Історія України History of Ukraine (субтитри з перекладом)

From Rus to Ukraine the steppe and the rivers of Ukraine have determined the development of this country since time immemorial 5000 years ago early civilizations till the soil and raise cattle here this civilization was later named the Trypillian Culture (4,500 BC) in the middle of the second millennium BC
(2000 BC – 1001 BC) they were absorbed by The North Iranian tribes Cimmerians of the Sumerians who came to this area They were followed by Scythians (700 BC – 200 BC) who established the Empire here Proof of the sophistication of their culture can be found in the rich and sophisticated artifacts which have been discovered in archaeological excavations then the Sarmatians came then hordes of Huns and Goths followed by other Nomads passed through the area the first Slavs (3000 BC) settled on this land about two thousand years ago The Dnipr is a sacred River for Ukraine the ancient Greeks called it the Borysthenes the Dnipr formed a large part of the Viking route which ran from Scandinavia to Byzantium the center of civilization of the time the Vikings will not merely conquerors they were also merchants Kyiv (401 – 500) founded around the 5th Century AD was favorably located right on the trading route to Byzantium in the middle of the 11th century the Vikings captured Kyiv (1100 AD) gradually they mixed with the local Slavic population and adopted their language and customs as a result of their trading activities the name Rus appeared on the pages of Arabic and Byzantine chronicles the first prince of Kyiv was Oleg of the Rurik clan Oleg and his descendants had to wage unending wars with the nomadic tribes of the steppes, but their biggest enemy however was Byzantium (330–1453)
1100 AD Vikings capture Kyiv a source of culture and various riches for Medieval Europe from the beginning of the 10th Century for about 150 years all the princes of Rus would wage military campaigns against Byzantium though with mixed success in opposing Byzantium they would inevitably face Christianity which had already begun penetrating into Rus Princess Olga (890 – 969) adopted Christianity and was baptized but under her militant son Sviatoslav (942 – 972) a revival of paganism occurred Christians regarded pagans as sinful barbarians so in order to marry into the European royal family one had to be a Christian Olga’s grandson Volodymyr (958- 1015) was well aware of this fact when the Emperor of Byzantium asked him for military support Volodymyr placed the condition he was to marry the emperor’s sister Volodymyr was baptized in the old Greek colony Chersonesus in the Crimea in 988 in this fashion he not only became a Christian monarch but also became part of the family of the Byzantine emperor little could people foresee at that time that the church would be split before long which would lead to a divided Europe Volodymyr returned to Kyiv where he built many churches and strengthened and reinforced the state borders he’s known in history as Volodymyr the Great (958 – 1015) after his death Volodymyr’s sons were involved in a ferocious struggle for the throne two of them Borys and Glib were traitorously murdered later to be proclaimed the the First Holy Martyrs of Rus. While the portraits of other rulers of Rus are works of artistic imagination the actual appearance of
Prince Yaroslav the Wise (978 – 1054) is more certain following meticulous examination of his skull The Prince was buried in the church he himself had built Saint Sophia’s Cathedral (1100) has remained unchanged following its reconstruction in the seventeenth Century the famous Cathedral of Hagia Sophia of Constantinople served as a model for this Cathedral Saint Sophia’s Cathedral became the venue for the coronation of all the princess of Rus Greek books were translated here into the Slavic language Christianity brought to Rus the art of reading which distinguish the new Christians from their Pagan ancestors Prince Yaroslav was otherwise known as the father in law of Europe because one of his daughters Elizabeth married to king the Norway and Denmark another was the queen of Hungary and his daughter Anna became the Queen of France (1030 – 1075) Prince Yaroslav’s The Truth of Rus (Ruska Pravda) Was the first written code of law in the country and remained in force until the end of the 15th century ever active Yaroslav continue to develop Kyiv as Tetmar the chronicler wrote Kyiv is populated by an incredible number people it has more than 400 churches and 8 markets for Yaroslav it was important
for the capital city to be worthy of the Christian Sovereign of the mighty state he was given a second nickname by his descendants Yaroslav the Wise at the end of Yaroslav’s reign the Kievan Rus spread from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea from the river Oka to Carpathian Mountains Yaroslav secured the border between Rus and Poland by marrying off his sister to Casimir I the Restorer he also augmented The Prestige of his dynasty by marrying of his son to the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos (1000 – 1055) their son Volodymyr II Monomakh (1053-1125) was the last prominent of Rus and his hat became the coronation crown of all the Russian czars in 1054 on his deathbed Yaroslav divided u his state the * territories to each of his sons a decision that resulted in much strive and loss of territory other problems of the future began to be apparent t this time but the greatest plague for Rus
what’s not war
but a new dangerous enemy looming in the steppe the Mongols
In 1223 in The Battle of the Kalka River
the Joint Forces of all the Rus Princes
were defeated
the enemy seemed to appear from nowhere
and then vanish Into Thin Air
14 years later
the mongols returned
with Genghis Khan’s (1162-1227) grandson Khan Batu (1207-1255)
at their head.
the affluent cities of Rus were plundered and destroyed
never again did they regain their former splendor
in 1240 after a long and heroic defence
Kyiv surrendered.
the rich and magnificent City
inhabited by over 50,000 people was turned into a miserable Hamlet
with no more than 204 ramshackle huts left.
The Mongols dashed on into Poland Hungary and Austria
panic-stricken people ran for their lives
from The Infernal demons of Tartary,
hence the name Tatars. Yuri Dolgorukiy (1099 – 1157) Moscow but the greatest plague for Rus was not war but a new dangerous enemy looming in the steppe the Mongols In 1223 in The Battle of the Kalka River the Joint Forces of all the Rus Princes were defeated the enemy seemed to appear from nowhere and then vanish Into Thin Air 14 years later the mongols returned with Genghis Khan’s (1162-1227) grandson Khan Batu (1207-1255) at their head. the affluent cities of Rus were plundered and destroyed never again did they regain their former splendor in 1240 after a long and heroic defense Kyiv surrendered. the rich and magnificent City inhabited by over 50,000 people was turned into a miserable Hamlet with no more than 204 ramshackle huts left. The Mongols dashed on into Poland Hungary and Austria panic-stricken people ran for their lives from The Infernal demons of Tartary, hence the name Tatars. Rus fell under the power of the Tatar Mongols The Golden Horde (1226-1502) those princes of Rus who managed to escape death had to obtain from the Khan special permission to rule if they refuse to submit they were killed. Kievan Rus ceased to exist, the fall of Kiev meant the collapse of the symbolic center that had united the state Although it’s cultural source had been Byzantium the political and social structure of Rus had meant it had been incorporated into Europe. the Tatar-Mongol invasion broke the coexistence of western and eastern influences upon Rus and it also hindered its development when compared to other European countries The so called Tatar Mongolian yoke proved to be particulate tenacious in the Region’s closest to the Golden Horde namely in the Northeast Moscow happens to have inherited that framework of autocratic ruling its isolation from the West was only put to an end in the times of Peter the first In the south the occupation was shorter so western influence was restored much earlier as for Halych Volodymyr Rus (The Principality of Galicia–Volhynia or Kingdom of Rus) it never lost contact with the West. The diametrically different fates of different regions of Kievan Rus were instrumental in the late of formation of Nations. The Monuments to Danylo of Halych (1201-1264) can be seen in Halych the capital city of his principality in Volodymyr-Volynskyi which Daniel annexed and also in Lviv which Danylo founded in honor of his son Lev. That part of Rus was relatively less devastated by the Tartar Mongols Danylo managed to gain the confidence of the Golden Horde and secure more independence together with Pope Innocent IV by whom he was crowned he made attempts at forming an Anti-Mongolian Collision in Europe. Although their attempts failed and the Khan ordered the demolition of all fortifications in the area Halych-Volodymyr Rus still succeeded in maintaining the cultural traditions of Kievan Rus for about 100 years resulting in a tendency for people in the region to orientate themselves around the West. The first part of the 14th century saw the disintegration of the golden horde the last of the Halych-Volyn princes died and Poland seized most of the last of the principality the southern parts of the former territory of Rus including Kyiv were seized by Lithuania The Rurik family was supplanted by Lithuanian Princes who adopted Christianity the local language and customs. During this period Moscow began to annex its neighboring principalities in 1380 Prince Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389) Won a decisive victory over the Horde in the field of Kulikovo The Next Century Ivan III of Russia (1440-1505) threw off the Tatar Mongol yoke and married the daughter of The Last Emperor of Byzantium. That would later enable the czars to construct a myth about Moscow being the Third Rome and the only defender and champion of the Orthodox Church. Today the Palace of Bakhchisaray is but one of the many tourist attractions in the Crimea lines from the Quran decorate the Tombstones of the Khans whose names used to terrify nation’s ambassadors from all over Europe had to stand humbly under this gate waiting for an audience with the Khan the Crimean Khanate (1449-1783) grew in strength after the breakup of the Golden Horde. the Tatars raided as far as Kyiv Moscow and Warsaw when the Tatars became Turkey’s vessels the slave markets in Bakhchisaray Kaffa and Istanbul knew no shortage with women becoming imprisoned in harems one of them the beautiful Roxolana (1502 – 1558) became the favorite wife of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Young boys were trained as janissaries the Sultan’s most faithful guard. Having conquered Constantinople The Ottoman empire after the Mongol threat had lessened turned into a new menace for Europe. The fortresses on the Black Sea Coast stand to remind us of the former power and wealth of the Sultan’s. in 1569 Poland and Lithuania formed to the Lublin Union between creating Rzeczpospolita or a Republic between the two nations as a result all the lands of Ukraine passed under the jurisdiction of Poland. From that time Ukraine began to absorb through Poland the ideas of the European Renaissance which made a great impact upon its economic and intellectual development various guilds were formed and crafts and trade began to develop rapidly Lviv was marvelously rebuilt after a great fire in the words of Professor Ihor Shevchenko Europe came to Ukraine wearing a Polish jacket but it is only fair to add that that same Polish jacket also brought to Ukraine the yolk of serfdom. A reaction to Polinization and the growth of Catholic influence brought about a consolidation and Revival of the Orthodox Faith. The first Orthodox Community was initiated in Lviv followed by similar communities in Kyiv and some other cities schools and printing presses began to appear community members commenced their polemical battle with Catholicism Prince Konstantin of Ostrog (Austria) was an Ardent champion of Orthodoxy. He printed the first unabridged text of the Bible in the old Slavic language the prince founded and Academy in Austria in which seven liberal arts were taught the defense of Orthodoxy required communication with opponents through a mutual language which is why not only Greek and Old Slavic but also Latin were taught at the Academy. Although the proponents of traditional Orthodoxy considered knowledge of the finer point of the Latin language to be conducive to the corruption of the soul it was through Latin that Ukraine became acquainted with a comprehensive knowledge of the cultural heritage of Europe of those days. At the same time the power and influence of the muscovite state Continued to grow Ivan the Terrible (1530 – 1584) exterminated all the boyar liberties in a most cruel fashion and proclaimed himself czar. He drowns in blood The Merchant Republic in Novgorod the last stronghold of democracy this is the view of the Dnipr River opening from the island of Khortytsia. In the 16th century there were high Rocky Rapids here they formed a natural barrier against raids from the upper reaches of the river. Beyond the rapids Prince Wiśniowiecki Bajda (1535 – 1563) founded Zaporizhian Sich (1556) a settlement of free cossacks no woman was permitted access to the territory of this military Republic when war threatened or during actual hostilities discipline was extremely strict the council elected the Sich’s authorities: the chief ### the maintenance chief the judge and Cossack captains. They were all subordinated to the council and answerable to it sometimes with the heads. The phenomenon of the Cossacks only came into existence in the border area where the unpopulated territories of Poland mingled with the lands of the Crimean Khanat. This was known as the famous wild Fields No Man’s Land as a matter of fact it is from the word which means borderlands that Ukraine in historian Ivan Lysiak-Rudnytsky derives the name Ukraine. After some time when the population began to regard the Cossacks as their Defenders both against the Tatar raids and Polish oppression and when the format of the Cossack government spread to larger territories the name Ukraine replace the name Rus. Depending upon the language the word Cossack meant either a free man a robber or a bandit. Originally included men from different social groups with different ethnic and religious backgrounds. Their origin did not matter only courage and physical strength was important. Serfs, peasants the gentry various adventurous and reckless souls would run away to the border territories in order to escape from any form of authority. The Dnipr was rich in fish and it’s reed beds provided an excellent hiding place from here a direct route led straight to the Black Sea and further onto Turkey. The Cossacks in chaika (wooden boats) made for the Turkey shores and came back with a rich bounty Bajda Wiśniowiecki who died in Istanbul after having being tortured and hooked by his rib became a part of the Cossack Legend the steppe was neither safe nor secure Every Spring the Tatars raided the wild Fields despite the Cossacks watching the steppe Cossack regiments took part in all Poland’s Wars against the Tatars Moscow Sweden and Turkey King Sigismund III initiated The Counter Reformation in Poland he was the champion and upholder of one single Church the Catholic church. in 1596 on the initiative of several Orthodox Bishops The Brest Union was signed. The uniates acknowledged the superiority of Rome in matters of faith and Dogma but preserve the Liturgy services and rights Orthodoxy at that time was the basis of Ukraine Rus identity the union was defied vigorously by the Orthodox majority and the nation was split the units excommunicated the Orthodoxians while they’re Orthodoxians condemned the Uniates as apostates. Paradoxically it is The Uniate Church that was destined to preserve Ukrainian national identity. The verbal war instigated by the Brest Union exceeded the confines of a purely religious conflict and rapidly acquired political and nationalistic features as soon as Hetman Sagaidachny (1570 – 1622) and all the Cossacks swore their allegiance to Orthodoxy. At the beginning of the seventeenth Century the Cossacks presented a well-organized powerful force capable of playing a decisive role in any battle. When in 1621 a mighty Turkish Tatar Army attacked Poland Hetman Sagaidachny brought along 40,000 Cossacks to stand by the Poles owing to this support Poles defeated the Turks the Cossacks were called the most faithful Defenders of the motherland. Ukrainian Orthodoxy Incorporated two Trends one Byzantine the other Western. The two Trends was synthesized by Metropolitan Petro Mogila (1596 – 1647) who in 1632 founded a collegium based on the Jesuit model the collegium later renamed the Mohyla Academy provided young orthodoxians with the possibility to receive a good education and resisted it in this fashion the Avalanche like process of Polanization and Catholicizacion the students of the collegium formed the intellectual elite of Ukraine Rus. During the Hetmanship of Ivan Mazepa (1639-1709) the Mohyla Academy number 2,000 students at present the Kyiv university Mohyla Academy carries on those glorious traditions Under Mohyla’s guidance the Liturgy was edited the churches of Old Rus were restored and statues of local Saints were unveiled. Orthodoxy became the Nationwide religion Mohyla’s sister Raina Mohylanka commissioned the building of many Orthodox churches and monasteries She would curse everyone who had renounced the faith of their forefathers, but little did she know that her curses would fall upon her own son. Yarema Vyshnevetsky (1612 – 1651) converted to Catholicism and became a deadly enemy of the Orthodox Cossacks. Many Old Rus families became Polonized. The Sanguszko Czartoryski Patsy Tyshkeviches Hotkevyches Zaslawski Zbarazhski Kalynovski Potayi the list is endless Due to the Polonization of the National Elite it was the Cossacks who took over the role performed by the nobility in other countries the Cossack became the central figure in the National consciousness of ukrainians the raids of the Cossacks triggered Istanbul’s violent reaction and in turn Warsaw resulted to reprisals the Polish Parliament regarded the Cossacks as a mere tool in wartime they increase the registered number of the troops while in the time of peace they cut it drastically. But a man who had already felt the taste of freedom who had got used to earning his living by a sword would resent returning to the role of a serf. Numerous riots and uprisings broke out. All the uprisings were ruthlessly repressed by force until Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1595 – 1657) appeared in The Sich. Bohdan Khmelnytsky was an experienced and skilled leader educated by the Jesuites he participated in Poland’s Wars against Turkey and spent two years in Turkish captivity to avoid the bloody outcome of previous uprisings Khmelnytsky made an agreement with the Khan and received the tartars military support in April 1648 (Battle of Zhovti Vody) upon learning of the Polish troops approach the Cossack Tatar Army moved forward to meet them. In three successive battles the Cossacks crushingly defeated the Poles. Poland staggered and Europe was surprised. One British chronicler wrote Poland all in dust and blood fell down at the Cossacks feet. Bohdan Khmelnytsky headed for Lviv took the ransom and paid the Khan. the news of the Cossacks victories insight of the serf peasantry to rebel the rebellious peasants massacred their hateful Polish landlords The uniate clergy and the Jews almost 300 Jewish villages were plundered and burned down with all the inhabitants killed. Prince Wiszniewski put up forests of steaks and gallows wherever he went. Ukraine was drowned in blood. Khmelnytsky paid the Tartars with thousands of Ukrainian slaves. Alongside songs praising him, there was one which went like this: May the 1st bullet never miss you Khmelnytsky May the 2nd bullet hit you right in the heart. Kyiv welcomed the Victorious Hetman just as it used to welcome the princes of Old Rus Khmelnytsky was referred to as a modern Moses – The Liberator of his people. The Metropolitan blessed him in the war against Poland and anointed him as a defender of Orthodoxy. The Cossacks state that was created as the result of those victories was later named The Hetmanhood it lasted to the end of the eighteenth Century. Despite the gradual decrease of autonomy the very fact of its existence laid the foundation for future aspirations of an independent sovereign state and help focus thoughts of national identity. To the Polish ambassadors Khmelnytsky said I will liberate all the people of Rus from polish serfdom I will forever be fighting for Orthodox Faith. the Flames of War blazed up anew The Joint Cossack Turkish forces besieged the Poles in the Fortress of Zbarazh. King Jan Kazimierz who had hurried to help the besieged was detained by the Cossacks only the Betrayal of the Khan bribed by the Poles forced Khmelnytsky to sign a peace treaty as for the Tatars they brought out of Ukraine so rich a bounty and so many captives that a man could bough at the slave market for just a handful of tobacco. In late June early July 1651 a decisive battle took place. A battle between Polish troops headed by the polish King and joined forces of Khmelnytsky and Khan İslâm III Giray for two days the battle was waged with alternate success. On the third day a cannon ball accidentally hit the Khan’s Suite frightened the Khan run away from the battlefield followed by his army. Khmelnytsky tried to force the Khan to return but was captured leaving the Army without his commander-in-chief Colonel Ivan Bohun (?-1664) and his regiment defended their camp for 10 heroic days. They build Crossing across the bushes but panic and commotion brick the people who were mostly peasants they ran away and confusion many being drowned or killed by their enemies The defeat at Berestechko instigated and unquenchable desire for revenge on both sides as Professor Natalia Yakovenko, puts it at that point would have been Civil War turned into a Polish Ukrainian War the Berestechko defeat was revenged by a victory over polish troops at * but after a short while the Tatars again betrayed the Cossacks the situation reached deadlock so Khmelnytsky was compelled to look for a stronger ally who would it be Turkey or Russia in 1954 the Soviet Union pompously celebrated the 300th anniversary of the The Pereyaslav Rada (Council) The unification of Ukraine and Russia the Pereyaslav myth about the realization of the Eternal desire of the two fraternal people to unite which allegedly dates back to the times of Kievan Rus was first contrived in czarist Russia later to be revived and elaborated upon by Soviet ideologists Orthodoxy proved to be the decisive factor in Ukraine preferring Russia to Turkey however almost immediately a conflict broke out Khmelnytsky demanded that the Russian ambassador’s on behalf of czar Alexei should swear solemnly that the rights of the Cossacks would remain unchanged the ambassador’s became outraged it is the * who swear loyalty to the czar in the muscovite state not the other way around some of the Cossack authorities became displeased and resentful they broke off negotiations and heated argument ensued A few most eminent commanders refuse to sign the treaty the original documents signed in Pereyaslav were lost. some historians believe that the treaty created a union with the autonomy of the Cossack State fully preserved While others maintain that he was merely a provisional military Alliance after the joint Russian Cossacks campaign against Poland The Cossacks delegation was not admitted to the peace talks Khmelnytsky found new allies in the form of Sweden and Brandenburg Although Swedish troops had seized almost all Poland’s territory the signing of peace with Russia together with the military support of the Tatars and the Austrians helped her defeat the Swedes The ineffective attack of the Cossacks and Semygorod (Transilvania) troops on Poland upset Khmelnytsky major plans the division of Poland was yet to follow with his health seriously undermined by the season wounds Hetman Khmelnytsky died in 1657 acclaimed by some blasphemed by others he became a symbol of freedom for Ukraine without which no Nation can arise the monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky was erected by czar Alexander III (1845-1894) who had his own reasons for doing so what Poland had lost – Russia gained Poland had gotten used to winning victories in many wars as a result of Cossack support but it was Russia which took advantage of the situation which resulted in the partition of Poland Ukraine became Russia’s gateway to Europe The Cossacks helped Russia to defeat Sweden as a result of Cossack support Russia succeeded in defeating Turkey Eliminating the Crimean Khanate and penetrating as far as the Black Sea Coast in short if it had not been for Ukraine Russia would never had become an empire all the subsequent rulers of the Russian state had always been aware of this but let’s return to the chronology having realized the precise nature of the Cossack’s alliance with Moscow Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky
(beginning of the 17th century -1664) made an attempt at returning to Poland in the capacity of an equal partner it was hoped that a state of free nations would be founded Poland Lithuania and the great principality of Rus unfortunately the rights of the would-be principality was so abridged by the Polish Parliament that the treaty could not be accepted not even by its most ardent advocates Khmelnytsky’ son Yurii had little resemblance to his father and chaos and confusion swift the country fratricidal wars ensued Hetmans changed one after another just like in a kaleidoscope for some short time Hetman Petro Doroshenko (1627-1698) managed to unite Ukraine but his death was followed by another chaotic period. This period is called in history – The Ruin. Russia and Poland partitioned Ukraine Zaporozhia ((territory) beyond the rapids) and Hetmanhood were placed under Moscow’s jurisdiction. the figure of Ivan Mazepa (1639 – 1709) attracted Poets of the day Byron Hugo Pushkin Sheila and Słowacki they all wrote about him some of the poets with fascinated by his youthful Adventures at the Polish Royal Court others were inspired by his struggle for Independence after he was elected Hetman he particularly dealt with all educational matters as well as the restoration of churches,
monasteries, and palaces Under his auspices the Ukrainian Baroque flourished magnificently. Mazepa enjoyed the friendship and respect of the Russian czar Peter I – Peter the Great (1672 – 1725). But he began to watch very closely the operations of the Northern war and particularly the victories won by the Swedes. He regarded those victories as a chance to liberate Ukraine. However he acted surreptitiously when Charles the 12 unexpectedly arrived in Ukraine so instead of the 30,000 Cossacks that Mazepa had promised to give to Charles he could only bring along a few thousand. Infuriated on hearing of this treachery Peter I ordered Alexander Menshikov (1673-1729) to assault the Cossack capital Baturyn. All of it’s population was massacred neither women nor children were spared. Baturyn was erased to the ground. The bodies of the city’s Defenders with thrown into the river. to deter further resistance Czar Peter ordered
the immediate execution of every Zaporizhian Cossack on the spot. The armies met near Poltava. Charles the 12th evidently underrated the czar The Russians put up resistance * and their artillery inflicted heavy losses upon the attacking Swedes who did not have any cannons worth mentioning. The drama of the battle was made all the more painful by the fact that 6 Cossack regiments were fighting on the side of the czar Peter I treated his Swedish captors with deference but he ordered to to cut the throat of each and every captive Cossack whom he regarded as traitors The Poltava defeat (Battle of Poltava on 27 June 1709)
buried Ukraine’s chances to obtain Independence for over 200 years. Mazepa found refuge in Turkey where he died shortly after. According to czar Peter’s strict order the Orthodox Church condemned Mazapa by anathematizing him for the duration of his lifetime. The anathema was withdrawn only after the fall of the czarist regime Peter I carried out large-scale reprisals
in Ukraine drastically reducing the the autonomy of the Hetmanhood later Hetmans who followed
had no room to maneuver and became completely dependent on Russia Czar Peter’s daughter Elizabeth fell in love and secretly married a handsome Cossack who had a beautiful singing voice She made his brother Kyrylo Rozumovsky (1728 -1803) Hetman of Ukraine he took his title and position very seriously and tried to restore genuine autonomy to the Cossack lands. Catherine II (1729 – 1796) Deprived Rozumovsky of his title and eliminated the Hetmanhood such was the end of the Cossack state founded by Bohdan Khmelnytsky starting with the Khmelnytsky wars many who lived in the territories Blazed by Wars would run away to the east to the unpopulated lands which will name later Slobitska Ukraine
(Kharkiv, Luhansk, Sumy, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk) those people brought with them
many Cossack customs and traditions at the end of the 18th century about 1 million people inhabited the Slobitska Ukraine however together with the elimination of the Hetmanhood Catherine II restricted the Liberties of that territory and turned it into another province of the Russian Empire Thousands of Cossacks participated in the victorious Wars between Russia and Turkey when the days of the Crimean Khanate were numbered the Zaporizhian Cossacks became redundant and The Sich was doomed after 223 years the free community of the Cossacks Zaporizhian Sich (1552-1709) ceased to exist. The Last of The Chieftains Petro Kalnyshevsky (1690-1803) was exiled to the white sea. He was the first but by no means the last Son of Ukraine to be exiled to Solovki – an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia. The place would acquire ominous notoriety under the Soviet Regime. Ukraine or little Russia The end of 18th century saw Europe and Ukraine in a new geopolitical situation. After a long struggle Russia defeated Turkey and incorporated the Crimean Khanat while the raid of the Tatars that eternal plague of the Ukrainian lands were finally put to an end. The state of the two Nations Poland and Lithuania was erased from the political map of Europe following their partition by Russia Prussia and Austria. The right Bank Ukraine was incorporated into the Russian Empire while Galicia Bukovyna and TransCarpathia passed on to the control of the Habsburg monarchy alongside the elimination of the Hetmanhood Slobitska Ukraine and Zaporizhian Sich There was an increase in the migration of the top Cossack authorities to St Petersburg. The Descendants of old Cossacks families who were educated in the famous Kyiv Mohyla Academy In Chernihiv and Pereiaslav collegiums had made brilliant and spectacular careers in Russia for themselves thus forming the elite of the empire. They came to regard the Russian empire as their own country Vladimir Borovikovsky Dmytro Levytsky and Martos Founded the Academy of Fine Arts in Saint Petersburg (1757) Among the Chancellor’s, State ministers, Marshalls, generals and high clergy One can find such names as Bezborodko – Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Great’s foreign policy Milarodovich Kochubey Paskevich and many many others The czar’s decree on the nobility as well as the department of heraldry demanded documentary proof of once right to nobility this caused some problems for the Cossack Elite who had to search through their family archives in order to find credentials issued by polish Kings and Russian czars to confirm the noble origin yet this correspondingly resulted in renewed interest in the history of their families and by the same token in the history of their father’s land the best evidence of the dominating Spirit among the Patriots is the history of Russ (1846 by Grigorij Konisski) it’s author though unreservedly admitting the power the czar emphasizes the otherness of Ukraine its distinction from Russia and support its right to autonomy resulting from the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654) at that same time Ivan Kotliarevsky (1769 – 1838 ) “Eneyida” – a parody of Virgil’s Aeneid
