because the Romans did not
see their territory is super valuable and used them as a sort of buffer state
between Roman Egypt and the Blemmyes in the south and the Meroan civilization
existed until they were conquered by the kingdom of Aksum in 650 seee you can
actually learn a little bit about them if you go to this video here and it’s a
brief history of Ethiopia and the two are very often in conflict with each
other so Aksum learn about them more in that video so we fast-forward a
little bit until we get to the sixth century and we talk about Christian
Nubia by the sixth century the region of modern-day Sudan was basically split
into three kingdoms they were called the Nobatia Makuria and the alodia the
alodia of being the people living in what would be the region that the old
Kushite kingdom was in in the 6th century they converted to Christianity
and so the region was predominantly Christian and also sometime in the
seventh century Nobatia was integrated into Makuria and their connection to the
Christian world would get cut off a little bit when the Rashidun Caliphate
would invade into Egypt which was ruled by the Byzantine Empire at this point in
639 CE they tried to invade into this region which I’m just gonna collectively
called Nubia for now but they were actually repelled by the Nubians and
they’re one of the very few kingdoms that managed to fight off the Arab
expansion in this period and it resulted in this extremely
accommodating ceasefire where there is actually a lot of gift exchange maintain
peace between the Arabs and the Nubians so Makuria’s independence was guaranteed
at least for that period however there was a longer-term trend of Arab traders and
Arab settlers moving into the region especially east of the Nile River during
the Islamic Golden Age they were building port towns all through the 8th
to 11th century and over that period the Makurians invaded egypt twice
they made a closer dynastic relationship with the Alodians and developed their own
culture that was this mix of Hellenistic and African roots which archaeologists
are calling today afro Byzantine culture however the longer they were surrounded
by Arabic civilizations they became more African centric in their culture they
did maintain a centralized government that had a Byzantine designed
bureaucracy and in nubia in this period Coptic Greek and Arabic were all spoken
languages and there was actually a pretty unprecedented status of women in
this region that is very uniquely African and you’ll find out about that
if you ever study Ibn Battuta on his trip to Mali but women in Nubia had
access to education the right to buy and sell land which they often use the
profits of to endow churches or commissioned art for said churches and
they still maintain a matrilineal form succession where the son of the King’s
sister would be the rightful next heir however this region went through a slow
decline in the 11th and 12th centuries that decline led to a vacuum in the 14th
15th century where Bedouin tribes began to move in then there was something that
happened archaeologists suspect it was a civil
war that greatly weakened Makuria and sometime in the late 15th century King
Joel was the last king of makuria and after he died at fell apart alodia soon
after also fell to invaders they’re not sure if the invasion was done by Arabs
coming from the Middle East or if it came from an ethnic group called the Funj
which came up from the south however the funj people managed to
become the dominant power in Sudan and founded the Sennar kingdom and quickly
converted to Islam there was also the Tunjur Kingdom in Sudan that also
converted to Islam they ruled until the 17th century until the dominant power
became the kingdom of Darfur the society that they managed to make it was a
feudal one but one that still maintains slavery so imagine a sort of feudal
society with slavery super fun and this was the way things were run until in
1820 the ottomans invaded and conquered northern sudan this region was called
the turkiyya or the turkish regime meanwhile in southern Sudan British
missionaries began to move up from their colony in Kenya and establish English
influence in southern Sudan this is the root of the conflict that would
eventually sunder Sudan into two countries later on the British
missionaries came and preached Christianity and brought Christianity
back to Sudan in some form and then in the late 19th century there was a big
movement called the madhist movement a person declared himself a Mahdi in 1881
his name was Muhammad Ahmad and this led to a large unification war across
Western and Central Sudan in this period and basically turned into a nationalist
revolt against the Turks and the British the followers of the Mahdi are called on
sars and they actually still hold that title to this day and I notice I’ve said
the word Mahdi in a few videos I should mention that the Mahdi is basically the
Muslim version of the Messiah who’s supposed to show up before the end of
the world so think about like the Islamic second coming except they don’t
believe in a first coming so it is the Islamic Messiah figure in Judaism you
also have a messiah figure that shows up at the end and this is the Islamic
version of the successor after the nationalist revolt invaded Ethiopia did
not go well they also attempted to invade into Egypt in which they were
defeated by the British paypal.me/stepbackhistory if you want to help
support step back but aren’t up for a monthly commitment I totally get that if
you want to help out or just give a tip for one particular video you like then
Paypal.me/stepbackhistory is where you can go
back to more content shortly after the failed invasion of Egypt and
anglo-egyptian army conquered Sudan in 1898 they turned it into something
called a condominium which is an interesting way of saying that Egypt and
the British would share the colonizing of Sudan in reality it was kind of like
a colony of a colony so like it was the colony of Egypt which was in turn a
colony of Britain and part of what was modern-day Sudan belonged to the
Belgian Congo which was turned over to the British after the death of leopold
ii in which the horrors of the belgian congo are numerous and definitely a
horror for a future very depressing step back video yeah I always do the most fun
