A Brief Amazing History Of The Sun!


The sun is without a doubt the most important
thing in our solar system aside from the Earth (and technically the moon). But how much do you really know about it? Join us as we give you a brief history of
our sun. Long before our solar system was born, the
universe was a big wasteland of nothing. Or at the very least, that’s what we believe
it was. Then, through one means or another, there
was an event known as the Big Bang. This expansion of energy and matter spread
throughout the universe both known and unknown and created a great many things. And when it didn’t specifically create something,
it left the building blocks to all things to be made. In regards to our solar system, that would
be what is known as the Solar Nebula. Or to break it down for you, a massive cloud
of gasses and matter and particles and molecules. This reached out over 100 AU (astronomical
units, AKA 100 times the distance between us and the sun) and it was the true building
blocks of our universe. But…how does that work? How does it go from a massive cloud to a bright
ball of warmth and energy we call the sun? The answer to that is time, pressure, and
a little bit of luck. Most scientists who believe in the Solar Nebula
theory understand the concept of the cloud being there and then somehow starting to make
the planets and the sun But what many aren’t sure about is the actual ‘event’ that led
to it folding in upon itself. Meaning? Meaning…there isn’t a giant cloud of dust
and such right outside our planet, right? Something had to trigger the cloud to compress,
to fold in on itself to make things that wasn’t just gasses, and no one is really sure how
that happened. Some think it was the byproduct of a nearby
supernova, but it’s all just speculation. What we do know (or at least can theorize)
is that when this started to happen, when the Solar Nebula started to destabilize, it
compressed upon itself, and when you have a massive thing of gas folding in on itself,
things tend to get massive. And as the cloud began to compress, it also
started spinning, until eventually there was a giant pancake disc spinning around in our
solar system. Not exactly a sun, but a big step in getting
there. In fact, most label this as a “Protostar”,
and when that happened the sun was born…right? Not exactly. Because while it was a protostar, it was still
a pancake. It’s estimated that over the next 50 million
years that the sun slowly gathered more mass and more energy from the cloud. Likely due to its spinning nature and the
gravity it was exuding. Eventually, once it got enough mass and energy,
the process of nuclear fusion began in the sun, and that led it to being the big ball
of light and “fire” that we call the sun. So a major piece of our solar system had been
made. All told, our sun is believed to be as old,
or pretty close to being as old, as our whole solar system. Which would mean that right now, our sun is
about 4.6 billion years old. And yet it doesn’t look a day under 3 billion. Alright, so now you know how the sun was born,
but how much do you know about it stat wise? For example, do you know how big the sun is
across its diameter? Take a second, I’ll let you think of a number,
no cheating though! Ready? Did you guess…864,340 miles across? Then you would be right. Our sun is that big in its length that it’s
109 times the size of Earth in regards to its diameter. In terms of weight, the sun is 330,000 times
as heavy. And to top it all off, if we wanted to fill
up the sun with Earths, we would need about 1.3 million of them to fill up that giant
ball of gas in the sky above. It’s truly astounding, isn’t it? We look up at the sky, and the sun seems small,
or if you look at it during a sunrise or sunset it looks much bigger, and yet still very small
in comparison to what is all around you. But that’s the trick, because the sun is 93
million miles away from the Earth right now, it looks smaller because of that distance. When in fact, it’s bigger than we are, or
we will ever be. Does that mean that we should fear the sun
though? Not exactly, not in the ways you might be
thinking. Because if the sun were any bigger, or any
smaller, the Earth would be in serious trouble overall. How does that work? Think about it, the Earth right now is a haven
for life, and the sun is a major part of that no matter how you look at it. The sun above gives us light for us to see,
which in the days before technology was a godsend. That same light also brings warmth to the
planet, and yet isn’t so hot that it burns our skin (outside of massive exposure on a
hot day obviously) or make us try and get into cooler spaces so we don’t get hurt. Then, because of our atmosphere, the harmful
radiation of our sun is filtered out so that it doesn’t hurt us on the insides and the
outsides, which is something that often gets forgotten when talking about the sun and the
Earth. But that’s the thing, IF the sun was any closer,
or any farther from where it is right now…the Earth would either be screwed, barren, or
unable to produce life. And we have proof of that via the planets
that are right next to us. If we were closer to the sun, then we’d be
a lot more like Venus. The heat would roast us alive and make the
average temperature in the hundreds of degrees and not the dozens like we have now. Whether the Greenhouse Effect would happen
to us like Venus is a bit up for debate, but it definitely is a possibility. On the other side of the equation, if we were
any farther away from the sun, we’d be like Mars. Too far away to truly get the warmth that
it provides. You could argue that some of the things that
happened on Mars wouldn’t happen on Earth, such as the whole in the atmosphere that drained
away its oceans once, but it still would make things harder to live with. As if that wasn’t enough proof that we got
lucky with our sun, the sun’s type is also a big reason why we’re so good here on Earth. You see, our sun is what is known as a Yellow
Dwarf star, and its average temperature is about 4000 Kelvin. Why is that important? Well it matters because that helps determine
how much power it gives off. What gets lost in translation in regards to
the sun heating the Earth is that the energy is dissipated over the course of 93 million
miles. But, that means that the “cooled off” energy