wrote his Aeneid a burlesque travesty of the epic poem by Virgil the ancient mythological character of Aeneas was embodied by a quick-witted energetic fellow the brave Cossack Eney that was the first literary work written in the popular and colloquial Ukrainian language according to Professor George Grabovych Aeneid initiated the process of determining the national identity through language but the ambitious lust four titles ranks and awards was stronger than the desire for the autonomy of Ukraine and by the end of the eighteenth Century Ukraine had lost its Elite and was basically transformed into a rural economy. Idyllic pictures of Ukrainian Village have little to do with reality the czar’s “ukaz” – order forbade presents to leave them masters. In the former Polish territories now taken over by the Russian Empire but with the Polish landowners still in power peasants kept in their memories the riots as well as the bloody slaughter but while the peasants rebellions within the former Polish borders used to give an advantage to Russia peasants riots within the Russian Empire were ruthlessly nipped in the bud the French Revolution shoot the foundation of Old Europe it overthought the sacred power of the king and the nobility and brought in the notion of nationhood by incorporating bourgeois’s see and peasant class Although the Emperor Napoleon had very little in common with the Revolutionary General Bonaparte the French pattern of the nation became a multicolored by subsequent national movement in Europe Napoleon did not actually invade Ukraine but the motto of the French Revolution found at adherence in the country sometime later the descendants of an old Cossack Elite family The Muravyov-Apostol brothers took an active part in the movement of The Decemberists (1825) whose principal goal was to overthrow the despotic czarist regime the ideas of Romanticism also proved to be a big incentive for the development of the National Liberation movement in Ukraine The Romantics put an end to the condescending somewhat derogatory attitude towards folk culture they praise simple ordinary people their songs ballads and traditions Ukraine with its heroic past and with its beautiful landscapes was perceived as some Lost Paradise a kind of Acadia George Byron extolled the fate of Hetman Mazepa Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855) admired the musical and political gifts of the Ukrainian people once the famous philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder The Godfather of Romanticism wrote Ukraine is to become the new Greece the country has a wonderful climate and the rich generous soil the day will come when it’s great musically gifted people will be awakened to new life but meanwhile the people were asleep and the times of freedom and heroism found an echo only in the songs of bards the process of the formation of Ukrainians otherness was initiated by the collectors and popularizes of Ukrainian folk songs and historical ballads called Dumy. These collectors comprised of Mykola Tsertelev (1790 – 1869) Mykhaylo Maksymovych (1804-1873) Izmail Sreznevsky (1812-1880) the outcome of their Endeavor was amazing such people as Panteleimon Kulish (1819-1897) and Nikolay Kostomarov (1817-1885) who had been gravitating to the sphere of Russian culture turned into ardent patriots of Ukraine after reading the Ukrainian poetic folklore collected by Maksymovych. The 1831 the Polish uprising shocks Petersburg Czar Nicholas I came to realize that the multinational pattern of the state could present a potential danger to the integrity of the Russian Empire. It was decided to build the state ideology on the following three bases: Orthodoxy, czarist autocracy and ethnic identity. But how could the latter idea be implemented in a state where the Russian language was only spoken by less than half of its population. A quick remedy was found the other half had to be russified. reprisals and Russification were primarily aims at the rebellious Poles but not have them the Greek Catholic Church was banned in the right Bank Ukraine and those who professed that religion were forced to convert to Orthodoxy governmental bodies gave support to Russian culture and as long as Ukrainian culture was considered to be an integral part it also appeared under the aegis of the state On the basis of closed down Polish institutions of higher education universities and colleges Kyiv University (1833) was founded. Ukraine was to become a part of the great Russia – Little Russia. However the more Ukrainian and Russian cultures developed it became apparent that they are not identical. Little Russians and great Russians contrary to official understanding are not the same Nation Meanwhile the Greek Catholic Church in Galicia which after the division of Poland belonged to Austria due to the reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (1765 to 1790) received the same rights as all other denominations. In Vienna at Saint Barbara’s Church the first Greek Catholic Seminary the Barbaria was founded which before very long was moved to Lviv. The Order of Basilian Fathers carried out a large-scale cultural and educational project. It was the Greek Catholic clergy who initiated the awakening of the national consciousness in the western Ukraine the ideas of Romanticism and the collections of Ukrainian folk songs penetrated to Galicia from the Russian Empire. Thee seminarians Markiyan Shashkevych (1811-1843) (aged 31) Yakiv Holovatsky (1814-1888) (aged 73) and Ivan Vahylevych (1811-1866) (aged 54) publish a collection of poems folk songs and articles on historical issues The Collection was written in the local dialect and entitled “the mermaid of the Dnistr“ Rusalka Dnistrova – It introduced the vernacular of the Galician Rusyns to the literature world and corroborated the similarity of that language to the language of the Ukrainians who lived in Russia. It proved to be an important factor for recognizing that the Ukrainians in the west and in Russia were one and the same nation. Taras Shevchenko (1814 – 1861) (age 47) was born to a family of serf peasants. He liked painting from his early childhood his friends appreciated his artistic gift and supported him at the age of 24 Shevchenko a free man now was admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts in Saint Petersburg he painted, but little did people with the exception of his closest friends know what his other talents were. In 1840 the Kobzar was published The Kobzar introduced Shevchenko to the constellation of the outstanding Poets of Romanticism some Russian critics expressed the greatest regrets that Shevchenko did not write in Russian but in some queer peasant lingo for Shevchenko wrote terrible though it was at the time in Ukrainian he created his own form of the language from the three different dialects and as this language was natural melodic and generally comprehensible Shevchenko helped lay the foundations of contemporary Ukrainian language, but the political aftermath of his literary work was even more momentous the poet did not merely mourn over Ukraine’s lost freedom and glory but he also presented a vision of the future the vision of an independent Ukraine. he will extol Khmelnytsky as a rebel genius and at the same time accused him of placing Ukraine in Russian hands. Shevchenko rejected point blank the idea of the alleged inseparability of the great and little Russia. he also resented this submissiveness to the czar It was the Russian czars whom he condemned for the enslavement of Ukraine he wrote that Peter the first hadcrucified Ukraine and that Catherine II had completed the country’s devastation. Butchers! Butchers! You man eaters! Shevchenko’s poetry succeeded in combining two components the traditions of ordinary people with their protest against social injustice and the traditions of the heroic past of the Cossack Elite by putting forward the motto of both the national and social liberation Shevchenko became a prophet for the entire nation before Shevchenko no Ukrainian had dared to criticize Russia so bitterly. some fragments of his poetry sounded so heretical and revolutionary that they could only be published after the revolution of 1905. Having finished his studies Shevchenko returned to Ukraine he joined the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in Kyiv Professor Kostomarov and writer Kulish were the major figures in that Brotherhood it also comprised a group of students of Kyiv University. At present the National University of Kyiv bares the name of Taras Shevchenko the program of the Brotherhood was reflected in the Book of Genesis of Ukrainian people modelled according to the work of Adam Mickiewicz the Brotherhood maintains the necessity of turning czarist Russia into a Federation of Slavic Nations similar to the United States of America * the Brotherhood also strove to abolish serfdom and to encourage the free development of each National culture In 1848 Europe was struck by of revolutions the so called Spring of Nations which promoted the liberalization of political life and the abolition of serfdom in the Habsburg territory Ukrainian citizens of Lviv established the Head Rus Council which restored the old coat of arms of Halych (Galicia) and Volhynia Princes and adopted the blue and yellow banner. The council announced that the Galician Rusyns were inseparable from the great Ukrainian people they proposed the division of Galicia into two distinct parts Polish and Ukrainian. It is remarkable that both the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood and the Head Rus Council simultaneously express what was practically one and the same demand the recognition of the Ukrainian nation and its right to autonomy these ideas would keep inspiring the leaders of the Ukrainian national movement in the Habsburg Monarchy and the Russian Empire Until the collapse of those two states during World War I. The Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood only existed for 14 months following denunciation its members were arrested and sentenced to Exile. Shevchenko was sentenced to 10 years military service in Central Asia. Czar Nicholas I scribbled in his own hand a note to Shevchenko’s verdict forbidding him to write and paint but Shevchenko did write and paint secretly despite all the prohibitions Shevchenko returned from his exile with the aura of a martyr as well as a poet he was made an icon for all generations as one of the outstanding figures in the National Liberation movement as well as a symbol of resistance to tyranny. Following his last wishes Shevchenko was buried high up on the hill by the Dnipr river which he loves so dearly and described so beautifully. The defeat of Russia in the Crimean War made the backward list of the Empire painfully obvious reforms were imperative The new czar Alexander II (1818 – 1881) abolished serfdom. He gave freedom to the peasants but he did not give them land belatedly industrialization began huge deposits with coal were discovered in Ukraine and a large increase in investment followed an Englishman John Hughes – founder of the city of Donetsk (1868) built the first Iron and Steel complex thus laying the foundation of future Donbas the development of the economy picks up speed when rich deposits of iron ore were found in Kryvyi Rih the production of sugar increased at the beginning of the 20th centur Ukraine would be producing 26% of the empires gross national product stimulated the dynamic growth of cities 4 out of the 10 largest cities of the Empire were Odessa, Kyiv, Kharkiv and Katerynoslav (now: Dnipropetrovsk) however it was mainly Russians who arrived to work at the factories in the cities of the Southern and Eastern Ukraine because Ukrainian peasants preferred to work on the land. The czar’s decree left the land in the hands of the landlords and the landlords demanded enormous sums of money from those who wanted to buy land. A demographic upsurge resulted in an acute shortage of land. Ukrainian peasants with push to those parts in which the land remained virgin to Central Asia to Siberia to the Far East up to the Pacific coast where the famous “Green wedge” as founded – Zeleny Klyn – the land in the Russian Far East area between the Amur River and the Pacific Ocean was founded. by 1914 about 2.000.000 peasants had left Ukraine. Communication with the common people and educational projects in villages were the principal aim of the Kyiv community. Its activity and encompassed the great part of Ukraine the community was headed by the historian Volodymyr Antonovych (1834 – 1908). Its political program was formulated by the socialist Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895). Drahomanov was not an Orthodox marxist, he acknowledged those principles of socialism that set the greatest store on the freedom of the individual. He asserted the necessity of federalization in Russia with cultural autonomy granted to each nation. This combination of socialist and national causes suggested by Drahomanov appeared to be the main ideological doctrine for the Ukrainian nationalist movement at the turn of the 19th century. the Polish uprising of 1863 entailed an acute deterioration in spiritual life throughout the whole Russian Empire. The czarist government began to regard the activities of the community as a manifestation of separatism. Alexander II Reign: (1855 – 1881) prohibited the publications of books in the little Russian vernacular. As well as their import from abroad. Drahomanov immigrated to Switzerland, where he continued with his work. But Ukrainian culture fell into a deep crisis, which was only overcome by Lesya Ukrainka (1871 – 1913) (aged 42) and the first generation of the Ukrainian modernists. Unlike the autocratic Russian Empire – Emperor Franz Joseph’s (1830 – 1916) Austria Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia had become by that time a parliamentary monarchy. Both the poles and ukrainians had their representatives in Vienna * and the Galician Parliament. The election laws however were too obviously biased towards the Poles and only a Pole could be appointed Empress governor in Lviv and minister of Galician affairs in Vienna. While traveling in Galicia Emperor Franz Joseph felt at ease only among the Polish aristocracy. The monopoly of power by the Poles had a very specific effect. Some Rusyns in Galicia turned their eyes towards Russia as a savior from Polonization. Moscophiles decided that it is better to drown in the Russian sea than in the Polish puddle. But Ukrainian Patriots had no desire whatsoever to get drowned either in the sea or in the puddle. They founded the organization called Prosvita – “Enlightenment” (1868 Lviv) since their firm belief was that only educated people were capable of forming a conscious nation. Directivities was strongly influenced by Shevchenko’s myth of Ukraine. The myth that linked Galicia with the Cossack’s proud traditions. The Shevchenko Academic Society (1873) was founded. Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1866 – 1934) arrived in Lviv from the eastern Ukraine at the recommendation of the Kyiv community. He received the chair of the Ukrainian history department at Lviv University. But Hrushevsky was not the only one to arrive in Lviv. Czarist reprisals against national movement exiled prominent Ukrainian social figures from the Russian Empire to Galicia. The intellectual and financial support which they rendered to Galician ukrainians strengthened his convictions that they belong to an integrated and a great nation. It also aroused their self-esteem and inspired them with pride of the historic traditions which were by no means inferior to either polish or russian ones. In Galicia there arose a Center for national movement. Galicia was referred to as the Ukrainian Piedmont named after the renowned Piedmont in Italy, where the movement for the unification of that country had started. Another notable and distinguished personality in Galicia was Ivan Franko (1856 – 1916) an outstanding writer and political figure. Inspired by Drahomanov he converted to socialism and was one of the founders of the radical party. That party was the first to put forward the idea of political independence of Ukraine. Incidentally at about the same time Mykola Mikhnovsky (1873 – 1924) a conservative from Kharkiv also came up with the idea of Ukrainian Independence. Under Hrushevsky’s influence Franko moved away from radicalism and grew closer to populous revolutionaries. 1898 was a culminating year. It marked the centennial of the publication of Kotlyarevsky’s Aeneid (Eneïda – 1798), and the 25th anniversary of Ivan Franko’s literary career. In the same year Hrushevsky’ published the first volume of his Monument work the “History of Ukraine-Ruthenia,” which had an immense influence upon the formation of the Ukrainian National Consciousness. 1898 is a symbolic year it was then that the word RUSYN was finally supplanted by the word UKRAINIAN. In 1900 the Greek Catholic Church elected a new leader Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky (1865 – 1944) The Ukrainian movement in Galicia obtained a mighty ally in his person for it was basically through the clergy that nationalist ideas could reach the most distant places. When at the turn of the nineteenth Century Galician peasants immigrated to Brazil Argentina Canada or the United States in search of the living their National Consciousness had already been molded in such a way that the immigrants would found cultural and educational organizations to render support to the National Liberation movement back in the native land. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an immediate reaction to the defeat of Russia in the russo-japanese war. That defeat again demonstrated the backwardness and underdevelopment of the Russian Empire. Although the Revolution was drowned in blood it encourage and measure of liberalization. Elections to the first state Duma Parliament were announced. Deputies from Ukraine even formed a parliamentary faction of their own. this short political thaw was over when Pyotr Stolypin (1862 – 1911) (Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire from 1906 to 1911) was appointed head of the government. Stolypin completed The Agrarian reforms enabling a peasant to become a farmer at the same time Stolypin banned every kind of Ukrainian organizations even the selling of The Holy script in the Ukrainian translation was prohibited. When World War I broke out Ukrainians could be found in the ranks of both warring armies Russian and austro-hungarian. The Ukrainian head council was formed in Lviv. Its leadership and Kost Levytsky (1859 – 1941) in particular had already declared unreserved support of The Habsburgs. The council called upon ukrainians to fight against autocratic Russia for the freedom of all ukrainians. with the consent of Vienna the council formed it’s own military units. The morale and discipline of Sitch Shots (Sitchovi striltsi) – Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (1914 – 1918) stood apart among other units of Austro-hungarian troops. Political immigrants from the Russian controlled part of Ukraine with Dmitro Dontsov (1883 – 1973) at the head founded the league of the liberation of Ukraine. The league would carry on activities aimed at strengthening the national consciousness of Ukrainian prisoners of war from the czarist army, who were kept in austrian camps. Former prisoners of war would later form several ukrainian divisions. But in September 1914 Russian troops occupied Lviv. anxious to destroy the nest of Ukrainian separatism they embarked upon reprisals Russification and deportations. The Greek Catholic Church was prohibited Metropolitan Sheptytskyi was exiled to Suzdal (Russia). Strange as it may seem Vienna shifted the blame for the defeat onto the ukrainians. The theory of Rus betrayal was fabricated. When the austrians reoccupied Galicia thousands were arrested and thrown into camps in Austria. When the Austrian Hungarian Counterattack was launched the Russians carried out a forced evacuation of the Ukrainian population. Many internees were sent to Kyiv where they came under the guardianship of Ukrainian charity organizations. The reunion of ukrainians from both warring countries led to a feeling of integrity not only among the elite but also among common people. The war demolished the traditional rural lifestyle. Ukrainian peasants conscripted into the army never realized why they had been sent to the trenches. They were told to fight for their motherland. But what was their motherland? People of various nationalities were fighting side by side with them and they all spoke different languages On the other hand amongst the troops of the enemy there were soldiers who spoke their own language and sang the same songs as they did. The war accelerated the process of establishing the idea of national distinctiveness and Ukrainian National Consciousness. That was a gigantic step forward for the peasantry on the way towards the Nation. At the beginning of 1917 the resources of Russia were practically exhausted. The war had already devoured over eight million people and the Army was in a deplorable condition. Prices were rocketing and the large cities was starving workers would go on strike factories would come to a standstill. The appeal of “Down with the war!” sounded both at the front and in the rear. The February Revolution (1917) began in St Petersburg with workers strike. When czar ordered the troops to open fire on the demonstrators the soldiers refused to obey and joined the protesters. The second Volyn regiment which was largely comprised of ukrainians was the first to act in that fashion Czar Nicholas II (1868 – 1918) had to abdicate. Power was taken over by the provisional government headed by Alexander Kerensky (1881- 1970) but the war was still going on in March 1917 Parliament was convened named The Central Rada by representatives of Ukrainian political parties and social organizations. It was headed by Professor Mykhailo Hrushevsky. Rada’s principal standpoint was the Federalization of Russia, the central Rada issued its first Universal that means decree which declared the autonomy of Ukraine a government was formed headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko (1880 – 1951) with Symon Petliura (1879 – 1926) in charge of military affairs. In the meantime on the battlefront Bolshevik appeals to put an immediate end to the war were received favorably. Soldiers on mass were deserting from the Army and they all returned home harmed. On the 17th of October the Bolshevik party headed by Vladimir Lenin (1870- 1924) Carried out coup d’État in Petrograd. The Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government and seized power. Their first 2 decrees on peace and on land gained massive support. Very soon both decrees would prove to be a lie. The war with the Germans was replaced by a Civil War which took an even heavier toll as for the land it was taken away from the peasants by the hated kolkhozes. Back in Kyiv in answer to the Bolshevik coup Parliament issued its third decree which contained a promise to give land to The Peasants. Moreover it declared the establishment of the Ukrainian People’s Republic a sovereign state which preserved relations with Russia within a framework of a Federation of free and equal Nations. in Kyiv the Bolsheviks made an attempt at seizing power the troops that remained faithful to Parliament managed to suppress the uprising. The Bolsheviks moved to Kharkiv and declare the Ukrainian Soviet Republic. In support Lenin sent them the Red Army troops. Meanwhile the town of Brest became the venue of peace negotiations between Soviet Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. The representatives of the ukrainians People’s Republic also arrived in Brest to sign a separate peace treaty with Germany and Austria. The situation however was developing dramatically. At the beginning of February the Red Army shelled Kyiv as Hrushevsky would say afterwards Our orientation towards Moscow and Russia burnt in the fire of Bolshevik guns. To be able to take an independent part in peace talks the Ukrainian Parliament proclaims full Independence of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. On the 8th of February the Ukrainian delegation in Brest signed a peace treaty the conditions of which were limited to the recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Germany and Austria-Hungary with Military Support being promised in exchange for substantial deliveries of bread and meat, but a couple of hours after the treaty had been signed Red divisions burst into Kyiv and carried out a terrible Slaughter. They acted in the same bloody fashion in many villages the third Army formed for this particular purpose requisitioned bread and cattle from peasants for the starving of Moscow and Petrograd. According to the Brest treaty the territory of Ukraine was to be occupied by German troops who would help Parliament return to Kyiv. Parliament however did not find any support from the peasantry, who had not got the land promised to them. The Germans failed to receive deliveries of food promised by the treaty. That is why at the end of April 1918 German military units drove away all the deputies. Such was the downfall of the first Ukrainian Parliament the central Rada. Central Rada was obliged to deal with the issues of the formation of the state at a time when the process of the formation of the nation had not yet been completed. The ukrainians were in the minority in cities and towns. The bourgeoisie supported the whites the proletarians supported the Reds Meanwhile the young socialist in the central Rada wasted time in futile ideological feuds they did not create any state bodies nor did they form an army. Nevertheless there was some undeniable success in the activities of the central Rada as the provisional government and then the Bolsheviks had to recognize the independence of Ukraine the Declaration of Independence was to become both a symbol and of goal in the future. The Congress of agrarians held under German’s jurisdiction elected Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi (1873-1945) Hetman of Old Ukraine. a czarist army General and a descendant of an old Hetman family relied upon the nobility the gentry and rich farmers his rule was marked by forced duality on the one hand he encouraged the development of Ukrainian culture Ukrainian schools and universities were opened the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences was also founded under his leadership on the other hand he surrounded himself with scores of Russian officials and Military Officers Skoropadskyi did his utmost to re-establish pre-revolutionary older in Ukraine that was why he cancelled the decrees of the Ukrainian Parliament he organised coercive delivery of provisions of the German Army and kept sending punitive expeditions against the peasants this proved a series of peasants riots which eventually developed into an actual state of war meanwhile political opposition to the Hetman was gaining momentum the directorate was founded with Vynnychenko and Petlyura at the head in 1918 the military capitulation of Germany left Skoropadskyi without German support the Hetman renounced his power and left Ukraine together with the German army Troops faithful to the ideals of the Central Rada entered Kyiv the directorate proclaimed itself to be the official body of state power in Ukraine in the meantime ukrainian politicians in Galicia loyal to Austria-Hungary * from the establishment of the Ukrainian state within the Austrian Hungarian Monarchy. * united with East Ukraine on the night of the 31st of October the Sitch Shots captured the most important institutions in Lviv without shedding a single drop of blood. In the morning of November 1 the citizens of Lviv woke up in a different state – West Ukrainian People’s Republic. It was a shock for the poles they rushed to take arms this dramatic moment of the conflict was accounted for by the fact that both the ukrainians and the poles considered Lviv to be their city and Galicia their native land the local Poles knew Lviv very well so they managed to organize an effective defense Ukrainian soldiers mostly in villages could hardly find their bearings in the city after 3 weeks of fierce fighting the Ukrainian units had to withdraw from Lviv. In Ternopil Ukrainian Galician Army was formed on the basis of the Legion of the Ukrainian Sitch Shots general, Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko
(1878-1952) became it’s commander-in-chief. The Polish Ukrainian war broke out. On the 3rd of January 1919 in Kyiv and then on the 22nd an Act of unification between the two Ukrainian States was passed forming the Ukrainian People’s Republic. The act of unification had but a symbolic significance, because two weeks later the Bolsheviks invaded Kyiv. Then, when the ukrainians believed that they would have Lviv back before long The Entente peace mission (a military alliance of France, Great Britain and Russia) arrived. The mission suggested the partition of Galicia into Ukrainian and Polish areas in the heat of the fighting both sides turn down that kind of settlement. General Pavlenko said: “Let steel and blood settle the dispute between us.” And thus the dispute was settled. In April contrary to the Entente’s wishes the Polish army of General Haller was transferred to the Ukrainian front the police divisions formed in France turn the tide of the conflict. In June a massive attack under the general Grekhov was launched. The ukrainians approach the Gateway of Lviv but they ran out of ammunition. in July 1919 the Galician army was forced to withdraw from Galicia and in East Ukraine it united with Petlura’s troops leaving all of eastern Galicia in Poland’s hands Was there ever a possibility of a compromise in their hearts either of the Ukrainian nor the Poles were ready for it Lviv was the reason however the fruit of that easy victory turned out to be bitter. One can’t but agree with Ukrainian historian Professor Yaroslav Hrytsak who asserts that the victory helped the Bolsheviks win the war against Ukraine and build a new Russian Empire called the Soviet Union. 20 years later that empire together with Nazi Germany undertook the fourth partition of Poland a Polish historian Maciej Kozlowski adds today when we recall the dread what was going on in Volyn and Galicia during the second World War we ought to remember those events to a very great extent were determined by the Victorious campaign of the Polish Army at the Zbrucz – a river in Western Ukraine. At the same time General Denikin’s troops invaded Kyiv and embarked upon another round of Slaughter the whites who would fight against the Reds and against any Liberation movement with the same fanaticism were fighting for their idea of the Integral and undivided Russia that would bring them defeat after a short while the capital of Ukraine was seized by the Bolsheviks. power in Kyiv changed every few months new and old armies marched across the fertile lands of Ukraine the Ukrainian army, the German army the Red Army the white Army and the Entente’s troops peasants who wanted to survive and preserve their property began to form armed detachments and elected local Chieftains They were in opposition to everyone. they made and broke unions they took the side of the enemy if that could save them and their families. the bloody peasant war was getting more and more ferocious the most notorious who Chieftains was Nestor Makhno (1888-1934) A confirmed anarchist nicknamed father Makhno. his motto all power the Soviets without Communists helped him control a vast territory near
(Huliaipole – a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine) with almost fifty thousand armed men under his command Hundredths of local chieftains used to operate alongside Makhno most of them being just ordinary bandits who robbed and burned homes and they massacred Jews in pogroms. but world opinion lay the blame for all those crimes in particular on the directorate and Petlyura As for Petlyura he had got into a hopeless situation His army had suffered great losses during an epidemic of typhoid. He was torn by the internal conflicts The Directorate was trapped by the whites, Reds, Romanians and the Poles the Directorate is governing from inside train cars so Petlyura made a dramatic decision he turned to Poland for support in return for handing over eastern Galicia and western Volyn to Poland he received Józef Piłsudski’s consent to recognize the directorate as the only legitimate power in Ukraine. in April 1920 an attack was launched. This union was the last chance for Petlyura to preserve the political existence of Ukraine Piłsudski thought that using Ukraine as a buffer between Poland and Russia would guarantee the safety to Polish state. on the 7th of May allied troops occupied Kyiv but Petlyura did not find in Ukraine the support he had expected despite Piłsudski’s strict orders Polish officers attended their former Estates and threatened the peasants there with her inevitable return and revenge the Galicians in their turn could not forgive Petlyura for his having sold their lands to Poland. The Soviet armies launched a Counterattack on the 11th of June they took Kyiv and 2 months later they were approaching Warsaw. The capital of Poland was for the Bolsheviks the gateway to Europe they depended upon Polish workers and peasants to Rise Against the borjoise government but the people of Poland did not support the Communists thousands of volunteers joined the ranks of the Polish Army by a brave and clever maneuver Józef Piłsudski broke through the Bolshevik front their crushing defeat at Warsaw put an end to V. Lenin’s and Leon Trotsky’s dreams of global Revolution. The Ukrainian troops make their contributions to the final victory over the Red Army at the crucial point of the war Marko Bezruchko (1883–1944)
➡ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marko_Bezruchko heroically defended Zamość (The Battle of Komarów) against the cavalry of Semyon Budyonny.