topics the French actually claimed some areas of Sudan as well until something
called the Fashoda incident which was a conflict between the English and the
French in which the French eventually agreed to sign over what was left over
and basically the borders of modern-day Sudan were finally made because they
belong to the anglo-egyptian Sudanese condominium and in this part you also
see the division that would lead to the breakup of Sudan North and South Sudan
were treated as completely different regions under the British Empire the
northern region given more rulership under the Egyptians much more Arabic
much more Muslim the South being much more ruled by the British much more
English much more Christian that being said because of the Nile River
the British put most their focus in economically developing northern Sudan
and southern Sudan in 1943 the British decided that they were going to push
northern Sudan into the movement towards self-government when southern Sudan
got angry about that in 1946 they decided to change course and decide to
wrap all of Sudan into one movement however the southern Sudanese felt very
much not welcome in the new government while those southern Sudanese people
were speaking English and practicing Christianity the new government that was
put in place spoke Arabic and was predominantly Muslim in 1953 Sudan
agreed to self-government in 1954 it held its first Parliament in 1956
it declared independence with the u.s. being the first country to recognize
them and even before the independence of Sudan in 1955 there was already the
outbreak of the first Sudanese civil war between the Christians and the South
only Muslims in the north this was mostly because in the process of
developing the Sudanese country there were plans to give the south a form of
autonomy and practice a form of federalism but then they reneged on
it and during the war many northern Sudanese bureaucrats leaders teachers
things like that who were living in the South were massacred this chaos then led
to a military coup by Ibrahim abboud it was meant to be temporary but he never
turned over the government to civilian rule until a revolt in 1964 led to a
non-violent coup that put a civilian government back in charge this new
government had lots of disagreements about what exactly the internal
structure of Sudan was going to look like especially when it came to the law
when it came to using the Sharia legal code the Islamic legal code more on that
in this video and there was as well issues about what was gonna go to the
Constitution and tons of ethnic dissidents the government that ruled
Sudan saw itself as a Arabic Muslim state in which they had a big Christian
minority there was not a fan of that and the disagreements led to a second coup
in 1969 led by Gaafar Nimeiry Colonel Gaafar Nimeiry his
government outlawed political parties and banished parliament and actually in
1971 there was actually a brief communist coup didn’t even last a year
however in the 1970s there was a reprieve in the civil war that was going
on Sudan became more Western and it took the black pill of the IMF restructuring
funds which meant that it basically internalized a much more neoliberal
austerity measures on its government that of course led to depressed
agricultural prices and famine and death and destruction as the IMF do and also
with that wonderful new open market tons and tons and tons of small arms fled
into the country so Sudan became the number one place for you to sell your
small arms which meant that the United States Soviet Union all sorts of other
arms dealers were making a killing selling killing which wouldn’t you know
it led to a second civil war breaking out in 1987 it resulted in a military
junta that killed or displaced over 4 million southern Sudanese people and
then in 2003 there was even more violence with something called the
Darfur rebellion so the western region of Darfur had a rebellion over the
basically trying to find some sort of secession for themselves think Darfur
was trying to vie for independence either that or more autonomy at the end
of that conflict both the government and the Darfur rebels were accused of
atrocities although the government definitely gets way more blame for
atrocities than the Darfur rebellion there was even many allegations of
Arabic militias entering the region and committing acts of ethnic cleansing you
might remember in the 2000s hearing about we need to do something about
Darfur that’s what they’re referencing it resulted in a 2005 declaration of
peace in which the southern part of Sudan would be allowed
form of autonomy for six years until they could decide on whether or not they
were going to leave and break off into their own country and throughout the
2000s there was just a series of new agreements to try and end the violence
happening in Sudan in 2011 there was a referendum in South Sudan over whether
or not to leave and they overwhelmingly voted to leave but of course things
aren’t over yet in 2011 there was a disputed region between northern and
southern Sudan called the Abyei region in which there are still fights breaking
out and to this day there’s already a lot of stories saying that southern
Sudan is ramping up violence in its own right which means that they’re still
very far from a peaceful solution to Sudan a country that has unfortunately
been scarred by a lot of violence over the last century the future of
Sudan is very uncertain there is instability and a lot of tension I think
that this is passing too far under our collective radars this as you know now
is a conflict thousands of years old and no permanent solution will happen fast
and without support if you want to continue to learn about this
underappreciated part of the world I recommend you watch the history of
Ethiopia video put together here and let me know if you think there’s a new
episode in this series you think I should do next
down in the comments I want to thank twelve-tone for the step-back theme song
as well as a special thanks for all the fantastic patrons who made this video
possible I especially want to thank Don and Kerry JohnsonKolbeinn Mani Garrick
Kwan Michael Kirchner Scott Smith and James McNeise come back next time for
more step back