when it reaches us is just what we need to live. Hence again why Venus and Mars aren’t good
places to live because they get too much energy or too little. As for how much energy the sun actually exudes,
that would be 38,460 Septillion Watts. If you need a number to that, that’s 26 zeros
at the end of that number, and it does that PER SECOND. The catch is that while it makes it, it dissipates
quickly. Which we should be grateful for. Not to mention that that amount of energy
would be incredibly dangerous if it reached Earth in its raw form. It’s be about 1.82 billion nuclear devices
going off at one time, per second. I wouldn’t want to be on the broadside of
that, would you? Before we talk about the end of the sun, be
sure to like the video and subscribe to the channel! That way you don’t miss our weekly videos! So…let’s ask the now obvious question….when
will the sun die? Or more accurately, HOW will the sun die? Well…that’s the thing. Technically speaking it won’t “die”, it’ll
just be in the next phase of its life. You see, the sun is basically a fusion reaction,
and because of that, it burns the gasses within itself in order to light everything and make
energy. But eventually, it’s going to run out of some
of the gasses that keep it as a yellow dwarf star. And what that happens, it’ll start to burn
brighter and hotter than ever before. I know that may sound counterintuitive, but
that’s what happens. It’s burning Hydrogen right now, and that’s
what we’re feeling in terms of the warmth is the energy from that hydrogen. But eventually, that’ll run out, and it’ll
start to burn things from deeper within its core, and that’ll cause the star to burn brighter. In about a billion years? That’ll mean that the sun will be 10% brighter. By 5 billion years? It’ll be 67% brighter, and it’ll keep going
until it reaches its Red Giant phase of life in about 7.5 billion years. When that happens, the sun will grow exponentially
in size, and swallow up everything from where it is now to about…Jupiter. So yes, that means that the sun is going to
kill the Earth eventually if given the chance. One thing you might be thinking based on that
somewhat scary revelation about the sun is that “it would be better if it just disappeared!” Except, that would cause a whole slew of other
problems. Especially if it was to happen while life
was still on Earth. You see, what people forget about is that
we actually orbit the sun. We’re constantly in its gravitational pull. Thus why we and all the other planets and
moons and rocks in the solar systems without their own momentum is pulled by it. So you need to ask yourselves, what happens
if that gravity…that pull…that binding force…stops binding our planet? With a guiding body, our planet stays exactly
where it is within its orbit. However, without one, Earth would literally
start careening through the stars in whatever direction it was heading before the sun itself
went out. I’m sure I don’t have to spell out all the
havoc that would wreak on our planet. But I’ll give you some hope, we wouldn’t have
to worry about it for long, because we wouldn’t last long without our orbit around the sun. Because without that binding force, there’s
nothing stopping us from colliding into other things in our solar system. As you might know, there are asteroid belts,
and comets, and other stars and planets out there. The sun was actually protecting us from hitting
those things via its orbit paths. But without one? It’s going to be a game of galactic pinball. Except we’re not going to just bounce off
unscatched. For example, if we were to collide with an
asteroid it could literally wipe out our planet in a fraction of a minute. Or worse yet, we could literally collide with
an entire planet! One that would absorb us, burn us, gas us,
or another other variety of things. So between all of these factors, I think you
can admit, that if the sun were to suddenly disappear, we wouldn’t last very long. Or, let’s say we somehow survive in orbit
(somehow) without a sun, without it, we’d freeze. To be fair, we won’t “insta-freeze”. That’s not how it works. Not unlike you can’t freeze a meal just by
putting it in the freezer for a few seconds or a minute. In fact, most scientists agree that if the
sun went out for only a day, not much would happen. Our atmosphere is capable of holding in its
own heat. Which is actually magnified thanks to our
use of fossil fuels. Hence Global Warming. And so it goes to reason that our planet would
be able to last temperature wise…for a little bit. After about a week of no sunlight or warmth
though, the average temperature of the Earth would be around 0 degrees Fahrenheit. That’s not only cold, that’s below freezing,
which would allow a bunch of ice and snow to form on the planet. Both on the land, and the oceans themselves. Scientists believe that in a year’s time,
the average temperature on Earth would be -100 degrees Fahrenheit, and that’s when the
ocean would freeze on the surface more than likely. Which would be another nail in the coffin
of the planet because we rely on the oceans for many things, and if they’re frozen on
top, it’ll lead to many disasters. Many who study the possibility of the sun
going out feel that if humanity needed a solution, we could simply tunnel look to the inside
of our planet, and use the Earth’s core to try and heat ourselves. Not unlike how many geothermal vents do in
the oceans themselves. That potentially could work, but there are
many issues with that. Not the least of which is that would need
to be done for the WHOLE planet, and humanity would need to be close enough together to
feel that kind of warmth. And do recall, this would only be one problem
that would need to be solved in order to save our planet. Thankfully for us all, this is just a hypothetical
situation. The sun is very much fine, and even with some
of the other things going on with Earth right now, the sun is still doing its job, and it’ll
continue to do that job for many generations. And for that, we should be grateful. Thanks for watching everyone! What did you think of this history of the
sun, what it could do, and why we should be grateful that it exists in our sky? Do you have a deeper appreciation for the
sun now? Are you glad it does all that it does for
us? Let me know in the comments below, be sure
to subscribe, and I’ll see you next time on the channel!

