5 Baffling Mysteries About the Universe

At the beginning of the 20th century Many scientists started thinking that Physics was pretty much over Surely we have a few unsolved mysteries left but it seemed like they could all be ironed out with better measurements, or maybe with very slight tweaks to what was already known The problem was, those mysteries didn’t go away with better measurements and slight tweaks They led to fundamental revolutions in our understanding of nature Huge, important things, like Relativity and Quantum Mechanics Now that we’ve discovered those things, though, It might sometimes feel like there are, once again, just a few small problems left for physicists to solve before we can say we know everything About how the universe works Here are 5 of those problems that are actually a really big deal And aren’t going to go down without a fight Neutrinos are tiny sub-atomic particles There are TRILLIONS of them flying through you every second But they hardly ever hit one of your atoms Like, even a 14,000 Metric Ton neutrino detector will only detect a few neutrinos a day As strange as that might be, Physicists mostly understand why Neutrinos don’t often interact with ordinary matter What they don’t understand, is why Neutrinos have mass Or why that mass is so small Particle Physicists use the standard model Which uses math to describe how every known particle interacts with every other known particle It’s one of the most successful models in history The Standard Model correctly predicts the results of literally trillions of experiments Now the problem is, the Standard model also predicts that Neutrinos shouldn’t have any mass But in the 1990’s, Physicists studying Neutrinos coming from the sun realized that Neutrinos had to have mass There are a few different kinds of Neutrinos, and the researchers found that the Neutrinos coming from the sun were switching types But they would need mass to be able to do that switching Which means that the standard model, has a pretty big hole in it Now, there IS a way of changing the equation used in the Standard model so that it includes Neutrinos with mass But on it’s own, the fact that Neutrinos have mass doesn’t necessarily have to be a dealbreaker But, Neutrinos masses are also incredibly tiny compared to every other fundamental particle out there Electrons are the next lightest particles we’ve found, and they’re still somewhere between 126,000 and 600 million times heavier than the lightest Neutrinos That huge gap makes a lot of Physicists think that fitting Neutrinos with mass into the current Standard Model, is a little bit like shoving sugar packets under the leg of a wobble table, and saying you fixed it There are a few other possible explanations out there that also fit with the standard model, and so far, we haven’t found any solid evidence to support them Other Physicists think that we need to throw out the Standard model altogether, and turn to new models to explain the mysterious mass Another possible solution to the Neutrino mass problem could help solve a second mystery Why is there so much matter in the universe? See, Matter has a sort of twin called Antimatter Antimatter particles are just like regular matter particles, except they have the opposite charge So regular matter has electrons, for example, which have a negative charge But antimatter has what are called positrons, which are just like electrons except with a positive charge and whenever a particle of matter meets its corresponding particle of antimatter, they annihilate each other in a big explosion The problem is, Matter and Anti-matter act the same in a lot of ways, as long as they’re kept separate from each other Like, when we do experiments in particle accelerators and produce particles of matter, we produce particles of antimatter, too Antimatter can even make atoms, just like normal matter can The laws of Physics just don’t seem to prefer one over the other But when we look out into the universe, all we see is ordinary matter Like the stuff down here on Earth There are no Antimatter stars, no Antimatter galaxies, and no Antimatter dust clouds If there were, they’d occasionally run into similar pieces of matter, and they’d annihilate each other in a big flash But we don’t see those flashes But why didn’t the universe start out with equal amounts of matter and antimatter that then annihilated each other, with nothing left over? There are a lot of possibilities, and some of them have to do with our old friends, Neutrinos You remember how Neutrinos are so weirdly light? If there are also incredibly heavy Neutrinos, they would balance out the light Neutrinos by creating a whole family that kind of averages out at a more reasonable mass these heavy neutrinos would have been around just after the Big Bang when they would have decayed into smaller lighter particles and in the process produced slightly more matter particles than antimatter particles so if heavy neutrinos did actually exists that could help solve two mysteries at want first it might explain why neutrinos have such tiny masses and second it would explain why this matter all over the universe instead of antimatter it would be such a nice elegant solution the only problem is none of our experiments have found evidence for it let’s zoom way out now from subatomic particles to whole galaxy since gravity comes from mass astronomers can use the amount matter they detect in the galaxy to calculate how strong it’s gravity should be but they’ve known for almost a century that they must be missing something stars orbit the center of galaxies so fast that the galaxies calculated gravity shouldn’t be strong enough to hold onto these stars should escape into intergalactic space but they don’t there must be some extra source of gravity out there holding galaxies together astronomers call this source dark matter and unlike antimatter we have no idea what dark matter is made of all they really know is that dark matter interacts with regular matter through the gravitational force and then it seems invisible to telescopes also it makes up about eighty-five percent of the matter in the universe now there is a much simpler possibility what if astronomers are just wrong about the laws of gravity maybe if they found the right laws they could explain everything without needing dark matter what dark matter just explains too many things to well