Comments 81

  • There are still so many countries' stories to hear! Watch the whole playlist here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TBcZZC4lTTg&list=PLnpoOo7lhNnFNn67URWbGzdy9sX5nlHrv

  • dang it I wanted to be first

  • LOL! Many cool sounding geographical names really have very mundane etymologies.

  • Bless the rains down in South Sudan

  • 12:41 Not sure everyone will catch the Dune reference. ūüôā

  • Perfect Dune reference.

  • Do a history of Somalia next

  • E

  • How are y‚Äôall

  • Fantastic video,

  • Wow, I honestly can't thank you enough for making a video on Sudan, this is a conflict that gets very little international attention. Just a few things of note though. You referred a lot to modern day Sudan and the region controlled by the Kushites as Nubia, and while you're technically correct, modern Nubia is very different. Modern Nubia is split between Egypt and Northern Sudan and is mostly made up of two tribes; the Beja and Ababda (although there are many other smaller tribes present in Nubia). These tribes are mainly nomadic and have their own unique language separate from Arabic and Coptic or Ancient Egyptian. So while in a historical sense, you're correct to refer tothe southern areas of Sudan as Nubia, that would be inaccurate today. Also, on the topic of Darfur(which is very complicated, and I can honestly understand why couldn't devote more time to it), but the rebellion was about much more than simply autonomy. Darfur is unique from South Sudan in that the overwhelming majority of Darfur's residents are Muslim, but not Arab, which puts them in a weird middle ground between South Sudan and North Sudan as they can't easily fit into the population of either country. Historically the Arab government of Sudan has been horrible to the non-Arab people of Darfur giving Arabs in the region special privileges and going so far as to seize land and money from non-Arabs in the area. The Non-Arabs had rebelled several times throughout the 80s and 90s but it did escalate in the early 2000s, which is generally the time period most refer to when speaking of Darfur. The Government funded(and still do) Arab militias like the Janjaweed to commit horrible crimes against non-Arabs. Since then the Government's anti-Arab campaign has only spread across Sudan to areas like Kordofan and other border regions. It's a humanitarian crisis that's very close to me and my family and gets very little publicity in the modern media and I'm glad to see one of my favorite YouTubers talk about it.

  • Why do you have such a hostile attitude towards international institutions?

  • The history of California would be cool.

  • "The youngest history on Earth"? What's the verbal equivalent of a typo?

  • As a Belgian I'd be very interested in a Congo Free State (Different from Belgium Congo) video.

  • Is that a fucking Bernie action figure?!

  • I'd be interested in an episode about the Uyghur!

  • Mahdi Al Muntazar and the messiah are 2 separate people they are not the same and we believe in both each one appear in different time and circumstances please get more info about this part 12:58 because its not right .. ah Mahdi in Arabic means (someone is blessed with a divine knowledge) or (enlighten path)
    Al Muntazar means (awaited)
    and for the Messiah he will appear in the end of times (what u call armageddon in the bible )
    unlike *Mahdi Al Muntazar*..
    we must believe in both Judaism and Christianity in order for us to be Muslim … thanks for the video good luck

  • Can you do a video on operation gladio

  • What happened at 7:56 ?

  • This is a great video, Tristan!