a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. But in Poland the appearance of Piłsudski took the upper hand exhausted by the war Poland had stopped giving support to the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Ukrainian troops were interned. On the 18th of March 1921 Poland and Soviet Russia signed a peace treaty in Riga. Poland retained control over Eastern Galicia and Western Volyn and recognized the Soviet government in Kyiv. Piłsudski could only beg the pardon of his Ukrainian allies. The government of the Ukrainian’s People’s Republic remained in Poland for several more years trying to wage an independent struggle. The Ukrainian Revolution was diametrically opposed to the Russian one as together with social demands it also put forward nationalist demands concerning the establishing of an independence of sovereign estate as had been done by Poland Finland and the Baltic states. That goal was not achieved. The leaders did not manage to unite the nation which was only just beginning to come around to the idea of Independence. They did not succeed in removing the psychological barrier between the Galician Army and the troops of Petlyura besides they failed to spread news of the Ukrainian cause in the west where they continue to be regarded as the allies of a defeated Germany and Austria-Hungary. Did it mean that the Ukrainian revolution had been ultimately vanquished? history proves that their efforts were not in vain. Ukraine, here are your sons (1918-1920) To fighters for freedom of Ukraine Marko Bezruchko Volodymyr Salsky Vsevolod Zmienko PART III – TOGETHER FOREVER The suppression of communist outbreaks in Germany Hungary in 1919 and the defeat of the Red Army near Warsaw in 1920 ruined all the hopes of the Bolsheviks for world revolution Instead a situation arose which Marx had not envisaged Communism was to be built in one of the most industrially backward countries and not in a highly developed industrialized state. The Versailles treaty (June 1919) and the Riga peace treaties repartition Ukrainian lands among different countries Poland Romania and Czechoslovakia, but the greater part of Ukrainian land under the name of the Ukrainian SSR was joined to Soviet Russia. The Russian Civil War according to historians proved to be even more devastating to Ukraine than the First world war. The death toll reached almost 1,500,000 and the country was laid to waste. Scores of thousands of orphaned children were wondering about destitute and homeless. After an attempt of assassinating Lenin in 1918 Red terror was introduced

