신성로마제국 History of Holy Roman Empire (962~1806)


The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe and the Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne in 962. 961 Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. 962 Otto I founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII. 964 Holy Roman Emperor Otto I forced Pope Benedict V to resign in favor of Leo VIII. 965 Otto divided german territory into five separate smaller marches, each ruled by a margraves. 972 Otto sought to improves relations with the Byzantine Empire by marrying the Byzantine princess Theophanu with his son Otto II. 977~8 War of the Three Henries: Otto II attempted at a conciliation with his cousin Duke Henry II of Bavaria. 983 Great Slav Rising: The Lutici, a federation of tribes in northeastern Germany, were first recorded by written sources which uprising of this year. 985 Theophanu launched multiple campaigns to re-conquer the lost eastern territories. 987 Lutici subdued. 991 Slavonic raiders captured the city of Brandenburg. 992 Otto III suffered from Viking raiders in the battle. 994~5 Otto III led the campaigns against the northern Slavs and the Vikings and reconquered Brandenburg. 997 New Lutician attack on Arneburg on the Elbe. 999~1000 Otto III made several pilgrimages on Italy. 1002 Margrave Arduin of Ivrea proclaimed himself King of Italy at Pavia soon after the Otto III’s death. 1003 Bolesław I of Poland conquers Bohemia. 1007 Second Polish War: Bolesław I’s attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. (re-occupation of marches of Lusatia and Meissen including the city of Bautzen) 1012 Bolesław I invaded Lusatia. 1015 Gero II margrave of the Meissen ambushed by Poles and killed. 1017 Bolesław I sent Mieszko II to besiege Meissen but failed and forced to retreat. 1020 Pope Benedict VIII traveling north across the Alps into Germany to discusses the state of affairs in southern Italy with the Emperor. 1025 Conrad assembled an army of thousands of armored knights for an expedition into Italy marched south, besieging Pavia. 1027 March, Pope John XIX crowned Conrad II the Roman emperor. 1032~3 Conrad marched his army to Burgundy. 1034 Conrad officially incorporated Burgundy into the Holy Roman Empire. 1035 Conrad demanded that Adalbero be stripped of all his titles and lands. 1039 Adalbero fled to his mother’s estates in Ebersberg in the Duchy of Bavaria. 1043 Henry married the daughter of duke William V of Aquitaine. 1045 Henry entered Lorraine at the head of an army, besieged and conquered Godfrey’s castle of Böckelheim. 1046 Papal schism ended. 1048 The rebels in Netherlands. 1051 A third Hungarian campaign but suffered a major defeat. 1053 Henry sent another army to assist Leo in the Mezzogiorno against the Normans. 1055~6 Henry prepared his death to prevent the chaos. 1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV. 1084 Henry launched a military campaign against Robert Guiscard. 1086 Henry’s Bavarian, Swabian and Saxon opponents laid siege to Würzburg. 1095 First Crusade: Pope Urban II called on all Catholics to assist the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in repelling the invading Seljuk Empire. 1096 Rhineland massacres: Crusaders took part in anti-Jewish violence in the Rhineland. 1147 Northern Crusades: A series of crusades began against the pagan peoples around the Baltic Sea. 1176 Frederick I claimed direct imperial control over Italy, but was ultimately defeated by the Lombard League at Legano. 1189 Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade. 1190 Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Hungary victories on Sultanate of Rum at the Battle of Iconium. 1198~1208 The Empire Throne in Dispute 1201 Valdemar II of Denmark occupied Hamburg. 1210 The Lübeck Cathedral was constructed. 1214 Battle of Bouvines: Alliance of Flanders, England, Boulogne and the Holy Roman Empire were defeated by France. 1226 Konrad I of Mazovia ordered to the Teutonic Order to defend his borders and subdue the pagan Baltic Prussians. 1230 St. Nicholas’ Church was constructed in Berlin. 1236 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was involved in a war against the Lombard League. 1239 Wenceslaus and Otto left the Reichstag at Eger, abandoning the service of excommunicated Emperor Frederick II. 1241 Wenceslaus successfully repelled a raid on Bohemia by forces serving under Batu Khan and Subutai. 1239~45 Teltow-Magdeburg War: The fought of Otto the Pious and John I of Brandenburg. 1246 Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, was elected King of Germany in opposition to Emperor Frederick II. 1250 Wenceslaus led a successful invasion of Austria, then proclaimed Ottokar as the Duke of Austria (1251~76). (1250~1805 Inside of States of Holy Roman Empire don’t show anymore.) 