    If anyone wants to dive further into Egyptian-Nubian relations, I recommend this article: Van Pelt, W.P., 2013. Revising Egypto-Nubian Relations in New Kingdom Lower Nubia: From Egyptianization to cultural entanglement. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23.3, 523‚Äď550.

    It talks about the interaction of Nubian elites with Egypt from a post-colonial perspective. It criticises how Nubians were perceived due to over-focus on Egyptian texts and talks about how the cultures interacted in burial.

    If anyone wants to look into how the Nuer lived, you can look into Evans Pritchard's 'The Nuer.' It's an old, at times outdated, but quite useful ethnography. If people want to read more recent ethnographies, I really liked: Hutchinson, S., 2000, Nuer ethnicity Militarized, Anthropology Today, Vol 16, No 3, and 5. Hutchinson, S, 1996, Nuer dilemmas: Coping with Money, War and the State, University of California Press, Berkeley

    These two look into how Nuer notions of ethnicity and Nuer social structures were changed by recent history and the war in the 1990s. They are really good books.

  • As a Sudanese viewer thank you for this accurate video I wish our future would bring the stability for both of sudans

  • Do a history of JAMMU KASHMIR please

  • Keep up the good work,comrade!

  • Discovered your channel two days ago and I've been eating videos non-stop
    Very interesting the history of Sudan.

  • great video, do Tamil nadu

  • Brief history of tanzania!

  • In the Ethiopian video and this one, it sounds like both countries became more impoverished by accepting an IMF program to develop themselves. What is the IMF doing? Is this a recurring theme in Africa and other countries? Has it ever had a happy ending for the country involved? I'd watch that video!

  • Good video, but I feel that you fall into a lot of the typical trappings when discussing sub saharan history.

    – "African culture"??? Berbers are quite literally african too. They've lived on the continent for thousands of years – African does not mean south of the sahara.
    Also, for future reference be nice if you specified which regions in africa you were referring to. It's not like africa is a small place, afterall. Specifying "East African cultures" would be much more accurate. Also, notice the "S". There is no "African culture" because Africa has multiple cultures.

    – I THINK Kerma is usually regarded to be a seperate entity to Kush, and you were discussing Kerma at the start of this video. Kerma's relationship with Egypt was not as "They were being exploited" as made out.
    Kerma didn't worship Egyptian gods, the Egyptianized Kushite nubians did.
    Kerma was also a powerful entity, not helpless. The Hyksos tried to establish contact with Kerma to plan an invasion of Egypt with them. Also, Kerma successfully invaded, and looted a large amount of Egypt (I think this was prior to the Hyksos's plan), so the prospect of a Kerman invasion of Egypt honestly wasn't insane.

    – Sub saharan africa and slaves… Yes, they traded slaves. But, it's not like this wasn't typical behavior for many ancient empires in other regions. I'm not sure why it was specifcally specified. I think gold was much more important- the word who seems to have been the origin for the term Nubia. (Noub is egyptian for gold or something like that), and one of the biggest gains Egyptians noted was their massive gold gains – those guys were obsessed with the amount of gold that they obtained.

    – I'm pretty sure that the Kushites did write in Egyptian hieroglyphs following Egypt's withdrawal. I may be wrong though.

    – I don't think that Kashta actually launched invasion. He expanded influence through politics, not war. Having his daughter instilled as the Priestess of Amun or something like that.

    – I'm going to sound a bit Kangish when I make this statement, but the 25th dynasty was not the only dynasty with Nubian origin. It's generally accepted that Dynasty 12 also had (lower) Nubian origin around the Aswan, bringing Amun, a god thought to be of Nubian origin, into Egypt. This can also be seen in the fact that they portray themselves as unusually dark compared to other Egyptian pharaohs, and bear a few other untypical traits for an egyptian. I THINK dynasty 18 also had minor nubian influence.

    – That cold war between the Nubians and the Assyrians wasn't really a cold war. They were quite directly fighting over Jerusalem, I believe, as the Nubians were trying to use Egypt to gain more influence in the Levant (and were, to an extend, succeeding). The assyrian king who beat back Kush chronicles his victories in a stelee.

    – Interesting, I tend to see Kush being referred to in the Napatan and Meroitic stages, not meroe as a seperate entity.

    – Never heard of an indian influence before, interesting.

    – I hear that Meroitic pyramids acted more as tombstones than tombs.