and the Bolsheviks

started to get rid of their political opponents and class enemies. under the slogan: “those who are not with us are against us” a policy of military communism involved the nationalization of the land and industrial enterprises as well as requisitioning of grain in villages This became a virtual curse for Ukrainian peasants In 1921 central Russia, the Volga regions all of Ukraine were struck by an unprecedented drought which resulted in a terrible famine people ate rodents, grass and tree bark and yet still entire villages perished the Bolshevick government had to turn to other countries for help when the famine reached it’s peak in 1922 Americans supplied provisions for 11,000,000 people in the meantime Soviet chief executives were cynically trading grain on foreign markets and buying weapons in return the 1921-1922 famine’s final toll was about 5,000,000 over 1.5 million of them in Ukraine The policy of military communism brought the entire country to the verge of ruin peasant’s riots were suppressed by artillery and the Red Army’s air force but when the most loyal of loyal the Kronstadt navy rebelled Lenin had to introduce in March 1921 The New Economic Policy known as (NEP) the requisition was supplanted by a natural product tax which enabled farmers to trade any excess of grain on the free market as a result the free market and small private Enterprises were partially reinstated in Ukraine however those changes were delayed for half a year in order to enable the authorities to requisition Ukrainian grain without hindrance for another 6 months NEP was aimed at appeasing the peasantry and stimulating the national economy at the same time for fear of restoring Capitalism the regime intensified repressions parties other than the communist party were banned censorship became increasingly severe and the power and authority of the security service the notorious Cheka (chrezvychaynaya komissiya – Emergency Committee) increased the Bolsheviks have referred to religion as opium for the people and so they set about to replace it’s appeal with a belief in Communism in 1922 churches and monasteries were ransacked holy relics were desecrated and religious rights were mocked the believers and clergymen who dared to protest were sentenced t show trials to death lengthy prison sentences or internement in concentration camps the repressive measures also confiscated Catholic and protestant churches and Jewish synagogues in 1922 the communist state consisted of four republics the Russian Federation, the Ukrainian Belorussian and Transcarpathian to the latest included Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Republic of Armenia, concluded bilateral agreements on the dominant role of the Russian Communist Party In the summer, it was decided to provide an even more formalized character in the discussion about the structure of the New Power he demanded that the Russian Republic swallow three others and only gave them the only right to cultural autonomy his draft caused a sharp opposition from the national communists in the republics Lenin, who realized the strength of nationalists and remembered the recognition of Ukraine’s independence in Brest, proposed the creation of a Federation of four republics the proof of their sovereignty was to give them the right to leave the Union
but in practice it’s natural to dial. Was this the right to be something quietly an illusion, since the consent to the withdrawal from the Union should give the Communist Party
and they were under such strong control of Moscow that Lenin could be certain that the Soviet Union would never collapse Lenin succeeded in realizing his plan On December 30, 1922, the solemn proclamation of the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Ukrainians, under such a structure of the state, at least formally received the rights they had not enjoyed since the Hetmanate in the eighteenth century They received a clearly defined state border, as well as my own capital and administrative apparatus the status of Ukraine in the Soviet Union reflected the first postulates of the Central Rada as paradoxically turned out to be late in the victory of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-20 pictures on which Lenin portrayed in recent months of his life have long been not published in 1924, when the revolution leader died a new secular religion received its icon the Kremlin began a struggle for power as a result of which Moscow’s control over the republics was weakened the ideas of communism did not have much support among non-Russian peoples And especially in Ukraine, which Stalin called the weak link of Soviet power in order to increase their influence, the Bolsheviks resorted to the policy of Ukrainianization of the Communist Party of Ukraine by the administration of education and culture This company was sent from Moscow by the first secretary of the Communist Party, Lazar Kaganovich and People’s Commissars of Education Oleksandr Shumsky and Mykola Skrypnyk soon Ukrainian language, would prevail in the press, publishing houses and institutions of teaching in schools almost completely switched to the Ukrainian language The authorities believed that the new Proletarian culture should reject traditions and be created with the participation of the masses for the masses however, along with the dominance of kitsch and cheapness, a whole galaxy of outstanding artists arose playwright Mykola Kulish and director Les Kurbas created the Berezil Theater theater of the highest world level film by Alexander Dovzhenko “Earth” (1930) became one of the most outstanding masterpieces of world cinema new luster was added to the talents of Pavlo Tychyna, a famous symbolist poet the author of “The sun’s clarinets” Maksym Rylsky Oleksa Slisarenko Maik Yohansen Mykola Zerov Mykola Khvyliovy Valerian Pidmohylny Hryhoriy Kosynka and many many others Ukrainianization outgrew the limits drawn out by Moscow the nationalist communist in Ukraine dared to declare that every nation had the right to its own way to Communism they criticized the excessive representation of Russians in the Communist Party of Ukraine. In the Communist Party of Ukraine, as well as economic dependence on Moscow intellectuals who were joined in the elite organization VAPLITE Vilna Akademia Proletarskoi LITEratury (ВАПЛІТЕ) categorically denounced the proletarian mass culture and cultural mediation of Moscow they declared a decisive reorientation of Ukrainian culture towards the West when asked: Europe or the middle of nothing? Ukraine or Little Russia? Zerov and Khvyliovy would answer to the sources! all windows to be opened on Europe! The echoes of that discussion can still be heard today by the end of the 1920’s Joseph Stalin
(In office 3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952) had ceased absolute power in the Kremlin the main points in the building of Socialism were cultural revolution mandatory collectivization of the villages and accelerated industrialization The Five-Year Plan of 1928 to 1932 meant to prove the advantages of the socialist economy the first blows were directed at the intelligentsia the label “the enemy of the people” was created and pinned to those who allegedly sabotaged the 5 year plan In 1930 a process involving more than 45 members of the non-existent Union of Liberation of Ukraine Serhiy Yefremov, an outstanding literary critic and member of the government of the Central Council and other intelligentsia, was sentenced to imprisonment some others were shot next there was the prohibition of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and the abolition of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences by the clergy of scientists sent to the camps shortly, fabricated processes came as an avalanche Stalin regarded Ukrainization as a cultural counterrevolution, and he resorted to a decisive purges in the party’s state apparatus of Ukraine, guarding their ideals as a protest Mykola Khvylovy committed suicide a few months later People’s Commissar of Education Mykola Skrypnyk also committed suicide On the Solovetsky islands where the last hetman of Zaporizhzhya Sich Petro Kalnishevsky completed his life