Comments 8

  • Excellent!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • People back then also believe that Earth was the center of the universe and that the sun revolved around it

  • You missed the part about the sun being a 3rd generation star. The universe was only hydrogen, helium, and a teeny bit of lithium. First gen stars were made up exclusively of those elements, and after about 10 million years, they exploded spewing their guts and creating a cloud of gas and heavier elements formed in the explosion. Then there was second gen stars that formed from the leftovers of the first gen stars. These stars formed with more heavier elements. When the second gen stars died in supernova, they spewed out even more heavy elements like oxygen, carbon, iron… etc. Our solar system formed from the ashes of 2 previous stars.

  • Earth is center of observable universe. Mind blown

  • I should watch more of Neil Degrasses videos

  • Without sunlight plants would not exist and other chemical reactions that happen between life and the sun's energy would cease. Life would definitely be doomed as it did not evolve to live without the sun.

  • I couldn't stop thinking of the theory that Mercury is at some point going to lose its orbit with two potential outcomes. A) Mercury is flung away from the solar system and Venus and Earth will swap places. B) Mercury is flung out through the solar system and collides with Earth the same way Thea did. In either case, life on Earth is over. In the case of A, we're burned to a crisp, and in the case of B, we're either blown to bits or quickly snuffed out. I really could have lived without that knowledge. Thanks, Science Channel!

  • 1:02 really 100 times???
    The astronomical unit (symbol: au, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun and equal to about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles).

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