    Well this is where my period of decent knowledge ends. I dont know too much about medieval nubia. oh well. Just, stop saying "African" please. Africa is a whole continent three times the size of europe, not one single homogeneous entity with the same uniform culture.

  • Finally, a history channel on YouTube that actually got to the point of education where they figured out how to use WorldCat.

  • 8:27–11:33 was really funny to listen to, since its based on this Wiki sub-chapter, which I wrote ūüôā
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Sudan#Medieval_Nubia_(c._350-1500)

  • You should do a video on Incels

  • Nubia had pyramids before Egypt known as kemet.

  • YOU ARE THE MAN

  • Step Back History what about the historian Robert Sepehr who claims that the Kushites were actually a white european that ruled the Kingdom of Kush and also Ethiopia? Have you heard of this and is there any validity to this?

  • You should talk about the 1990 war in Kuwait

  • Lol it‚Äôs kinda sad that you know more about my country Sudan, but it‚Äôs probably because I‚Äôm half Finnish and live in Finland ūüáęūüáģūüáłūüá©

  • 17:30 Noice Subliminal.

  • Thanks a lot, I loved this! Now I'm going to watch your video on Ethiopia!
    I know this is not a Bible prophecy channel, but I just wanted to mention that CUSH is mentioned in Ezekiel 38 as one of the nations who will arise and war against Israel in the end days, together with some other countries. The other ones named in Ezekiel 38 are modern day Turkey, Iran and Russia.
    We have not seen any such coalitions started to form recently in the Middle East, have we? rolling eyes

    Have a great day you all!!

  • When referring to the monstrosities that happened in Congo, please stop calling the country "Belgian Congo".
    It was the personal possession of King Leopold II, it only became a Belgian colony after the death of Leopold.

  • No no no sir, the Egyptians HAVE INGLUENCE FROM SUDAN. Sir don't speak what you don't know. Egypt is and was originally Nilotic.

  • I'm North sudanes and half for

  • I‚Äôm from Sudan but I live in Canada

  • Well I didn‚Äôt know Indians came to sudan no wonder my mom has Indian features ( long hair ) I‚Äôm From north Sudan and I didn‚Äôt know that South Sudan practices Christianity and I was shocked cuz I thought all sudan was Muslim but okay
    And I noticed was Sudanese from the north have softer features like light skin , long hair some times short, colored eyes and more and that southern Sudanese have dark skin , long hair and sometimes short and dark brown eyes I love how both of the countries have different cultures and stuff it’s amazing blessings to both Sudan’s

  • I don't,even like the idea of a Arab, trying to teach me Afrikan history, this has been the problem, Eurasians telling the story of the conqueror, I've learned some history of the Sudan, and hope that southern Sudan and Northern Sudan,unites, and chase all non-Afrikans out of Afrika,Afrika Unite, Afrika for Afrikans at home and abroad ūüó£ÔłŹūüĖ§ ūüó£ÔłŹ Love you, Sourh Sudan,,!

  • Interesting information given here. I work with a Sudanese person and I always thought he had something of very Egyptian like.

  • Actually Sudan or kush is older than Egypt, the culture flow from south to north, if you look at it there are more pyramids in Sudan than Egypt, no one can master how to build if you didn't do alot more before you built great buildings. For example there will be no Dubai new modern city if you didn't have New York city and every great modern skyscraper cities that came before Dubai.

  • ūüėöūüėöūüėö

  • OFF THAT POOL

  • You should do a video about lake chad and its civilizations.

  • All your stories is fake and manipulated by the white people from Europe please before read think, all this area called Africa first Search about from were white peoples came to Africa and when !!?? The only fact in your story is the names only, kush and Ethiopia and Sudan all are same meaning talking about the black people and the burned face and the land of black and all are a deferent translation of Kush (ka uosh) . Please 1st make research about the upside would map its will help you to understand the History of all the world including your own History
    (No Hard feeling)

  • the frist accurate video about sudan history in youtube
    well done job

  • You're Good!

  • lol that was funny, 5:10 there was for some time a black pharaoh. How people assume stuff from the little history that we know. For all we know ancient Egyptians were black.

  • ŔáŔĄōß ōßŔÜōß ŔÖŔÜ ōßŔĄō≥ŔąōĮōßŔÜ hi iam from sudan

  • dude second civil war in Sudan started i 1983 not 1987.