(20 June 1690 – 31 October 1803
at 102 years old)
was the last Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host, serving in 1762 and from 1765 to 1775. Kalnyshevsky was a hero in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 dead in the exile Zerov Kurbas Kulish Fylypovych Pluzhnyk and dozens of dozens of others Of the two hundred forty writers hardly 40 were left, it is believed that at the time 80% of the active Ukrainian intelligentsia was destroyed in the camps and prisons Ukrainization brought the unpredictable growth of the national consciousness of Ukrainians into a full-fledged consolidated nation they discovered qualities they really lacked during the revolution of 1917-20 the defeat of the national elites destroyed the achievement of Ukrainization the national consciousness of Ukrainians broke up and became a Soviet one The five-year plan proclaimed accelerated industrialization the largest scale we are starting in Ukraine were the development and modernization of Donetsk Kryviy Rig Basin of the Donbas Construction of the Zaporozhye Metallurgical Combine of Zaporozhstal and the Kharkiv Tractor Plant KhTZ the flagship of industrialization was the giant Dniproges completed In 1932, Europe’s largest hydroelectric power station at the same time as the development of industry has picked up the growth of urbanization, large construction and enterprises have caused the migration of about two million peasants in the regions of the Dnieper and Donbass In 1932, the Ukrainian population in cities was almost 60% as a result of the first and subsequent five-year plans, the industrial potential of Ukraine increased by 7 times and in 1940 it equaled the industry of France but it was predominantly heavy industry Light industry and precision instrumentation lagged far behind more than 80% of Ukrainian enterprises had a union status, which meant that one third of the profits were transferred to Moscow Large-scale construction of the five-year plan required a huge investment. The main export item in the Soviet Union was grain and its largest supplier to Ukraine. when an inflated plan for grain procurement remained unfulfilled Stalin announced forced collectivization and the implementation of the harvest the peasants were divided into poor peasants and middle peasants and so-called kulaks or rich peasants the kulaks were recognized as class enemies those who protested were shot that’s more than 200 thousand of the best masters along with their families were taken to Siberia and Central Asia the part got into the forced labor collectives caused the whole chaos, the peasants did not want to work on land they did not own, police and the army confiscated not only the entire harvest and almost half of the sown grain besides the south of Ukraine has reached a terrible drought a brutal hunger has begun its apogee fell on 1933, even incidents of cannibalism happened this time there was no help from abroad because the authorities concealed the fact of the existence of hunger from all over the world while the death of entire regions was in the air Soviet newspapers talked about the famine in China and Germany journalists politicians and intellectuals from the West demonstrated demonstration of rich kolkhozes And they fearing fascism whose power grew willingly took everything on faith and how could one not get carried away with such a happy life of the collective farm village, such illustration will take place until the end of the Soviet Union’s existence. these frames are not documentary the actual number of victims is unknown
(between 7,000-10,000) criminals cautious estimates in 1932-33 of starvation dies from seven to ten million people Stalin had the alternative to slow down the pace of industrialization or starve millions of Ukrainian peasants and he chose the second option only in 1990 on the basis of submitted documents, the special commission of the American congress recognized that the artificially organized Holodomor in Ukraine is equal to the Holocaust and the genocide the terrible famine was not the last border of mass terror in 1937-38 years the entire Soviet Union embraced a wave of cleansing which did not spare neither the party nor an army In Ukraine, the repressions went on that started by the defeat of the intelligentsia in 1933, under the orders of Stalin, the potential and imagined enemies of the system were shot they were sent to their place by Russians or described by young communists from the province at that time ascertained king of Ukraine was Nikita Khrushchev meanwhile in Dnipropetrovsk Leonid Brezhnev began his party career according to historians’ estimates, in those years, around the Soviet Union, about six million people were exiled to a powerful then Gulag Almost half a million people were executed Ukraine still finds new mass burials the great transformations of the thirties have created a gigantic economic potential in Ukraine but the price for it was the loss of the cultural and peasant elite Ukrainian village as a result of collectivization and the Holodomor lost its traditional character turned into a collective apathy it has not been reborn since other fate awaited Ukrainians who became citizens of Czechoslovakia Poland and Romania Czechoslovakia gave them the largest settlements Ukrainians in Transcarpathia occupied positions in local Administration and developed their own educational system in Prague and Podebrady they were allowed to open 3 higher institutions so that Ukrainians from all over Central Europe could receive their education there but Romania as well as Poland resorted to a policy of assimilation Ukrainians were banned from membership of local government bodies and the old term RUSYN replaced the term Ukrainian in all official documents in Poland the system of Ukrainian schooling was replaced by a bilingual system dominated by the Polish language all the Ukrainian departments were closed down at Lviv University and the long promised Ukrainian University was never opened the 5,000,000 strong Ukrainian population constituted the largest ethnic minority in interbellum Poland (1918-1939) almost 90% of Ukrainians lived in villages these villages were overpopulated and the demand for land was acute the situation worsened even further when the government began to allot plots of land to Polish officers and soldiers in Galicia and Volyn
(EASTERN GALICIA: present day oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil
WESTERN GALICIA: Lublin, Kraków, Przemyśl, Stanislav (Ivano-Frankivsk) by 1938 – 200,000 Polish settlers had got the best land there Ukrainians resisted Polonization they acted both legally and in conspiracy legal centrist political parties (opposing political changes) have set themselves for a goal of obtaining autonomy among those parties
the most influential was UNDO
(UNDO) Ukrayin’ske Natsional’no-Demokratichne Obyednannia The Ukrainian National Democratic Organization a large network of social organizations emerged Union of Ukrainian Women (Soyuz Ukrainok) involved a considerate number of women involved in it’s activities Prosvita (The Enlightenment) societies opened libraries private schools and gymnasiums teaching the Ukrainian language quite a number of social political and economic journals were published a rather powerful cooperative movement developed which incorporated over 600,000 members not only did cooperatives banks and insurance companies provide economic security they also told members how to become a citizen and a master of one’s own land the legally recognized parties and organizations achieved undeniable successes Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, (UNDO) Ukrayin’ske Natsional’no-Demokratichne Obyednannia
UNDO introduced a number of deputies to the Polish Parliament and it’s leader was the Vice Speaker however, it was not so much the legal organizations that determined the Polish-Ukrainian relations but the nationalists acting in conspiracy the first clandestine nationalist movement was launched by the officers of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (Sitchovi striltsi) who were frustrated by their defeat in the Civil War The Ukrainian military organization
called (UVO – August 1920 Ukrajinska Vijskova Orhanizatsija)
was formed in Czechoslovakia’s Prague Yevhen Konovalets (1891 – 1938) the activities of UVO
(Ukrajinska Vijskova Orhanizatsija) were focused on sabotage and political assassinations. their target were not only Poles the main enemies were Ukrainians who wanted an agreement with Poland The ideologist of Ukrainian Nationalism was Dmytro Dontsov
Born: August 29, 1883
Melitopol, Russian Empire
Died March 30, 1973 (aged 89)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada the Editor in Chief of the weekly “Vistnyk” published in Lviv he laid the blame for the defeat of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917 to 1920 at the door of Democrats and Socialists Dontsov rejected democracy. he claimed that it was not the democratic majority but instead the conscious nationalistic elite who have the historical right to force masses to take action the nation has the right to a common territory. so all the occupying powers have to be treated as enemies Dontsov’s ideas proved to be very appealing for young people they laid the foundation of the program of The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) which incorporated the UVO in 1930 the OUN carried out a large scale sabotage operation during which they committed about 200 arson attacks (setting fire to buildings) along with railroad demolitions and attacks on the power networks. The Polish government sent in regular troops to Galicia and started a process of pacification (in September–November 1930) collective responsibility was introduced masses of people were arrested in dozens of villages peasants property was destroyed and corporal punishment was introduced the OUN responded with new terrorist attacks. The spiral of mutual hostility and violence escalated. In 1933 Stepan Bandera (1909-1959 (aged 50) became the head of the OUN in Poland it was he who organized two impressive assassinations one of the attache of the Soviet consulate in Lviv – Aleksiej Majłow in revenge for the organized famine in Ukraine
(10,000,000 deaths 1932-1933) the other of the Polish minister of internal affairs General Pieracki who had been in charge of the pacification process Poland renounced its agreement on the protection of ethnic minorities A detention center for political prisoners was set up in Bereza Kartuska holding polish opposition members along with Ukrainian activists against this background of worsening conflict judicious and sensible voices sounded that were coding for normalization Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky
(Born: July 29, 1865, Prylbychi, Ukraine
Died: November 1, 1944, Lviv, Ukraine) denounced both the Polish pacification and the activities of the Ukrainian nationalists. Jerzy Giedroyc (1906-2000)
(Polish writer and political activist
studied law and Ukrainian history and literature at the University of Warsaw) would call upon unification for the sake of the interest of the Polish state but neither was listened to in 1938 in Eastern Poland 200 Orthodox Churches were destroyed and 150 were handed over to Catholics even those who have so far advocated a policy of mutual understanding began to believe that nothing but a new war could give freedom to Ukrainians the state that have most been seeking a change in the order of Europe was Germany. For years Ukrainian Nationalists cooperated with the German military intelligence Abwehr for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945 thinking that Germany would help Ukrainians create their own free state in any future conflict. Hitler being the enemy to both Poland and Bolsheviks Was regarded by many Ukrainians as their most natural ally on September 30th 1938 Great Britain and France signed the Munich agreement with Germany it gave leave to the partitioning of Czechoslovakia the weakened government in Prague eventually acknowledged the autonomy of TransCarpathian Ukraine Avgustyn Voloshyn (1874 – 1945) was made its prime minister. Hitler however had different plans and Transcarpathian Ukraine was given to Hungary hardly had the Voloshyn government proclaimed Independence of the new state when Hungarian troops occupied the whole territory the fall of Carpathian Rus became one of the reasons for the organization to split into two factions Melnyk’s and Bandera’s. The Melnyk’s kept believing that Ukraine’s independence could only be obtained with a help of Germany. Bandera’s were less gullible They thought that Independence must be a purely Ukrainian cause while not completely excluding the German support they considered themselves to be an equal partner of Germany both parties proved to be diluted September 1st 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland and the WWII broke out On the 17th of September The Red army occupied the eastern part of Poland thus fulfilling the secret terms of The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact The invasion was carried out under the motto of liberating the fraternal people Ukrainians and Belorussians from bourgeois Poland and at first it was welcomed by most Ukrainians The new power undertook the passing out of community and church Estates and also slow down unemployment the Polish University was replaced by the Ukrainian University (in the name of writer Ivan Franko) Ukrainian schools museums libraries and theaters were opened in this atmosphere under the surveillance of the Red Army elections were conducted though undesirable candidates were prevented from standing the people’s assembly elected in such a fashion and proclaimed to be a voice of the liberated people officially approved of the annexation of western Ukraine to the Soviet Ukraine that is to say to the Soviet Union soon after the authorities embarked upon collectivization And when it appeared that the Bolsheviks were arresting and deporting to Siberia not only the Poles but also the Ukrainian intelligentsia and the Greek Catholic clergy and members of OUN
(Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) the attitude towards the new Power began to change diametrically Soviet repression on the one hand and Hitler’s Victorious triumphs in Europe on the other Awoke Pro German moods in Galicia On the 1st of May 1941 the citizens of Kyiv witnessed a military parade in Khreshchatyk Street. The parade was to demonstrate the military power of the Invincible Soviet Union with the great Stalin at its head. Who could have foreseen then that only five months later that same Khreshchatyk would be the venue of a march by German soldiers –

(Wehrmacht – the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1946. It consisted of the Heer, the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe.) Hitler’s attack of June 22 1941 came as a shocking surprise for the USSR everything indicated that Stalin had been contemplating a war with Hitler but he had thought he would deal with the first blow when it was convenient for him Hurriedly leading the Western Ukraine the Soviet Security Forces killed thousands of prisoners leaving proof of the enormous scale of Soviet crimes Lviv greeted German (Wehrmacht) soldiers all the more cordially as one of the first military units to enter the city was The Nachtigall Battalion
(Nightingale) June 29, 1941 composed almost entirely of Banderovists (OUN) b Under the protection of that battalion Nationalists proclaimed an Independent Ukrainian State
(June 30, 1941) Yaroslav Stetsko
(Born: January 19, 1912, Ternopil, Ukraine
Died: July 5, 1986, Munich, Germany)

Bandera’s deputy was appointed prime minister of the government. The German’s reacted instantly. The leadership of Bandera’s faction (1909 – 1959)

Bandera himself, Stetsko and others

were arrested and sent to the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen. Galicia was annexed by general governorship. The lightning like success of German Army reinforced Hitler’s belief that he had no need of support from Ukrainian nationalists they were to be given only minor positions in the local Administration and police. As Ukraine was to be turned into a German Colony not an ally state. Thus the military units of Melneky’s and Bandera’s that had marched in to lay the the foundation of the would-be Ukrainian state were soon all arrested many of them were shot. the same fate was encountered by local nationalists the days of the USSR seem to be numbered. Among the numerous reasons for the defeats was Stalin’s purges which had rendered the Red Army without a leader. The reluctance of officers and soldiers to defend the Soviet state also played an important role. Their fate was awful Those who managed Survive the war would be sent to rot in Stalin’s concentration camps on the 16th of September 1941 Kyiv fell at the beginning of November German troops occupied practically all Ukraine almost immediately after the occupation of Kyiv 33,000 Jews were shot in the deep pit of Babi Yar in the space of two days. Babi Yar has since become the symbol of the Holocaust in Ukraine. In 50 ghettos and 180 concentration camps Almost the entire Jewish population was exterminated. Besides jews other victims of the executions in Babi Yar included: Prisoners of war Intellectuals Communists Nationalists and random people detained at roundups this place turned into a mass grave For over 100,000 victims. The Reich Commissariat of Ukraine was set up in the central Ukraine the smallest misdemeanor was punished by death a man who stole a German Helmet would be hanged Collective Farms those hateful kolkhozes were recognized as the best form of exploiting the Ukrainian Village even the fertile soil was being taken to Germany Along with freight trains loaded with coal and iron ore because of starvation executions and deportations to Germany The population of Kyiv decreased by 60% by the end of the war 2.3 Millions “Gastarbeiters” were Ukrainians The reprisals and terror led to a change in attitude among the people formally either friendly or indifferent to Germans they began to think better of the Communists many historians believe that the Nazi’s inability to use Ukrainians and other nations against Soviet power was one of their greatest political mistakes By the end of 1941 The critical situation at the front forced Stalin to impose a new strategy involving organization of the mass partisan warfare designed to draw off German troops from the Battlefront. this decision came at the same time as changes in the population’s mood. The partisan movement in Ukraine was gaining momentum. Soviet partisans waged a railway war upon communication thus diverting considerable German forces at the beginning of 1943 the famous Sydir Kovpak (1887 – 1967) started his long raid through the western Ukraine from the forest Belarus down to the Carpathian Mountains. In Volyn he encountered strong units of the Ukrainian Insurgent army The (UPA). UPA is still an apple of discord and for many still stirs up powerful emotions. Some Ukrainians regard them as Fascist bandits others as Heroes. the name UPA was first used by Taras Bulba-Borovets (1908-1981). Independently he formed his unit as far back as 1940. In 1942 Soviet partisan Detachment started infiltrating into Volyn. Having committed an act of sabotage they would disappear condemning the local people to acts of retaliation by the Furious Nazis. The local Banderovysts set up forming self defense units against both the Bolsheviks and the Nazis in February 1943 the leadership of the Banderovyst factions of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) decided to form on the basis of those units powerful underground military units. Roman Shukhevych
alias Taras Chuprynka (1907 – 1950) a former officer of the Nachtigall Battalion managed to form a strong well organized partisan army. He too accepted the name of UPA. The UPA became an armed unit of the Banderovyst faction of the OUN. It controlled a considerable part of Volyn and later Galicia. The Defeat of the German armies at Stalingrad at the beginning of 1943 allowed both factions of OUN to presume that Germany would be defeated in the war at the same time leaving the USSR exhausted. Which meant that the problem of creating an independent Ukraine and delineating its borders would be solved by a strong National Army both factions of the OUN chose their own course of action before the war Volyn was part of Poland. It was mostly populated by Ukrainians Poles and Jews. During the war the Jewish people were exterminated by the Nazis. Polish people constituted the lesser % of the population. Conflict divided the Polish and Ukrainian partisans. UPA – Ukrainian Insurgent Army were fighting for an independent Ukraine while the Polish home army was seeking to re-establish the pre war borders of Poland. Both the Nazis and the Soviet forces often resorted to various provocations when the aggravation of the conflict could serve their advantage. The first clashes between Ukrainians and Poles occurred in 1942. Civilians also lost their lives. In the Helm region the Polish underground members killed several scores of Ukrainian activists connected with the OUN in return the Banderovysts would kill the Poles who cooperated with the Polish home army. In Spring of 1943 several thousand Ukrainian policeman hardened by their role in the massacre of Jews quit the German ranks and joined UPA. Dmytro Klachkivsky – alias Klym Sawur
(1911-1945 aged 33) the UPA leader in Volyn decided to use their experience in mopping-up the Volyn area of Poles. Since the summer of 1943 the units of the Volyn UPA with the active support of peasants longing to get land were carrying out ethnic cleansing of the Polish population killing men women and children by the thousands. At the turn of 1943-1944 up to 18,000 Poles between 21-24,000 Ukrainians died in Volyn anti-polish actions were transferred to Eastern Galicia. In response between the years 1944 and 1945 the Poles massacred the inhabitants of Ukrainian villages in the Chełm region many thousands of Ukrainians were killed neither women nor children were spared. Thus evil was generating evil and it left an unhealed wound in the minds and souls of both Ukrainians and Poles as the participants and witnesses of those events only remembered the wrongs done against themselves. Yet the end does not justify the means. Ethnic cleansing has always been and will ever be a crime irrespective of the idea behind it the Volyn massacre cast dark shadow on the history of UPA which was often heroic and yet in the end very tragic. Three generations must pass before the people will take the first steps in the direction of a sincere unification. In 1943 colossal losses on the Eastern Front instigated the Nazis to look for additional manpower. Under the motto of a crusade against the Bolsheviks the Germans began to form National volunteer divisions within the framework of the German Armed Forces. The Danish, Walloon (a region of Belgium,) the Flemish, the French, the Spanish the Latvian the Estonian and other divisions were formed in Spring of 1943 the Germans together with the OUN – Melnyks formed the Ukrainian division SS Galician Banderovysts considered it to be an act of pure collaboration but Melnyk’s OUN planned this division as the core of the Ukrainian Army which after the defeat of Germany would be fighting for an independent Ukraine. Those plans were doomed to failure and the SS Galician division would be crushed by the Red Army a year later in its first battle at Brody. In summer of 1943 the Russian Victory in the tank battle at Kursk determined the outcome of the second World War. In retreating the Germans resorted to the same scorched earth tactics as had been carried by the retreating Red Army. Stalin played the Ukrainian card a lot more skillfully than Hitler he appealed to the Patriotic feelings of Ukrainians the name Ukrainian was granted to as many as four southern fronts the order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky was introduced the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defence were established in Ukraine the radio kept announcing the formation of The Sovereign national state the Ukrainian SSR. In September 1943 the Red Army approached the Dnipr River. Stalin regarded those who happened to have fallen under German occupation as potential traitors that is why all men aged between 18 and 50 were mobilized and without any training sent to the forward battle lines where they became cannon fodder during the assault crossing of the Dnipr the Soviet forces against suffered enormous and utterly unjustified losses as Stalin had given the order to liberate Kyiv by the anniversary of the great October socialist Revolution On November 6th the units of General Vatutin entered Kyiv The order was fulfilled Nikita Khrushchev (1894 – 1971)
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964

made an announcement to the Soviet people:

The war with the German occupant

United our Nation even more strongly

around a Communist Party

under the guidance of a great and wise leader

Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953)
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1941 – 1953)