1255 Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) was founded on the Baltic Sea by the Bohemian King Otakar II. 1257 Bohemia-Bavarian War 1266 Ottokar occupied the Egerland in north-west Bohemia. 1268 Ottokar signed an inheritance treaty with the Sponheim duke Ulrich III of Carinthia, succeeding him in Carinthia. 1275 Rudolf I of Habsburg besieged his Hofburg residence in Vienna, while a rebellions disrupted the Bohemian lands. 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld: Ottokar attacks Vienna for willing to regain the power, but defeated by German-Hungary forces. 1282 Diet of Augsburg: King Rudolf I of Germany of the Habsburg family assignes the Duchy of Austria to his sons at the Imperial Diet. 1291 The Swiss forest districts of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden sign an Everlasting League (in the Rütli) to resist Habsburg domination. 1303 Abas and Matthew Csák of Hungary switched sides and started to support Wenceslaus’ rival Charles Robert of Anjou. 1291 The Swiss forest districts of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden sign an Everlasting League (in the Rütli) to resist Habsburg domination. 1314 John of Bohemia attempts to elect as King of the Romans but Louis IV of Bavaria elected. 1322 Battle of Mühldorf: Frederick and 1,300 nobles from Austria and the allied Archbishopric of Salzburg were captured. 1325 Rügen ceded from Denmark to Pomrania-Wolgast. 1354 Rügen became part of the Holy Roman Empire. 1356 The Hanseatic League was established. 1361 Second Danish-Hanseatic War: a war between the Hanseatic League and the Danes broke out. 1368 Hanseatic League, supported by Sweden, Mecklenburg, Holstein and some Danish nobles, attacked Valdemar IV, then invaded Copenhagen. 1370 The Treaty of Stralsund was signed, ending a war between Denmark and the Hanseatic League. 1392 The Pirates of the Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder) were hired by the Duchy of Mecklenburg to assist in its fight against Denmark. 1394 Victual Brothers occupied parts of Frisia and Schleswig. 1398 Konrad von Jungingen of Grand master of the Teutonic Order drive out Vitcual Brothers from Gotland. 1400 The period of Minnesänger a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany ended. 1410 Battle of Grunwald: The Teutonic Order was decisively defeated by the combined forces of Poland. 1412~23 Sigismund campaigned against the Venetians in Italy. 1415 Jan Huss, Bohemian (Czech) religious reformer, had spoken out against Church corruption. 1418 Council of Constance: The council ended. 1419~34 Hussite Wars: Sigismund declared his intention of prosecuting the war against heretics but total three attempts were defeated. 1428 Sigismund led a campaign against the Ottomans. 1431 Sigismund received the Iron Crown (of Lombardy) as King of Italy. 1433 Sigismund crowned emperor in Rome. 1434 Battle of Lipany: Utraquists and Catholics victories on Radical Hussites at neart Český Brod. 1440 Bohemia passes decrees to avoid having a new civil war break out between the Hussites and the Catholics. 1448 Battle of Kosovo: Decisive Ottoman victories on Hungarian-led Crusader army. 1454~5 Ladislaus visits Silesia and Moravia, then reuturned to Vienna. 1456 Sultan Mehmed III laid siege to Belgrade but repulsed. 1462 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II invaded Wallachia. 1468~78 Bohemian-Hungarian War: Bohemia was invaded by the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus. 1474 Casimir IV and Vladislaus invaded Silesia and laid siege to Matthias in Breslau. Matthias concluded an alliance with the Teutonic Knights and the Bishopric of Ermland against Poland in March 1477. 1479 Maximilan I attacks the French forces of Louis XI of France who claims Duchy of Burgundy is in French Crown at Enguinegatte. 1481 Matthias seized the town of Mautern in Styria and Sankt Pölten in Lower Austria. 1493 Battle of Krbava Field: An Ottoman army crushed the united army of the leading Croatian barons. 1495 The Imperial Diet established the Reichskammergericht, a permanent court with jurisdiction over the whole of the Holy Roman Empire. 1499 The Swiss (or Swabian) War ends with the ‘treaty of Basel’, bringing effective recognition of Swiss independence from the Habsburg empire. 1508~1516 War of the League of Cambrai: a major conflict in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559. 1517 Martin Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses, a disputation condemning abuses in the Catholic Church, on the door of All Saint’s Church in Wittenberg. 1521 Diet of Worms: An Imperial Diet was held by Charles V at Worms which would condemn Luther as a heretic. 