from the way that galaxies are distributed in a large-scale to the way that matter clump together just after the Big Bang plus astronomers have actually found pockets of dark matter that are completely separated from any visible matter in other words they’ve seen gravitational effects that should be caused by matter in places where there’s no detectable matter even changing the laws of gravity wouldn’t explain that so dark matter definitely exists we just don’t know what it is but we do know what it isn’t for example lots of people used to think that dark matter was probably just a lot of really dim ordinary matter like small failed stars called brown dwarfs or even neutrino experiments have ruled out a lot of those sorts of options there are still plenty of other ideas out there waiting in the wings for upcoming experiments but for now eighty-five percent of the matter of the universe remains completely unexplained there’s also something weird about matter itself starting about a second after the Big Bang and lasting for about three minutes protons and neutrons came together in the first-ever atomic nuclear physicists can use what they know about particle physics and the early universe to predict how much of each element should have formed this way hydrogen for example has just a single proton its nucleus and because it’s so simple about seventy percent of the atoms in the universe should be hydrogen and that’s exactly what astronomers see when they look at old star that same model also predicts that protons and neutrons should have come together to form helium about twenty-seven percent of the time so twenty-seven percent of the atoms should have been Healy again exactly what astronomers see when they check and just about every element they look at matches in the same way and then there’s lithia one form of lithium called lithium-7 has three protons and for Neutron and astronomers see four times less of it than the model predict this huge difference makes them think there must be something wrong with either the model over the measurements or both astronomers make a few assumptions about the early universe in order to predict how much of each element was produced and to measure how much of each of those elements is actually out there they use the light from stars were again they have to make some assumptions about things like the Stars temperature and stability they could try to change some of those assumptions to fit lithium but there’s a problem these assumptions works so well for the other elements that tweaking them to fit lithium screws everything else up so a lot of physicists think the lithium problem means that there’s some part of physics that we’re missing like the idea of supersymmetry which says that every particle has a kind of twin sibling with a much larger map there’s another idea that the things we think are constants of nature and basically set in stone aren’t actually constant if supersymmetry is real that would mean there were more particles in the early universe and if the things we think are set in stone actually aren’t that would change how the particles interactive so both could help explain the weird lithium numbers if we ever find evidence for them but so far we haven’t found in the cosmic microwave background or CMB is the oldest light in the universe is often represented as a pattern of reds and blues which show the different densities of matter that eventually led to big structures like our galaxy the CMB was a really important discovery in the 1960s because it helped confirm the big bang theory it also hides an axis of evil and yes that’s actually what scientists call it the axis of evil see researchers expect that matter in the early universe shouldn’t have been bunched up too much in any one place or direction but that’s not what they see in the CMB instead they see a kind of split between a more dense half and a less dense half with an axis of evil between the two and when they try to divide up the CMB and other more complicated ways than just seeing which half is denser the axis of evil is still there at first astronomers thought there must have been something wrong with the measurements or maybe but there was something like a nearby dust cloud that was messing things up but they’ve checked and checked and checked and they can’t get rid of this axis make things even weirder the axis of evil lines up with the plane of our solar system we point right at it and that’s just bizarre astronomy is guided by something called the Copernicus principle which says there’s no reason our place in the universe should be special but lining up with a cosmological axis that formed billions of years before earth did seems like it puts us in a pretty special place now it’s completely possible that there’s nothing weird about the alignment always probably about a 1 in 1,000 chance that the conventional Big Bang model would produce a universe with matter bunched up like it is in the CMB those odds aren’t too bad and with trillions of planets orbiting trillions of stars throughout the universe someone was bound to line up with the axis of evil so maybe we just got lucky and besides the alignment isn’t perfect it’s just surprisingly good but scientists still want to know why this axis exists and whether there’s a reason our solar system lines up with unfortunately they haven’t come up with my none of these mysteries will be easy to solve but there are lots of smart people working on all of them and sometimes even on two or more once maybe someday soon I’ll be telling you about the solutions to some of these problems but in the meantime they’ll keep reminding us that there’s still a lot we don’t know about the universe thanks for watching this episode of scishow which was brought to you by our patrons on patreon if you wanna help support the show just go to patreon.com/scishow and don’t forget to go to youtube.com slash scishow and subscribe extinction rates for example are thought to be a thousand times higher with humans around then they would be without but not all endangered species are headed the way of the dodo

Comments 100

  • No matter how much we know about the universe their will still be a ton we will never know

  • Oh, it seems that Axis of Evil is the brother of Weak Nuclear Force for physicists. They are the Grinch of Physics.
    What a head breaker 🙂

  • Any updates to any of these?