In the course of the following months

the Red Army controlled all of Ukraine. During the second world war approximately 700 towns and almost 28,000 villages were destroyed in Ukraine. The war’s heavy toll was almost 5.5 million civilians. The soldiers of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) owing to the support of the local population waged a guerrilla war with Soviet power until the early 50s. Many were killed and many more were sent to the Gulag – Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej
“Main Camp Administration.” That struggle would only have a symbolic Dimension because the fates of Nations the borders of states and the zones of influence would be determined by the Soviet Union, The United States of America and Great Britain. In February 1945 in Yalta it was Stalin who turned out to actually be the conquering hero allowing the USSR to enlarge its territory and Moscow’s control almost of Central Europe for almost half a century. On the 30th April 1945 Adolf Hitler committed suicide a few days later the Third Reich of Germany capitulated. At the parade of Victory the heroes of the 4 Ukrainian Fronts marched across Red Square in Moscow. Every fourth Soldier out of 6 million Ukrainians fighting in the ranks of the Soviet Army

had been killed. However

not all the outcome of the second world war

was so terrible. For propaganda reasons and in order to keep a semblance of sovereignty Stalin introduced Ukraine to the United Nations with the status of the founding member, but the most crucial fact was that the territories which had belonged to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania before the second world war appeared within the borders of the Soviet Union. In such a way for the first time in many centuries Ukrainian lands became united. Part IV Independence With the termination of WWII the mutual goal which had united the Soviet Union with it’s western allies ceased to exist. Soon after the so called Cold War (1947 – 1991) broke out. Accompanied by an escalating arms race And political confrontation between two hostile blocks a socialist block headed by the Soviet Union and the Capitalist one led by the United States Suspicion as a result of many years of indoctrination and hostility towards everything coming from the west became deeply embedded in the mentality of the Soviet people the war had completely ruined the economy and social structure in Ukraine and the ethnic composition of republic has also Undergone dramatic changes after the addition of Eastern Galicia Volyn Zakarpattia and Northern Bukovyna Ukrainian territory connected all the lands where ethnic Ukrainians resided nevertheless with the Holocaust migration and forced deportation resulted in a change i n Ukraine’s multiethnic population Into one that was homogeneous however to fill the gaps in manpower caused by the war and to re-enforce Soviet power in the newly annexed western regions Moscow sent 100,000 of workers, employees and Party Staff from Russia to Ukraine In the second half of 1950’s Russians constituted 16% of the population in Ukraine and 20% by the end of 1980’s Poles living in the territories now annexed by the Soviet Union were permitted to go to a new Communist controlled Poland at the same time about 450,000 Ukrainians were transported from Poland to the Soviet Union to evict the most obstinate Polish Security Forces together with NKVD
(Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del)
The People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs resorted to acts of violence and in some cases murder The UPA activities in the border territories were intended to prevent Ukrainians from deportation to the Soviet Union In 1947 the communist government of Poland carried out the notorious Operation Vistula (Polish: Akcja “Wisła”) in which a policy of collective responsibility was applied on the pretext of the struggle against the UPA 150,000 Ukrainians were forcibly relocated to Northern and Western Poland Where it was hoped they would lose their national identity The elite consisting of approximately 4000 people first had to go through the Jaworzno Camp. this was the way in which the Ukrainian problem was to be sold in the People’s Republic of Poland. However despite all the displacements and persecutions Ukrainians succeeded in preserving their national identity Today in a free Poland the Union of Ukrainians is active fully enjoying the rights granted to national minorities Immediately after the war it became the top priority for the party leadership in Kyiv to bring the population of Western Ukraine into line with Soviet norms accelerated industrialization of the region began oil and gas extraction industries as well as coal mining were developed and a center of automobile construction was built at the same time forced collectivization of farms was completed (which started in 1941) Approximately 300,000 enemies of the Soviet Regime were exiled to Siberia in the 1930’s The Greek Catholic Church was earmarked for abolishment due to its connections with the West and its influence upon the Ukrainian National movement. If Sheptytsky’s funeral in 1944 was attended by many priests in a big ceremony then soon after in two years (1946) all the top clergy including Sheptytsky’s successor Metropolitan Josyf Slipyj (1893 – 1984) were interned in camps in Siberia. In March 1946 a group of priests recruited by the NKVD Convened a synod which proclaimed the break with Rome and ordered the dispirited apostates back into the fold of the Orthodox Church. The Communist party cast of the Patriotic rhetoric which would prove so crucially important during the war other pre-war practices were also restored another THIRD Famine of 1946-1947 which caused nearly 100,000 deaths in Ukraine still didn’t have any effect on the Soviet propaganda the exhilaration brought about by victory over fascism and the accompanying expectations of a more conciliatory approach on the part of the regime were soon stamped out by the repressive measures These affected those groups who have either demonstrated signs of patriotism during the war or experienced life in the West Not only those prisoners of war who had managed to survive Nazi captivity but also the soldiers who had taken Berlin were exiled to the Gulags the same happened to 300,000 Ukrainian ostarbeiters – “Eastern workers” out of 1,000,000 of those who had returned home from Germany only to be imprisoned the struggle against cosmopolitanism in culture *In March-December 1947, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) U was L. M. Kaganovich, and under it the Stalinist regime reached the height of its brutality. Zhdanov Doctrine
was a Soviet cultural doctrine developed by Central Committee secretary Andrei Zhdanov in 1946. It proposed that the world was divided into two camps: the “imperialistic”, headed by the United States; and “democratic”, headed by the Soviet Union. The main principle of the Zhdanov doctrine was often summarized by the phrase “The only conflict that is possible in Soviet culture is the conflict between good and best”. Zhdanovism soon became a Soviet cultural policy, meaning that Soviet artists, writers and intelligentsia in general had to conform to the party line in their creative works. Under this policy, artists who failed to comply with the government’s wishes risked persecution. The policy remained in effect until the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953. stripped Ukraine of more than 10,000 people of culture. The lightning form of reconstruction of Industries in economy following a new Five-Year Plan created a potential in Ukraine that was equivalent to those of Western Europe but this production served not the people but the armed forces in the ever growing arms race with the West along with the rapidly growing industrialization it ran in parallel with the return of the ideological course and ruling strategies of the 1930s resulting in growing fears of another great purge. The frightening atmosphere ended on the 5th of March 1953 when in every town and every factory and every farm workers would mourn the death of the leader and teacher of the Soviet People Comrade Stalin The struggle for power actually started at his coffin the winner of this contest was Nikita Khrushchev a Russian whose Party career was closely connected with Ukraine Khrushchev was the leader of the Communist Party of Ukraine from 1938 to 1949 By Stalin’s order he had supervised The purges in the party as well as The annexation of the Western Ukraine After the war he led the fighting against the UPA and guided the subsequent rebuilding of the economy it was Ukrainian Party structures that gave Krushchev their decisive support in his struggle for power. Their support resulted in Ukraine’s growing importance in the Soviet Union and also the ukrainization of the Republic’s Party elite Ukraine’s privileged status became particularly obvious in 1954 during the pompous celebration of the – 300 Anniversary of Pereyaslav Treaty Ukrainians were granted the status of a nation second among equals according to historian Orest Subtelny The role of Ukrainians as Russia’s younger brothers was deceptively reminiscent of the idea of Little Russia in 19th century an idea which succeeded in completely obscuring the uniqueness of Ukraine Love declarations of the eternal fraternity of the two nations was substantiated by turning Crimea over to Ukraine this generous gesture now made Ukrainians co-responsible for the fate of the Crimean Tatars Tatars who constituted the indigenous population of the Crimea had been brutally deported to Central Asia in 1944 by the order of Stalin under the pretext of their alleged collaboration with the Nazis during the war the falsehood of those accusations was finally admitted in 1967 the movement of the Crimean Tatars under the leadership of a prominent dissident Mustafa Dzhemilev (born 1943) waged a lengthy struggle for their right to return to their native Crimea the Tatars started returning on a mass scale only at the end of the 80’s at present about 200,000 Tatars live within Ukraine in the Crimean autonomous republic although many problems still remain unsolved Mustafa Dzhemilev: We precede with the belief that Ukraine has to acknowledge according to the Constitution that the Crimean Tatars from this acknowledgement with all the legal consequences ensuing belong to the indigenous people of Ukraine The 20th Congress of the Communist party in 1956 and the secret report of Nikita Khrushchev (who ordered Stepan Bandera’s assassination in 1959) ushered in a new epoch in the history of the Soviet Union Khrushchev criticized at great lengths the personality cult of Stalin and openly referred to his crimes mass terror and repression although Soviet foreign policy maintained a hard line and the Soviet Union sent troops to Budapest in 1956
(Hungarian Revolution 23 October – 10 November) in order to suppress popular anti government demonstrations the Internal Policy relaxed slightly

and a period of the so called Thaw began (early 1950s to the early 1960s) a whole generation of young intellectuals arose in Ukraine known as the 60’s Lina Kostenko (born 1930) Ivan Drach (born 1936) Dmytro Pavlychko (born 1929) Alla Gorska (1929 – 1970) Vasyl Stus (1938-1985) Irina and Igor Kalinets (1940-2012) Ivan Dziuba (born 1931) Horyn brothers Viacheslav Chornovil Yevhen Sverstyuk and many many others shaped and modeled in the following 30 years the center for the development of oppositional thought they called for the guaranteed freedom of creative activities for the development of national culture and for rehabilitation of victims of Stalin’s purges including writers banned in the 1930’s (Hryhorii Kosynka, levhen Pluzhnyk, Oleksa Slisarenko, Mykola Zerov) Khrushchev’s epoch was also a time in the experimentation in the economy the large scaled project of developing uncultivated and neglected lands

The Mazie Campaign (Virgin Lands)
widespread planting of maize, which became known as kukuruznik – derived from the Russian word for maize – kukuruza. brought about dubious if not disastrous results however, there were also some victories The Soviet Union launched the first satellite into space Sputnik Oct. 4, 1957 In 1961 Yuri Gagarin (1934 – 1968) was the first man to orbit the Earth in a spaceship a Ukrainian Sergey Korolev the Constructor General of the Soviet spacecraft played a great role in those achievements the conquest of space was enthusiastically acclaimed all over the Soviet Union before long the first Ukrainian cosmonaut Pavlo Popovich (1930 – 2009) went into space however numerous failures of the home and foreign policy such as the confrontation with the USA in Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct 16, 1962) the breaking off of relations with China and the hardships caused by poor harvests in 1963 resulted in Nikita Khrushchev being dismissed from power in 1964 Leonid Brezhnev (1906 – 1982) became leader of the Soviet Union Brezhnev’s rule of almost two decades was a period of economic stagnation russification and corresponding limitation of the Union’s Republic’s rights Khrushchev ‘s 10 year rule radically changed the Soviet Union partial deStalinization and partial rehabilitation of his victims were carried out Although the Gulag kept functioning
(the Soviet forced labor camp system) and the dissidents were being locked up in mental hospitals mass terror was brought to an end and political murder became less quorum to a certain extent the Thaw in Ukraine outlived Khrushchev’s reign but the first indication of a much harder line russification of education together with political prosecution in the Western Ukraine appeared in the last years of his rule one of Khrushchev’s last decisions significant for Ukraine was the appointment of Petro Shelest (1908-1996 ) as the first secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee Shelest was a store would communist whose top priority that always been the interests of the Soviet state however he could never reconcile himself with Ukraine’s status as a Soviet colony so he consistently sought to guard its interests in the Soviet Union Shelest believed that along with economic development the granting of greater freedom to Ukrainians in the sphere of culture and language would benefit both Ukraine and the Soviet Union the general opinion that Shelest tolerated the 60s and even sympathized with them it is supported by the fact that repressions were rather limited during his time in power and the Thaw continued without doubts he also pursued personal goals in his policy the increased importance of the Soviet Ukraine would have simultaneously reinforced his own position in central party bodies the arrests and prosecutions of the young intellectuals in the 1960s were the reaction of the authorities to the growing activities of the 60s the power structures of the
state could not put up with either Samizdat – the unauthorized publications or their contacts with the Ukrainian
diaspora in Western Europe the United States and Canada it was through these very channels but the main work of the dissident movement Ivan Dziuba’s (born July 26, 1931) Internationalism or russification?
(London, 1968, and “Motherland” magazine
(ukr. “Вітчизна”), 1990, No. 5-7) became renowned in Ukraine and abroad the author quoting Marx, Engels and Lenin criticized russification practices in Ukraine and provided the opposition with the legal arguments for criticizing the leadership Alongside the rebellious intellectuals an independent worker’s rights movement was being formed as far back as the early sixties strikes used to break out in various towns of both the eastern and western Ukraine unfortunately these two movements didn’t coordinate their efforts they acted separately and failed to give birth to such a phenomenon as the Polish solidarity movement it was only 30 years later but the two streams joined to become a force which affected the future of the entire Soviet Union meanwhile the expanding autonomy of the Soviet Ukraine under Petro Shelest began to disturb the Kremlin Shelest accused of the lenience towards Ukrainian nationalism was quickly losing influence to Volodymyr Shcherbytsky (1918 – 1990) who embarked on a campaign aimed at crushing the Ukrainian intelligentsia at the beginning of 1972 and only a few months later superseded Shelest as the first secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee within several months Chornovil, Stus, Dziuba, Kalynets, Svitlichny, Sverstiouk and almost 100 other prominent figures of the Ukrainian national and cultural Renaissance found themselves in prisons and camps the punishment was monstrously harsh from 8 – 12 years of imprisonment the generation of the 1960s was crushed one part of the activists became extremely radical and went underground a handful of people joined the dissident movement a small group which included Mykola Rudenko
(poet 1920 – 2004) Levko Lukyanenko
(1928 – 2018) Oles’ Berdnyk (author
1926 – 2003) Vasyl Stus by setting up The Ukrainian Helsinki Group (9 November 1976) and thus continued fighting for human rights in Ukraine Although very soon most of them were arrested and exiled the group persevered in it’s activities in 1988 it was reformed as the Ukrainian Helsinki Union the first oppositionist organization in the Soviet Ukraine that acted publicly Volodymyr Shcherbytsky continued to implement Brezhnev’s policy in Ukraine after the removal of Shelest nothing prevented the authorities from russification of education reducing the number of Ukrainian newspapers magazines and publishing houses or from making professional careers and promotion dependent upon a person’s knowledge of the Russian language and new community was being formed the Soviet people with no room for nationalists ego so any manifestation of patriotism was regarded as an example of socially dangerous nationalism and separatism anything with a hint of the past cultural originality of the Ukrainians was either banned or destroyed this was only relaxed at the beginning of 1980s the ideas of the intellectuals who were fighting for human rights and the preservation of the national identity didn’t find any noticeable support in society as a whole for the rank-and-file Soviet citizens looking back on the times of Brezhnev’s rule as a period of peace and relative stability the citizens of the Soviet Ukraine could take pride in their smaller motherland Ukraine was placed second-best in the Soviet Union in terms of the economy and production his political influence remained very strong and many Ukrainians enjoyed fame and prestige by now an outstanding engineer Eugene Paton who died in 1953 was a pioneer in the field of electric welding and bridge construction airplanes designed by Oleg Antonov the famous AMS became the trademark of the Soviet aviation industry today Antonov’s enterprises are still the pride of the independent Ukraine they produce the world’s largest cargo aircraft Ruslan and Mriya long before Antonov a Kievive Igor Sikorsky (1889 – 1972) was renowned in the field of aircraft construction before WWI he designed his famous airplanes the Russian Vityaz (Hero) and the gigantic four engine aircraft Ilya Muromets just before the outbreak of the first world war following his emigration to the USA Sikorsky constructed the first helicopter in the world which proved to be extremely efficient in the Second World War regularly updated Sikorsky’s helicopters are still in service in the US Armed Forces Ukrainian film directors also succeeded in winning fame Olekdandr Dovchenko’s successor Sergei Parajanov (1924 – 1990) Yuri Ilyenko (1936 – 2010) Leonid Osyka (1940 – 2001) Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors
(1965) The White Bird Marked with Black (1971) The Stone Cross (1968) represented the Ukrainian cinematographic school both of the Soviet Union and abroad by their respective films from the end of the 1970s the inefficiency of the Soviet Union was becoming increasingly obvious although the official propaganda kept reporting on its achievements the economy was strict by stagnation while the Cold War’s arms race had exhausted it still further the intervention of Soviet troops in Afghanistan
Soviet–Afghan War (1979 – 1989) and the introduction of martial law in Poland marked the idealized image of communism in the West these and other reasons forced the Soviet leadership to change course the guarantor of the changes was to become the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev (born 1931)
In office
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989 who was elected in 1985 his reforms were based upon ideas of perestroika and Glasnost – “open publicity” that is to say upon the radical transformation of the country’s
political and economic system alongside a greater openness and transparency of public life the reforms were intended to modernize the Soviet Union to strengthen the state’s economy and to make society more democratic and less repressive however a staggering blow that befell
the country soon compromised the reforms and accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union it was also a tremendous shock for the rest of the world On the 26th of April 1986 in the town of Pripyat 130 kilometers to the northeast of Kyiv a nuclear reactor exploded at the Chernobyl atomic power station over 50 tons of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere The contamination zone vaster than that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Spread over the Chernobyl area Then over Belarus Scandinavia and other European countries More than 30 people were killed immediately by the explosion A further 100,000 were evacuated from the contamination Zone it is still impossible to estimate more or less precisely All the long term aftereffects of the disaster The authorities attempted to conceal the scale of the disaster for a long time on the 1st of May when the radiation level in Kyiv reach its peak A mass demonstration to celebrate the May Day holiday with school children’s mandatory participation was arranged in a television address Gorbachev referred to the nuclear disaster as an accident the official confirmation of the accident only came on the 9th day after the explosion “You all know that a serious misfortune has happened to us a serious accident in the Chernobyl atomic power station this disaster is a painful experience for the Soviet people and has shocked the international community the cynical lies of the party leadership together with the hypocrisy of the new policy of Glasnost urge the people to take that “openness” into their own hands the Chernobyl disaster equipment public activity which eventually exceeded the limits set down by perestroika the reforms only accelerated the centrifugal processes in the union’s Republics which were spiraling out of Moscow’s control although Ukraine was not in the frontline of the ongoing changes as the Baltic republics were the focal point of change for the time being still the country’s political and economic importance made a decisive impact of the decent aggression of the Soviet empire more and more organizations appeared in Ukraine at first they were mainly ecological ones but later were those calling for the preservation of the native language and culture were formed the movement soon assumed the character of another nationalist Renaissance the demands which were put forward included granting the Ukrainian language official status revealing all the victims of Stalinist purges in Bykivna Forest on outskirts of Kyiv
one of the unmarked mass grave sites where the NKVD, the Soviet secret police, disposed of thousands of executed “enemies of the Soviet state” from the early 1920s until late 1940s
(up to 225,000 people) rehabilitating the writers repressed in the 1930s and publishing their books and last but not least breaking the conspiracy of silence concerning the Great Famine (Holodomor 1932-1933) the year 1987 saw the commencement of the release of political prisoners from jails and camps Levko Lukyanenko was elected the head
of the Ukrainian Helsinki Union Viacheslav Chornovil and the Horyn brothers contributed to the compilation of the Declaration of Principles a program that contained along with cultural demands a number of political demands such as the transformation of the Soviet Union into a confederation of sovereign states democratic elections
the transition to a market economy cultural and religious autonomy and the guarantee of the Independence of the courts these were the programmes minimum demands later adopted by most other reform groups in Ukraine the members of those groups represented a wide range of political backgrounds from intellectuals to writers of the 60’s the success from young party members to extreme nationalist anti-communist organizations with their unambiguous demand for independence but had but marginal importance before 1990 the election campaign to Parliament and to local self-government bodies consolidated and mobilized the opposition forces according to the patterns of popular fronts in the Baltic republics the Ukrainian opposition
movement have been meant to serve the cause of perestroika officially the People’s Movement was supposed to be the link that united the party’s reform program released from above by changing the Soviet Union through the initiative of the masses the Constituent Congress of “Rukh” movement held in September of 1989 voiced clear-cut demands of unconditional independence for Ukraine nevertheless a program which proposed Ukraine to be sovereign and not a fully independent
state was finally adopted it meant that the relations between Ukraine
and other Soviet republics would still be determined by a new Union treaty the formation of “Rukh” marked a great victory for the opposition soon Mikhail Gorbachev dismissed Shcherbytsky – the first secretary of the Ukrainian
Communist Party Central Committee and Parliament granted an official status to the Ukrainian language on December 1989 after 43 years of courageous service in the underground The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church had it’s rights restored in the western Ukraine people exhumed the many victims of Stalinist terror and arranged their decent Christian reburial on January 22 1990 (since January 22 1919) to commemorate the anniversary of the Ukrainian state reunion Act from 1919 Rukh organized a tremendous living chain formed by over a million people joining the two historic capitals of Kyiv and Lviv however in the elections to the local self-government councils the Democratic bloc obtained only twenty five percent of the seats in parliament only in the Western Ukraine the Democrats won all the seats in local elections and hoisted a blue and yellow flag on Lviv’s Town Hall on April 3 1990 on the 16th of July Parliament adopted the Declaration of sovereignty of Ukraine within the structure