1524 German Peasants’ War: An uprising of 300,000 peasants who affect by Protestant Reformation began. 1529 Protestation at Speyer: Six fürsten (German highest nobility) and the representatives of fourteen free imperial cities read out their objection to the imperial ban on Luther. 1538 Treaty of Nagyvárad: Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor. 1542 Duke Maurice of Saxony invaded the lands of his rival and cousin in Ernestine Saxony with the aid of Ferdinand I of Bohemia. 1555 Diet of Augsburg: Meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg. Ferdinand organized an Imperial election in 1562 in order to secure the succession of his son Maximilian II. 1567 Alonso Sanchez Coello painted the portrait of Rudolf II at the age of 15. 1575 Maximilian was elected as of Polish-Lithuanian King but not widely accepted; he was forced to left. 1583~8 Cologne War: a conflict between Protestant and Catholic factions that devastated the Electorate of Cologne Thirteen Years’ War 1593–1606 1595 A Christian coalition of the former vassal states along with Austrian troops recaptured Esztergom and marched southward down the Danube. 1600 The period of Meistersinger lyric poets ended. 1604~6 Bocskay Uprising: Hungarian subjects were exhausted by war and revolted, led by Stephen Bocskay. 1609 Anselmus de Boodt was dedicated to the emperor and worked for Geological studies. 1612~1615 Rappenkrieg: a uprising of Further Austrian district of Breisgau. 1618~20 Bohemian Revolt: Bohemian Estates revolts. 1620~48 Thirty Years’ War 1629 Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution. 1631 Sack of Magdeburg: Forces under the command of the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic League breached the walls of the Protestant city of Magdeburg. 1642 Battle of Breitenfeld: The Swedish army dealt a decisive defeat to the Holy Roman Empire near Breitenfeld. 1645 Bornholm returned to Denmark. 1648 Thirty Years’ War: The Peace of Westphalia was concluded, ending the war and granting Switzerland and the Netherlands independence. 1671 Leibniz invented the Stepped reckoner a digital mechanical calculator. 1673~1679 Franco-Dutch War: Dutch were supported by Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. 1677 Pachelbel moved to Eisenach, where he found employment as court organist. 1683 Battle of Vienna: The combined forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire and their allies broke an Ottoman siege of Vienna. 1686 The League of Augsburg, a military alliance of European countries, was established to defend the Palatinate from France. 1688~1697 Nine Years’ War: a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire. 1697 The elector of Saxony was elected King Augustus II the Strong of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1699 Ottomans cede most of Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz. 1700 Leibniz founded the Prussian (Royal) Academy of Sciences. 1706 Johann Pachelbel dies. 1716 Leibniz dies. 1722 J. S. Bach published The Well-Tempered Clavier, including Prelude No. 1 in C major, BWV 846. 1740 The Prussian king Frederick the Great issued an ultimatum to Austria demanding the cession of Silesia according to the terms of an inheritance treaty. 1740~1748 Frederick II, the king of Prussia, invades the neighbouring Habsburg province of Silesia, launching the War of the Austrian Succession 1745 Battle of Hohenfriedberg: A Prussian force led by Frederick the Great decisively defeated the allied armies of Austria and Saxony. 1748~1756 The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession, but only postpones the continuation of hostilities. 1756 France and Austria sign a treaty of alliance. 1763 Third Silesian War: Prussia, Austria and Saxony signed the Treaty of Hubertusburg, ending the war. 1781 Emperor Joseph II emancipates the serfs in the Habsburg territories by reforming. 1786 Frederick the Great dies. 1787 Mozart and Beethoven contacts in Vienna. 1789 The Prussian science academy had gained an international repute while making major contributions to German culture and thought. 1792 Napoleon declares war on the Austrian emperor, an event that plunges Europe into more than 20 years of conflict. Rhine Campaign of 1796: Austria declared that its truce with French forces in the area of the Rhine. 1799 Coup of 18 Brumaire: Three of the five members of the French Directory were persuaded to resign, the other two arrested. 1802 French Revolutionary Wars: France and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Amiens, ending the war. 1805 Battle of Austerlitz: Napoleon enters Vienna and then defeats an Austrian and Russian army. 1806 Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, abdicated his title of emperor.

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