  • More like Rome was afraid to try it

  • Nice video

  • The oldness of the ancientry is controversial so it is not acknowledged which one is older than the other. There are many documentaries stated that Sudanese ancient is older and some think it was one ancient so I think you should not have taken one opinion without mentioning the other as this might affect some people. Generally well done mate and many thanks for putting a spotlight on Sudan, the forgotten and underrated country.

  • That's not fully accurate, I am from South Sudan and Sudan was belong to us. In past history Arab has inter into Sudan through nile such as a trader. If you read the past history of sudan you will find that( inter of Arab into Sudan) . They are actually Egyptians people and other Arab countries which form what is Called North Sudan (Sudan). They keep inter into Sudan became more than control , and with bright knowledge of Egyptian people, they start to rule original Sudanese whoever don't have idea about politics. The original Sudanese at that time they were not educated. They just like to fetch for food in order to build their family and keeping animals. They are actually famers people only.

  • thank you man this is great work.

  • You skipped thousands of years of history the people of Kush and Punt founded Kemet it was not Egypt until it was invaded by foreigners the original Oro's/Pharaohs where all black and during the time you spoke of Taharqa reclaimed our kingdom of Kemet but you said it as if the civilization wasn't founded by the indigenous people in the first place also the Egyptian religion came from Kush not the other way around.

  • You have it backwards, sir. Your version is the Arabic and European version. The truth is Kush expanded across the Niger valley, some parts of West Africa, East Africa, and North Africa. The Nubians were the first rulers or as they call them today first Pharoah's of these lands. The Mediterraneans, which included the Assyrians, Sumerians, Persians, and Greco Roman's invaded the land of Kush or as they called it back then, "the land of the blacks". Just like they Europeans and Asians do today. Those non blacks used deception and trickery to divide and conquer almost all lands where blacks established. They stole, raped, killed, and spread disease to the children, women, and men massively. Non blacks did this all over the world. They claimed these black people's innovations such as pyramids, religion, alchemy, math, language, medicine, and metaphysical Science from the Kushites. Archeologists have done research that proves your version is extremely false. Thank you.

  • Super interesting, I‚Äôm writing an essay about the Darfur conflict and thought I better get some historical context. Thanks for sharing!

  • Have you heard Napta Plya? this was proper Ancient Sudanese and predates both Kush and Lower Egypt

  • You are so misinformed. Kush is in reference to Cush the son of Ham son of Noah. Sudan's proper old name was Ta Seti and land of the bow or land of Gold. Basically all that is Upper Egypt is Ancient Sudan and at least the first 10 dynasties were from Upper Egypt aka Nubians/Kushites. Then Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos and Lybians then again Kushites as 25th dynasty. Lower Egypt was then a football between Persians, Greeks, Romans until it's collapse. In modern history the Turks and finally British then took over. . So much wrong information I don't know where to start. Kushites self ruled for the majority of its the existence

  • 13:16 good try but not quite right Islam believes that jesus or isa will come back the mehdi is just someone that will continue to rule as a leader that's I think mehdi means in Arabic

  • Where did you learn all those knowledge about Sudan from?

  • Great video. Could you do a brief history on C√īte d'Ivoire? thank you!

  • Great summary!!! I really enjoyed this.

  • Bernie on the wall ūüė≥ūü§Ę

  • North Sudan forever

  • J'mai beaucoup le soudan de sud et soudan de noire merci

  • This man lost me when he said for sometime Black Pharaohs. Sir all the Pharaohs were black all of them all Egyptians depicted themselves as black even the Bible tells you that the Egyptians were hamites they were Africans they were black

  • No offense to anyone of African descent in the comment section, but in both ancient as well as modern Hebrew Kush and also the racial slur Kushi is the American equivalent of the N. word.

  • Cush¬†or¬†Kush¬†(/k ä É,¬†k Ć É/¬†Hebrew:¬†◊õ÷ľ◊ē÷ľ◊©◊Ā,¬†Kush) was, according to the¬†Bible, the eldest son of¬†Ham, a son of¬†Noah. He was the brother of¬†Canaan¬†(land of¬†Canaan),¬†Mizraim¬†(Egypt) and¬†Phut¬†(land of¬†Libya), and the father of the biblical¬†Nimrod¬†mentioned in the "Table of Nations" in¬†Genesis¬†10:6 and¬†I Chronicles¬†1:8.