  • …. sugar packets?

  • You're not Hank. I demand Hank hosts this video. All Hank, all the time. It should also be renamed to the Hank Show.

  • Jesus that was crazy

  • Ingat point nombor 7

  • Dark Matter is Hydrogen at a lower ground state https://brilliantlightpower.com/theory-overview/

  • Shouldn't you be in a boy band somewhere? Oh, and you forgot to shave that bit of peach fuzz on your chin.

  • The question regarding the perceived abundance of ordinary matter over antimatter is relatively easy to solve.

    When common matter meets antimatter, we get a terrific release of energy.

    This release cancels each other's charge out, but it dose not destroy the energy, as energy can neither be created or destroyed, but it can be changed.

    So, (+) + (-) = a different form of energy, whose charge can be either (+), or (-), but seems to favor a positive charge.

    One less mystery😑

  • The heavy neutrino's all went to Jenny Craig!

  • What if we are a "late to the party" species and most of the lithium in the universe has alteady been harvested by previous intergalactic civilizations ?

  • Maybe the Big Bang theory is still just a theory & never happened at all.

  • You can’t see can’t detect it but dark matter exists. Are you starting to think that your philosopher is not physicists, because that sure is hell what you sound like. Maybe gravity isn’t the binding force in the universe and maybe it’s electromagnetism. Using computer models it’s almost impossible for one body to capture another body gravitationally, but considering static is 10 to the 39th power stronger than gravity it’s awful easy with electromagnetism.

  • Who does your hair?

  • Could someone explain why these guys cut out every pause (where you could think about what has been said, or just aaww … awhile)?

  • So for those of you familiar with The Great Filter theory, wouldn’t our alignment with the Axis of Evil suggest that we’ve passed The Great Filter? As it is such a strange occurrence it could be the reason why life has formed in our solar system, meaning that aliens don’t exist and we are the only life form…idk man just a thought, I still believe in aliens #CantDisappointSigourneyWeaver

  • That intro sounds soooooooooo stupid

  • I just received an ad about some hacking the matrix/reality higher balance pseudospiritual mumbo jumbo before the video started. Is this what scishow is associating with?

  • wow wow wow i thought photons where the lightest particles with a mass of 0 and thats why they can travel at the speed of light. what am i missing?

  • What’s the matter?

  • Isn't lithium on a different covalence level? Maybe it just took a little longer than expected for the universe to go up to that level without repelling being a problem.

  • The separation between matter and anti matter particles

  • i admit it, i took all that litium. i didn't want to buy it at the pharmacy…

  • I was trying to concentrate to what you said and learn something… but you are way to beautiful…. marry me senpai 😀

  • Shouldn’t the neutrino study years just to use the most dense element week good to detect the neutrinos better because then it will have a lot higher the chance to hit up and atom of osmium for say and it could be a lot more reliable than using something like steel.

  • It's not 70% of the atoms and 27% of the atoms, it's 70% of the mass is hydrogen and 27% of the mass is helium. The number of atoms is closer to 92% and 8%.

  • What if all the matter we see in universe is really the antimatter??

  • Would you be interest in gaining an understanding that would resolve most of if not all the issues presented here.n this upload? This theory would also answer questions you didn't even needed to be asked. You can stay in the dark or just ask me to turn on the light for you. The choice is yours. ; ) "I do not believe that it is justifiable to ask: What would physics look like without gravitation?"

    — Albert Einstein




  • How would we even know if the universe is made of antimatter since its exactly the same as matter?

  • It's bringing structure to chaos. I love science!

  • It's always seemed like everything major in the world is already known. Every continent, space, math, science, inventions.. etc. Of course there is always something new to learn, but it just seems like these days we have too much. I've always felt like I was born in the wrong time. I usually talk like I'm from the 50's except for online.. I dont use my phone in public, and I hate talking to people. Not shy or anything, but if I have the ability to answer something with a look, I'd prefer to do that. I'm kind of like Gibbs from ncis lol.