of the Soviet Union and so anti-communist attitudes and aspirations of independence began to gain momentum in the country

new political parties sprang up whilst monuments to Lenin were pulled down and Soviet flags were being increasingly replaced by Ukrainian banners in the meantime the Soviet based
system had already collapsed in Poland Hungary and Czechoslovakia and the Berlin Wall had fallen the second Congress of Rukh put forward a new goal to gain full independence through a peaceful protest a hunger strike of students in the center of Kyiv supported by mass demonstrations forced the authorities to remove the claws of prime minister Vitaliy Masol and removal of the governing role of the Communist Party from the Constitution the most entrenched communists wanted to suppress the protesters with the help of the army as will be the case in Riga and Vilnus news but the new head of the Parliament Leonid Kravchuk emphatically condemned such an idea by that time differences in perceiving the nature of the relationship between central government in Moscow and the Republic’s had become quite obvious while Gorbachev sought to preserve the Soviet Union at any price the Republican leaders such as Kravchuk or Yeltsin wanted to do away
with the central bodies and the constitution of the USSR and instead signed bilateral agreements of cooperation directly between sovereign Republic’s the results of the old Union referendum held in March 1991 provided the nationalist communists with additional reasoning although 70% of the population of the Soviet Ukraine voted for the preservation of the Soviet Union as many as 80 percent supported the idea of strengthening the national sovereignty of Ukraine the local authorities in Western Ukraine mostly Democrats added one more question do you support the unconditional independence of Ukraine yes was the answer of almost 90% of respondents after the referendum a surge of strikes swept across the republic the strikes were mostly of a political guarantor workers of the east of the south including the miners of the Donbas were demanding independence for Ukraine under blue-and-yellow banners it is very likely that Ukraine would not have been able to leave the Soviet Union by itself but then the effects of the 19th of August 1991 gave further support following the attempted coup d’etat of conservative communist hardliners aimed at overthrowing Gorbachev and doing away with perestroika although the coup was soon suppressed it made people aware of the possibility of return to Stalin years of suppression this became another reason for finally breaking away from the Kremlin strip decision of the Ukrainian Parliament of the 24th of August 1991 was accompanied by mass demonstration almost unanimously Parliament proclaimed the independence of Ukraine on the 1st of December over 90% of the citizens taking part in an all Ukrainian referendum confirmed the proclamation and voted for their country’s independence on the next day Ukraine who was recognized by Poland, Hungary and Canada and the short time later by other countries – how did it happen that the Independence came so relatively easily and without bloodshed Gorbachev had tried to reform the Unreformable system by his perestroika as soon as the repressive system gave way supported by terror and fear began to crack for different reasons independents who sought by both the Republic’s Party elite and the Democratic opposition by the nationalists of the western Ukraine and the coal miners of the Donbas whatever the reasons they all had one common goal independence at the time of the referendum a presidential election was held Leonid Kravchuk wanted convincingly having defeated among others the leader of Rukh Vyacheslav Chornovil soon afterwards the Ukrainian Parliament – Verkhovna Rada approved the national flag emblem and after all having been previously proposed by the Ukrainian People’s Republic of 1918 to 1920 the referendum turned out to be the last nail hammered in the coffin of the Soviet Union on the 8th of December 1991 in Białowieżkaya Pushcha, Belarus (Forest) Boris Yeltsin (1931 – 2007) on behalf of Russia Stanislav Shushkevich on behalf of Belarus and Leonid Kravchuk on behalf of Ukraine dissolved the Soviet Union and proclaimed the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States while Yeltsin may have regarded the
Commonwealth as the USSR – II Kravchuk looked upon it as the Soviet Union’s liquidation committee when Boris Yeltsin said to me Gorbachev entrusted me with asking you a question will you sign the new Union Treaty if all the amendments you wanted were included I answered no I will not sign any new treaty only one month ago I would have signed it but now that the referendum had
been carried out in Ukraine and the
90 percent of the people have voted for
independence and I have been elected president of an independent Ukraine how can I possibly act against the will of the people it is out of the question tell me if you were in a similar situation would you sign the union treaty he said no I wouldn’t sign it either that is why in contemporary history and Yeltsin knows it too and Russian historians write about it the main cause of the breakup of the Soviet Union was Ukraine the beginning was not easy for the youngsters Ukrainian industry integrated as it had been

with the industries of the other republics of the USSR

became paralyzed and unemployment rose sharply as a result the Moscow Central Bank curtailed any further delivery of rubles leaving the fledgling government with a pension crisis that had attempted to deal with by the printing of makeshift money in the form of coupons the effect of which was to trigger enormous inflation and panic buying which led to the disappearance of the most basic essentials from the shelves in 1994 in the atmosphere of social tension the date of the presidential election the victor Leonid Kuchma (born 1938) was brought forward went on to serve two terms as president a qualified engineer and director-general of Yuzhmash (Dnipropetrovsk) – The Production Association Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov one of the world’s biggest producers of spacecraft and missiles President Kuchma had already proved his ability to deal with crises by saving the Ukrainian aviation and missile industry from bankruptcy later his efforts would bear fruit in the shape of a joint American Ukrainian project termed the sea start but upon being sworn in as president Kuchma was faced with an even greater problem the poverty and despair of the Ukrainian people Kuchma’s undeniable achievements include introducing the HRYVNIA (UAH) The word is thought to derive from the Slavic griva; meaning “mane”. It might have indicated something valuable worn around the neck, usually made of silver or gold. the national currency reducing inflation regulating the market and launching economic reforms

and privatisation measures and of course the adoption in 1996 of the new constitution of t Ukraine one effect of the revival
of the economy was a sudden boom in construction which also saw the restoration and rebuilding of churches and temples which had been destroyed or neglected under communism Kuchma also introduced a more flexible foreign policy and strengthened the position of Ukraine in the international arena he made a great contribution to the improvement of the relations between Kyiv and Warsaw and whilst eager to cooperate with the European Union also sought to preserve
good relations with Russia however in crises such as the Crimea problem or Russia’s attempt to claim sovereignty over the Ukrainian island of Tuzla he adopted a firm and uncompromising position it is still too early to give an objective unbiased assessment of Leonid Kuchma rule the opposition accused him of an authoritarian style of government of the further stratification of society and of unfair privatization programs which led to the creation of business clans that gained control over the economy and exerted an ever-growing influence upon state policy he was also accused of attempts to limit the freedomof the media and of applying the brakes on the process of economic and social reforms it should be borne in mind that similar phenomena occurred to differing degrees not only in all the former Soviet republics but also in almost all those satellite states of the Warsaw Pact wherein the privatization was introduced was the party and government nomenclature first and foremost who profited the most for they had all the necessary knowledge and connections as well as access to capital in this fashion a powerful and confident bourgeoisie was formed which is Russia was termed the oligarchy Ukraine was no exception to this phenomenon according to the Constitution Kuchma could not be nominated for a third term two contenders passed through to the
second round of the presidential election on the 21st of November 2004 Viktor Yanukovych the Prime Minister and the leader of the party the regions of Ukraine represented the east and the south of the country Yushchenko (born 1954) the ex Prime Minister and the leader of the party

“Our Ukraine” represented its Western center Yushchenko was backed by a very popular politician Yulia Tymoshenko (born 1960) an ex Vice Premier Yushchenko also enjoyed the sympathies of the West Yanukovych was president Kuchma’s candidate and had the obvious support of Moscow the announcement of Yanukovych’s victory gave rise to an enormous resistance on the part of the opposition and accusations of falsifying the election results the huge wave of protests against the verdict of the central electoral board has become known as the Orange Revolution (2004) owned to the mass-media the photos from Kyiv’s Maidan were transmitted all over the world the revolution made Ukrainian media a free and trustworthy intermediary between the establishment and the society resisting pressure Kuchma refused point-blank to contemplate the suggestion of military reprisals against the opposition he asked the presidents of Poland and Lithuania a representative of the European Union and the Speaker of the State Duma of Russia to act as intermediaries the Supreme Court of Ukraine passed the decision to repeat the election and held a third round of voting Viktor Yushchenko won the election by a margin of 8% of votes We are facing a new trial now another trial for us all there’s very little time left until the new elections until the election to the Verkhovna Rada a lot depends on how we will go through
the elections whom we will support in local municipal and regional soviets whom we will elect to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine everything will depend on it The orange coalition did not pass the test of time and failed to meet the expectations of its supporters because of the internal clashes of the politicians personal ambitions the parliamentary election brought the majority of votes to “The party the regions of Ukraine” its leader Viktor Yanukovych (born 1950) was appointed prime minister Ukraine’s political scene is prepared for a lot of new surprises as the country is still divided and heterogeneous the formation of unity out of disparate it has occurred in many states and more often than not it took a lot of time it is the formation of natural identity the process is still in
progress in Ukraine for the first time an independent sovereign state this gives the chance
a great chance. If our film effects in whatever small degree the development of this process then our efforts in making it will not be wasted.

Comments 100

  • С петром 1 были 25 000 запорожцев под руководством ПАлия и Искры …это все православные казаки, а униаты то мазепенцы …

  • Від щирого серця, Дякую Вам за цей Шедевр! Ця праця не даремна, він багатьом відкриє очі! Прекрасна робота!!!😙

  • Шановні це шкільна програма тільки за поребриком як попугаї повторяют слова царя окраїна гавань хтось кукарекает да Москву заснував син Володимира Мономаха Київський князь Юрій Володимирович Долгорукий брати враждували між собою і Долгорукий рішив це питаня і назвали держава Московія а в Севастополі була стела назнаю чи вона зараз існуе на ній було Здесь 14 июня 1783г заложен город Севастополь морськая крепость юга Украини

  • хоть говорят о русификации украины в советское время но это неправда я училась в сельской школе с 1972 года а потом с1980 года в училище то все предметы были на украинском языке отдельным предметом шли русский язык и литература иэто север украины тобиш черниговщина

  • Де знайти оригінал без перекладу?