    Cush is traditionally considered the eponymous ancestor of the people of the "land of Cush," an ancient territory that is believed to have been located on either side or both sides of the Red Sea. As such, "Cush" is alternately identified in scripture with the Kingdom of Kushor ancient Ethiopia.[1] The Cushitic languages are named after Cush.

    Hebrew scholar David M. Goldenberg has suggested that the Hebrew name is derived from Kash, the Egyptian name of Lower Nubia and later of the Nubian kingdom at Napata, known as the Kingdom of Kush.[2]

    The form¬†Kush¬†appears in Egyptian records as early as the reign of¬†Mentuhotep II¬†(21st century BC), in an inscription detailing his campaigns against the Nubian region.[3]¬†At the time of the compilation of the¬†Hebrew Bible, and throughout classical antiquity, the Nubian kingdom was centered at¬†Mero√ꬆin the modern-day nation of¬†Sudan.[2]

    Hebrew Bible[edit]
    A page from¬†Elia Levita's 16th-century Yiddish‚ÄďHebrew‚ÄďLatin‚ÄďGerman dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word "◊õ◊ē◊©◊ô" Cushite or¬†Cushi, translated to Latin as "Aethiops" and into German as "Mor".

    According to Genesis, Cush's other sons were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah.

    The Book of Numbers 12:1 describes Moses as having married "a Cushite woman".

    The rhetorical question "Can the Cushite change his skin?" in¬†Jeremiah¬†13:23 implies brown skin color; also, the¬†Septuagint¬†uniformly translates Cush as¬†őĎŠľįőłőĻőŅŌÄőĮőĪ¬†"Aithiopia."

    Another person named Cush in the Hebrew Bible is a Benjamite who is mentioned only in Psalm 7 and is believed to be a follower of Saul.

    Traditional identifications[edit]

    Josephus gives an account of the nation of Cush, son of Ham and grandson of Noah: "For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Cush; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Cushites" (Antiquities of the Jews 1.6).

    The Book of Numbers 12:1 calls the wife of Moses "an Ethiopian woman", whereas Moses's wife Zipporah is usually described as hailing from Midian. Ezekiel, the Tragedian's Exagoge 60-65 (fragments reproduced in Eusebius) has Zipporah describe herself as a stranger in Midian, and proceeds to describe the inhabitants of her ancestral lands in North Africa:

    "Stranger, this land is called Libya. It is inhabited by tribes of various peoples, Ethiopians, dark men. One man is the ruler of the land: he is both king and general. He rules the state, judges the people, and is priest. This man is my father and theirs."

    During the 5th century AD, Syrian writers described the Himyarites of South Arabia as Cushaeans and Ethiopians.[1]

    The Persian historian al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts a tradition that the wife of Cush was named Qarnabil, daughter of Batawil, son of Tiras, and that she bore him the "Abyssinians, Sindis and Indians".[4]

    The Cushitic-speaking peoples today comprise the Agaw, Oromo, Somali, Afar, and several other tribes, and were considered offspring of Cush in Masudi's Meadows of Gold from 947 AD.[5] The Beja people, who also speak a Cushitic language, have specific genealogical traditions of descent from Cush.[6][7]

    Explorer¬†James Bruce, who visited the¬†Ethiopian Highlands¬†c. 1770, wrote of "a tradition among the Abyssinians, which they say they have had since time immemorial", that in the days after the Deluge, Cush, the son of Ham, traveled with his family up the Nile until they reached the¬†Atbara¬†plain, then still uninhabited, from where they could see the Ethiopian table-land. There they ascended and built¬†Axum, and sometime later returned to the lowland, building¬†Mero√ę. He also states that European scholars of his own day had summarily rejected this account on grounds of their established theory, that Cush must have arrived in Africa via Arabia and the¬†Bab-el-Mandeb, a¬†strait¬†located between¬†Yemen¬†on the Arabian Peninsula, and¬†Djibouti¬†and¬†Eritrea¬†on the¬†Horn of Africa.[8]¬†Further, the great¬†obelisk¬†of Axum was said to have been erected by Cush in order to mark his allotted territory, and his son¬†Ityopp'is¬†was said to have been buried there, according to the¬†Book of Aksum, which Bruce asserts was revered throughout Abyssinia equally with the¬†Kebra Nagast.

    Scholars like Johann Michaelis and Rosenmuller have pointed out that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country on both sides of the Red Sea, in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) and Northeast Africa.

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