  • Oh god. We're placed in a near perfect spot? Come on! You're giving the creationists ammo to lob at us!

  • I saw a documentary video about area 51 and aliens,at some point the video said that those of the alien spaceships use ANTI MATTER to run those spaceships.

  • Here's an exercise: every time the speaker says "heavy particle," you think "big wave"; and, every time he says "light particle," you think "little wave." Now, the Universe–instead of being a disparate conglomeration of stuff zipping this way and that–becomes an ocean, homogeneous in nature, but with "ripples" varying from the shifting tides of photons to the tsunamis of massive particles. Again, whatever your proclivities in the sense of today's mathematical models, there is no way to differentiate between a "wave"-based (Quantum Mechanics) or "particle"-based ("Classical" Mechanics) model of the Universe. In this sense, a little bit of "dark matter" is nothing less–nor more–than a "wave" you don't have the ability or equipment to measure; and, a small nudge of "dark energy" is nothing more than a "wave" whose origin you can't see.

  • Sometimes i think that physicists are just a bunch of histerical people… in a very smart way
    How come a species who used to walk on its fours, now has the ability to count how much of each substance was created at the Big Bang? 😮

  • ten minutes

  • As per AstronomyNow, the Cosmological Li problem is solved? Can we get an update? (https://astronomynow.com/2016/01/01/the-top-ten-stories-of-2015-no-10-solving-the-lithium-mystery/)

  • Did they ever account for antigravity being generated from the voids pushing the galaxies together ontop of gravity pulling them together?

  • What if it a black hole at the center of a galaxy…duh

  • he looks like Shaggy Rogers and does not blink, just like a cartoon.

  • #5, the "Axis of Evil" just happens to line up with the orbit of the Earth. You might think the Creator gave us a hint.

  • Axis of evil may be our fm radio ? Or satellite HBO

  • I like how he said slightly more matter than anti-matter seeing as there's billions of trillions of particles in the universe I would be scared when he says something is slightly far 😂

  • Where is the nerd with the glasses?? It's uncomfortable getting scientific theories from someone that looks like a graffiti artist. I guess why not, theories are nothing more than assumptions of wise men and women, a.k.a. PhD's. This is just a modern religion asking me to invest faith, and loosely supported by questionable so called proof. Much like profits used to do in day's of old. LOL. I will just file this under the same category as black holes, evolution, Islam, Budisam, and so on. Until they can provide solid proof and actually call it a fact of science. Because theoretical science is just another religion if you ask me. One theory fueling another, as it mushrooms into a fantastic fantasy, like the theory of evolution or the existence of black holes did.

  • This is wwaayy over my head . Watch til i feel dumb . 3:50 btw .

  • 5:32 really? So how do they detect the invisible matter (cold dark matter) if there is no ordinary matter (baryonic matter) to trace it?

  • Couldn't the "type swapping" of neutrinos actually be wrong, thereby suggesting they don't actually have mass?

  • So there's way less lithium than the should be. What is there way more of than there should be? (don't say matter)

  • of course we're lined up with evil. makes sense to me

  • Trillions of experiments? Did y'all really say such a stupid thing? The standard model has been leaving astronomers looking foolish for decades. If the Standard Model was working astronomers would not be constantly stating their surprise at every new piece of observational data. We have recently gotten up close observations of comet structure and discovered that they are nothing like what the standard model says they are. Yet the model does not change and those project researchers have to say absurd things and make ad hoc explanations. Again, the Electric Universe Hypothesis is simpler than the Standard Model. And please stop saying we have observed dark matter or that we know it exists. There are simpler explanations that do not require miracles or factors that can never be disproven (like dark matter).

  • Didn't know George W Bush was into physics 😀

  • Also, why is it that if we charge up particles with energy we make the force of their atomic bonding weaker? We see that happen when matter goes from solid to liquid to vapor. As heat is applied, particles lose their connection and start to drift away. But shouldn't an increase in energy make those bonds stronger?

  • I've already explained this. Heavy neutrinos are dark matter. One and the same.

  • Does all this really matter?

  • A horrible resurgence of the Gnostic Heresy- what if life is only possible for planets and solar systems ON THE AXIS OF EVIL?

  • "There's nothing special about us"

    "Maybe we're just lucky"

  • despite him implying there wasn't more particals in the early universe than now he forgot black holes. though they spit out radiation.

    as for the lack of antimatter consider that we don't know everything about our universes beginnings and it could have just formed with almost no antimatter. also nobody said antimatter is evenly distributed it's possible antimatter and matter are isolated too far away for us to see.

  • Gravity…

  • Dark Matter is Chuck Norris.

  • So many theories that mean nothing just suppositions. michelson morley experiment

  • The AXIS of EVIL !! I love it/

  • The big bang is a myth

  • i'm not baffled

  • The reason they cant find the rest of the lithium is bc I’m taking it all as an antidepressant. sorry

  • Dear, i think that all this program is for native english speakers and listeners.
    If you are presenting this program for the whole world then you should speak slowly so every listener can easily understand.

  • Why must we just assume that there was a big bang that created the universe ? Maybe if you stop assuming that the universe was created by a big bang, then you could start explaining some of these other observations.

  • Unified theory seems to require letting go gravity as the lens … astromers aren't wrong and it's not about changing the laws of gravity, or finding "dark matter". There is no dark matter in an electric universe people! Wonder why Lithium is the ubiquitous cell phone battery?
    Our universe is electric and multidimensional! How cool to live in a time when anyone with interest and internet access can gain insight into the cutting edge of scientific theory of the fundaments of our universe and how it works!✨
    For anyone who's read this far, check out Suspicious Observer's daily space weather channel.
    peace all

  • Big Bang? The show?

  • …whether , if all matter existed in one place for the big bang idea … conscious sources of creative emanations were all one I suppose, but matter was CREATED, ( ANYWAY YOU WANT IT ) because as u know, u cannot create something without thinking it first. "Creation" was created, … that's why it's called creation. Creation is resonance, resonance is not creation, resonance is an attractor. Too bad that they removed Maxwell from academia. now no one can even ask the right questions.

  • I have never understood why there is assumed to exist antimatter. I mean, I understand that every charge must be ballanced in some way with an opposite charge somewhere in the universe, but isn't the charge of an(/all) electron(/-s) already ballanced by a(/all) proton(/-s)? I think the fact that these two particles have different mass doesn't hurt the fact that, when summed up, they cancel out each others electrical charge – so what's the theoretical need for antimatter??

  • interesting now things make less sense

  • I think the heavy neutrinos could also account for dark matter.

  • Hydrogen is a simple atom and therefore 70% of universe is made of hydrogen but why maximum percentage of universe is made of simple atom.

  • happenstance can appear convincing. talking about lining up with the axis of evil. maybe life is more likely to occur in particular regions of the universe due to reasons we can't yet understand.

  • I keep hearing Totinos

  • “Literally trillions of experiments”
    WHAT? 1:22

  • Why don't oppositely charged particles of matter (or antimatter) annihilate each other if they come into contact with each other? I mean, versus matter contacting antimatter.

  • Maybe the Axis of Evil is really just the Stairway to Heaven.

  • Let matter and antimatter be x and y therefore they cancel each other 🤙🏻😉

  • How can the standard model predict the results of TRILLIONS of experiments?
    TRILLIONS? Can somebody explain this to me? Have TRILLIONS of experiments been conducted, or are they talking about computer models or something?

  • That intro tho….

  • like putting sugar packets under a wobling tabel…

  • I can't even find my tv remote

  • A bunch of type 3 civilizations out there are moving sh*t around.

  • Our species will even "fat shame" neutrinos!

  • What if WIMP'S (weak interacting massive particles) Were the missing super heavy neutrinos.

  • Physics and relativity are the problem of physics

  • Another garbage matter and antimatter creates new matter that is neutral where u learned your physics

  • Another joke, lithium dun exist that must because lithium was combined with hydrogen to form other elements in the first place! Carbon surfur dun just fall off the sky after big bang. After big bang there is only isotopes will merge together to form elements

  • Seriously how dumb is current physicists ,the earth the solar system is balanced by positive and negative charge. The evil exist is where the collision between matter and anti matters! Imagine the whole solar system is constantly changing charge like wat happens in earth during polar switch, then it will make sense why tge earth is rotating although the gravity is not enough. Because when planets rotate themselves and rotate the sun it creates charges the charges changes so planets and planets pull each other using these charges! And that is why there is do msny isotopes in space

  • Yo, just sayin' dude, maybe we can't see anti-matter because it gives off anti-photons (?)… and we can't see anti-photons. At least that's what my dealer was sayin'.

  • Well how can you have a twin…. that's heavier? Then they're not the same….ergo not twins.

  • Well matter has to turn into something matter and anti matter just doesn't go poof it turns into energy in the flash or explosion but it still exists so what if the energy just condensed into matter?

  • Keep digging. The hole is infinite.

  • #5: I'm shocked & awed

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