  • КАКОЙ НАФИГ ПЕРВЫЙ КНЯЗЬ КИЕВА ОЛЕГ В КОНЦЕ 9 ВЕКА КОГДА ДО НЕГО МОРЕ КНЯЗЕЙ КИЕВСКОЙ РУСИ БЫЛО! А ПЕРЕД РЮРИКОМ АСКОЛЬД ( ПОСЛЕДНИЙ ПОТОМОК КИЯ ЧИТАТЬ ЯНА ДЛУГОША И ДРУГИХ ) ПОСТАВИЛ ВИЗАНТИЮ НА КОЛЕНИ И КРЕСТИЛ КИЕВСКУЮ РУСЬ КИЕВ В 860-Х КОТОРЫЙ ИМЕЛ СВОИ КОЛОНИИ! В КИЕВЕ СОХРАНИЛАСЬ ИЛЬИНСКАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ КОТОРУЮ ОФИЦИАЛЬНО ЗАПИСАЛИ ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЕ В 944 А В ЛЕТОПИСЯХ ОНА УПОМИНАЕТСЯ ЕЩЕ ПРИ АСКОЛЬДЕ КИЕВЛЯНЕ ОТМЕЧАЛИ КИЕВУ 3000 ЛЕТ В 70-Х ГОДАХ ПОКА ПРИКАЗ ИЗ МОСКВЫ О ЗАПРЕТЕ НЕ ПРИШЕЛ И НОВОЙ ДАТОЙ ОСНОВАНИЯ ЯКОБЫ 482 ГОД ЧТО БРЕД ПОТОМУ КИЕВ ЗА ТЫ ТЫСЯЧЕЛЕТИЯ ДО ЭТОГО УПОМИНАЛСЯ В РИМСКИХ ИНДИЙСКИХ ГРЕЧЕСКИХ ХРОНИКАХ А ДО НАШЕЙ ЭРЫ В КИЕВЕ БЫЛА РИМСКАЯ СТАВКА И ГОРОД НАЗЫВАЛСЯ"ЗАГАРИУМ" (СЛОВЯНСКИЙ КОРЕНЬ) И ПЕРЕИМЕНОВАЛИ В КИЕВ ПОСЛЕ ПРИХОДА КИЯ С БРАТЬЯМИ ИЗ ПЛЕМЕНИ ПОЛЯН КАК ГОВОРЯТ УЧЕННЫЕ ЕГО ПРИХОД БЫЛ МЕЖДУ 200-249 ГОДУ.ПРЕДКИ УКРАИНЦЕВ АНТЫ (АНТИЧНЫЕ) И ВОЕВАЛИ И СЛУЖИЛИ ВИЗАНТИИ И МНОГО ИЗВЕСТНЫХ ПОЛКОВОДЦЕВ БЫЛО СРЕДИ АНТОВ .ДАЖЕ ПРИ СССР ПИСАЛОСЬ ЧТО КИЙ НЕ СТРОИЛ КИЕВ А ПРИШЕЛ В ГОРОД НА ГОРАХ В КОТОРОМ УГАДЫВАЛОСЬ ЕЩЕ БЫЛОЕ ВЕЛИЧИЕ НО ОН БЫЛ ПОЛУРАЗРУШЕН А ЖИТЕЛИ ЕГО ПЛАТИЛИ ДАНЬ.В ТО ВРЕМЯ ВРАГАМИ АНТОВ БЫЛИ АВАРЫ КИЙ ИЗ ПЛЕМЕНИ ПОЛЯН ОБЬЕДЕНИЛСЯ С АНТАМИ И РАЗБИЛ ВРАГА ОСВОБОДИВ КИЕВ ОТ ДАНИ .ЕЩЕ 1-7 ВЕКАХ КИЕВ БЫЛ РЕЛИГИОЗНЫМ ЦЕНТРОМ СТОЛИЦЕЙ АНТОВ И ПОЛЯН ЧТО ЗАФИКСИРОВАНО В ВИЗАНТИЙСКИХ АРАБСКИХ ГРЕЧЕСКИХ И ДРУГИХ ХРОНИКАХ! ПО ВЕЛЕСУ КИЕВУ БОЛЕЕ 2700 ЛЕТ А ПОД САМИМ КИЕВОМ ДРЕВНИЙ ГОРОД С ДОРОГАМИ ЦЕРКВЯМИ И ТАК ДАЛЕЕ И ИНДИЙСКИМИ НАДПИСЯМИ КОТОРОМУ БОЛЕЕ 10 000 ЛЕТ.И АНТЫ ПРЕДКИ УКРАИНЦЕВ И ПОЛЯНЕ ПОТОМУ ЧТО ОНИ СМЕШАЛИСЬ ДРУГ С ДРУГОМ С ТОЙ ЛИШЬ РАЗНИЦЕЙ ЧТО АНТЫ БОЛЕЕ ДРЕВНЕЕ РАННЕСЛОВЯНСКОЕ ПЛЕМЯ А ПОЛЯНЕ БОЛЕЕ ПОЗДНИЕ СЛОВЯНЕ. ЕСЛИ ОТКРЫТЬ КАРТУ СЛОВЯН ТОГО ВРЕМЕНИ ТО НА КАРТЕ ЧЕТКО ВИДНО ЧТО ТЕРРИТОРИЯ АНТОВ (АНТЫ ВЕНЕДЫ СКЛАВЕНЫ) ОХВАТЫВАЛА ЗЕМЛЮ УКРАИНЫ ВКЛЮЧАЯ КИЕВ И ЧЕРНИГОВ ВОЛЫНЬ ЧЕХИЮ МОРАВИЮ ПОЛЬШУ БЕЛАРУСЬ (ЧАСТЬ).АВТОРЫ ФИЛЬМА КРАСИВО ЛИЖУТ ЖОПУ РОССИЯНАМ ЗАЯВЛЯЯ ЧТО ПОСЛЕ 1240 ГОДА КИЕВСКАЯ РУСЬ ИСЧЕЗЛА И ПОЯВИЛАСЬ РУСЬ-РОССИЯ. И ЕЩЕ РАЗ ПО ПОВОДУ СЛАВЯН АНТОВ И ПОЛЯЕ ПРЕДКОВ УКРАИНЦЕВ .АНТЫ СЧИТАЛИСЬ СКИФИЕЙ КОТОРАЯ ВЫХОД ИМЕЛА ОТ КРЫМА А ПОЗЖЕ ПРЕДКИ УКРАИНЦЕВ АНТЫ И ПОЛЯНЕ СМЕШАЛИСЬ С САРМАТАМИ ТАКЖЕ КАК И СКИФЫ ИРАНЦАМ .ВСЕ ЭТО ПОДТВЕРЖДАЕТ АНАЛИЗЫ ДНК УКРАИНЦЕВ ИРАНЦЕВ И БЕЛОКОЖИХ ИНДУСОВ. И ВОТ ЕЩЕ ПО АНТАМ А́нты (др.-греч. Ἄνται) — название раннеславянских племён IV—VII веков, применявшееся византийскими писателями VI—VII веков. Полиэтнос, объединение древнеславянских племён, имевший зачатки государственности (вождя Божа, знать, войска) уже в IV веке. При Боже они наносили поражение готам, но были разгромлены войсками Амала Винитария (Витимира или Германариха) в IV веке. Упоминаются в византийских и готских источниках VI—VII веков (до 602 года н. э.) ВРЕМЕНА КОГДА НАШИХ ПРЕДКОВ ЗВАЛИ АНТАМИ НАЗЫВАЛИСЬ КИЕВСКОЙ ЧЕРНЯХОВСОЙ КУЛЬТУРОЙ И ПОВЛИЯЛИ НА РАЗВИТИЕ РУМЫНИИ МОЛАВИИ БОЛГАРИИ ПОЛЬШИ И ТЕРРИТОРИИ НА КОТОРОЙ НАХОДЯТСЯ ПСКОВ СМОЛЕНСК И ТАК ДАЛЕЕ.Основной ячейкой общества у славян-антов являлась община, называемая в летописи «род». Из общины выделяется слой воинов-профессионалов («вои»), которые в летнее время занимались военными набегами на Византию и другие территории. Воины объединялись в небольшие отряды по несколько сот человек («дружины»), которые, соединяясь, могли образовывать армии до 1—2 тысяч человек. Во главе отрядов стояли вожди (князья и «воеводы»), обладавшие особым авторитетом («славой»).Небольшие жертвенные ямы антов находились при селениях, местами культа были рощи, водоёмы, деревья и камни. В праздничные дни приносились бескровные жертвы богам — продукты питания. Жрецы произносили молитвы, связанные с урожаем. Производились гадания. Главным божеством антов и полян был Перун. Протогорода антов.К антскому времени относят переименование Киева, имевшего значение религиозного и племенного центра. Пастырское городище (название города не известно).В антское время возникает и город Волынь[28] на Западном Буге, известный как поселение воинов и центр племенного союза волынян. «Грады» ещё не имели роли торговых центров.Здесь проходили веча, религиозные праздники, пиры, а крепости служили для обороны. Князья антов(самые известные) Следует учитывать, что все дошедшие до настоящего времени имена антов (как и сам этот этноним) известны лишь в древнегреческой, латинской или иной иноязычной интерпретации того времени.Ниже приводится список установленных на сегодняшний день князей антов:

    ок. 375 г. Бож (Бус ) захоронен в Киево – Печерской лавре. 560-е гг. Идаризий

    560-е гг. Мезамир

    560-е гг. Келагаст Известные анты

    Дабрагез (ср.-греч. Δαβραγέζας, Доброгост) — военачальник на службе у Византии в 554 и 555 гг. (Агафий, История III,6,9; III,7,2; III,21,6)

    Усигард (ср.-греч. Ούσιγαρδος, Всегорд, Усиярд) — военачальник на службе у Византии в 554 и 555 гг. (Агафий, История III,6,9; III,7,2)

    Леонтий (ср.-греч. Λεόντιος) — сын Дабрагеза, военачальник в 556 г. (Агафий, История IV,18)

  • Круте відео! ♥

  • Слава Украине!!!!!!

  • Хто ставить "дізлайк"? Спалити нафіг!!!!

  • Не визнали США Голодомору 1932, як геноцид українців

  • The не треба там, From Rus to Ukraine

  • Археологи проводили роскопки Куликовской битвы не было

  • Дуже доречне кіно,як страждав народ України і землі і все Сама велика біда рахую були комуняки Сталін сука добре що здох і надіюсь в аду це гниле створіння

  • И как можно не было понимать сейчас , что истинный враг Киевской Руси- Украины это Россия, в любом её виде.

  • Па не мате правду в одному . Чому при першому щитані ліді Москву Монголи не знали такого міста ?А лише при другому Монголи напишуть що існує місто Москва . Москву заложив Мунге Тимур підкінець 13 століття .

  • Дякую за відео! Стосовно того, що обличчя Ярослава Мудрого ( 4:30 на відео) було відтворено на підставі його черепа, вже є спростованим. У документальному проекті "Україна. Повернення історії" є цілий випуск, у якому проводять масштабне дослідження та відтворення його зовнішності – варто подивитись! 🙂 Додаю посилання нижче https://youtu.be/vcs_wzmfv38?t=6300

  • чудово коротко про історію

  • Конечно не даремно, зно сдам 😀 (Кто досмотрел до конца поймет)

  • Круть!!! Більше б такого відео

  • фільм ЧОРНОБИЛЬ

  • Помітно,що автори поляки

  • Трипільців та Скіфів не зачепили – ще до Олега багата історія буда і Київ був

  • Нарешті, історія за європейським зразком, а не за московською методичкою! Дякуємо!

  • На моем канале биографии(самые разные,исторические)

  • Дякую, те що треба)

  • В 1938 году, у меня прадеда раскулачили – суки…

  • дяки!

  • Ярослав мав інший вигляд.  Встановлено на основі хронік Ватикану, сучасними методами норвежської лабораторії  і нашими українськими фахівцями

  • Давайте так браты Россия и Украина империя. Я с Кубани, мы помним наше братство, только от вас ничего не слышно, только обвинения, за единичных уебанови вообще не Кубанцев.

  • как раз завтра ЗНО!

  • Коли готуєшся до ЗНО дуже допомогає

  • Яка ж все таки у нас трагічна і водночас героїчна історія ! Є кого згадувати і на чому повчитись .

  • Чому на початку ХХ ст. всі розосередженні українські армії не зайшли в Київ і не закріпилися в ньому ?! Якби відстояли Київ , то мали б плацдарм для звільнення всієї України. Всі ж прагнули незалежної держави. Замість того щоб кинути більшість наявних сил на оборону східних рубежів , розв'язали непотрібну війну з поляками . Ехх , з далеку краще видно помилки , а тоді нещасні люди не знали кому вірити і що робити . Читаючи українську історію серце обливається кров'ю !!!

  • Не, ну завтра ЗНО по истории, грех не посмотреть.

  • Через час ЗНО, я пересматриваю фильм ))

  • Не поганцi а язичник, той що розмовля в, писав та думав.

  • Привет из КАЗАХСТАНА!!!

  • Сильный фильм,бедная Украина и несчастные украинцы сколько горя перенесли.

  • Слава Украине! 🇺🇦

  • Байда він же Дмитро Вишневецький заснував січ не в 1552,а в 1556 помилка.Перевіряйте матеріал коли монтуєте відео !!!

  • Бред ! Хватило посмотреть пару минут . Какой Рюрик ? Кто это ? Почему о нем даже варяги ничего не знали ? Очередной совковский ложь , придуманный Рюрик что бы хоть как то привязать Новгород к Руси . Дальше не стал смотреть . А по поводу Киева , то байка о братьях и сестре это для туристов . Кто то знает кто такой Бальтазар? Он же waliusa-rus . Король гуннов умер примерно в 300 годах на одном из холмов современного Киева , где была основа крепость kiyowa-uruss . Аха ха успел досмотреть до шапки Мономаха и до основания мясквы типа Долгоруким , какая выдумка все знают что мяскву основал Менгу Тимур , и что мясква была всего лишь улус Золотой Орды и платила дань Крыму до 1700 года . Хватит людям голову забывать ложью . Таких авторов и их видео нужно сажать за ложь в истории .

  • "the" перед "Ukraine" лишняя. Она искажает значение.

  • Дуже гарний фільм. Але деякі речі зрозумілі тим хто уже знає історію України, бо здається деякі речі просто вирізані. Дуже різкі переходи з одного історичного періоду на інший.

  • Фильм хороший,но не покидает ощущение,что упущено или опущено что-то большое и важное.

  • Шедевр

  • Хороший фільм..

  • Росія немає право на існування

  • ото ж так похрестили русь,що з 12мiльйонiв населення,залишилося всього три.iнакше можна сказати,що русь хрестилась вогнем та мечем.

  • Як тільки Україна хотіла вдихнути на повні груди, відразу нечість готувала нову провокацію або війну. Дуже шкода, що така кривава наша історія.

  • Велике дякую за цей шедевр.

  • Русь українська

  • А Росія украла назву

  • Щиро дякую вам за таку роботу! Відео корисне не лише тим,що дуже інформативне, але й тим,що пробуджує національну свідомість!!

  • Слава Украинской земле!!!

  • за восемь минут истории, я узнал больше чем за 7классов в своей школе)(()

  • Фильм очень интересный!

  • Ось вона рідна мова
    Не та тарабарщина котру нам (цензура)

  • Ждём 4 фильм

  • Україна це бар'єр між Росією і заходом а ми розплачуємось за це ніхто непозволе Україні перейти на чеюсь сторону

  • Очень мало про черный шлях и про кафу сколько там замучили в рабстве украинцев думаю миллионы и кто задавил эту чуму

  • Жаль казаков но плюс в том что было уничтожено крымское ханство ну представьте сколько жизней они сгубили да к не просто убили а продавали на своих базарах представьте эту муку

  • Як пан поляк файно сказав на 33-ій хвилині. То є чиста правда.

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIYWjZT890E&t=1s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RnTG60bYVY&t=47s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6_IG1dAd6g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL4djqCHXNQ&t=16s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyHF2qWfyXs&t=34s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWgT2jE9Unc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL4djqCHXNQ&t=25s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNsm1HNBU6Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qY47pwlRkcs&t=9s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rW5V0R4bM0s&t=9s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4VzOVLkGA&t=1s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IjdIGOaOTM&t=37s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WASvILLYpzo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GaV6p8EIEo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxH0dHSRlrY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OPBc2YRvhY&t=8s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHBBxuPcbfw&t=101s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ac-BjcILCbA&t=52s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXHUzn8tvFc&t=3s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGqSf36Yzog https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhiDWoESsW0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bF-XRa_VZWY&t=16s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5hH-VQyBq0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1RsoHDfMP0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dgg_qgeS4BA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfiJsQwRj3E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkNvgs-0oks&t=58s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTG6VZEJcKw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3dBy1fFlac&t=25s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5mR5mcPF2TY&t=23s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hB7vMPBW8cM&t=21s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTPzXjkoqzU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsswyCjLYHE&t=178s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWU6VS3kNSg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mx6Vy1aAyeg&t=76s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH5DUe7ITpw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dqx_GcQaMQg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKkJfy40nHE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7G8wi8iQTYI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSXsTH1vOmQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4r_5h8r7ZMM&t=13s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8P9vqv0sTg&t=123s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH5DUe7ITpw&t=1s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SyKtWx3kLqE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8wpJGY-ZjnA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKXXkzd0ysw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEsdP_2itXI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWU6VS3kNSg&t=2s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6Wv3_aVIFI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKW2aRjZtjI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwU68nYQ0SQ&t=24s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OPBc2YRvhY&t=9s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUvRkiwd9YM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUvRkiwd9YM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTG6VZEJcKw&t=1s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4VzOVLkGA&t=2s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyHF2qWfyXs&t=43s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwctPH51M7Q&t=10s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vw6gp96WTMY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6s1g97DPtc4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PGsGkjilsc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUY5LhV1iFw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6iaETigj4Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6wH5ts9nQWY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RYlXzViIRc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSzGhheWq3U https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzA_CbUGoGg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOtmK9zFHj0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4K0yY6Chdvs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4VzOVLkGA&t=3s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPs1LmMXXIU&t=18s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRZY7mxI26I&t=15s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNsm1HNBU6Q&t=13s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyHF2qWfyXs&t=46s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIA1aY40vSo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4LtPumA5mA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCziAFSx_Cs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDffLC52r1g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QK_9kUocRnY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PoQ31MUNgR8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJoxGKVOKN8&t=61s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0X-zLah28E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sp-uJp97xfY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMye7TzOjoA&t=104s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q956m2hIVn4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9er-SPSTac https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N76QAp577Pg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGCxidt0Yf8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhOonbM6k-s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KObzSusGYVE&t=74s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkckm4HMfqM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6y5CEJC_Mo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hB7vMPBW8cM&t=22s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhkmeF2AIso https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cp376xq2AzI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4K0yY6Chdvs&t=19s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnnsAPzv2K4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yt9nryKe1Hs

  • Монголо-татары владели украинскими землями только 80 лет с 1240 г. до 1320 г. когда владыка Литвы Великой Гедимин изгнал Орду из Киева и обширных земель южнее и восточнее. В 2020 году 700 лет как украинские земли развивались своим отдельным от Московии путем – почти 250 лет практически самостоятельно до Люблинской Унии. Когда в начале 17-того века поляки получили право поселятьса на украинских землях и начались серьезные противоречия.

  • Дякую за історію,мову,правду.Яке ж паскудне слово москва.Слава Україні!!!

  • Так компактно представлена історія України нашьої Неньки. Велика подяка за фільм та історичні документальні кадри. Булоб добре ,щоб уряд подивився цей фільм. Можно передбачити діі сусідки,та не повторити помилок. Бо зараз начеб то ,теж саме відбувається. Особисто улибнуло, обіцянка про вихід с союзу. Ну чьогош ми такі довірчіві ,стільки часу на тіж самі граблі наступаємо. Пртзив.,,до джерел!,, актуалін і зараз. Хай уся ця боротьба не буде даремной. Історія яка має 5000термін.

  • Цікаво,Геращенко дивилась цей фільм,щоб припам,ятати що е дійсне політичне прислідування і справжня диктатура це стасується і інших совкових політиків які ,кажуть що зараз , забороняють російську мову. То подивиться як заборрняли українську ,якщо маєте очі.

  • Фільм в кратчайшиі часи розтавляє усі точки над ,,і,, та показує, хто був ворогом народа україни справжнім,а хто як той птиця фенікс піднімався з руїн і боровся за відродження УкраїниРус.

  • Дуже цікавий фільм

    🇺🇦 🇺🇦 🇺🇦 🇺🇦 🇺🇦

  • Є ідея створення документально художній фільм про історію України до історії Київської Русі

  • до олега был аскольд

  • З самого початку ролика, багато помилок. Відразу видно що історик, який задумав це відео, не українець. І мало знається на ранній історії Русі.

  • Я так розумію,що це офіційна версія історія.Та щось мені підказує, що не все так просто, як воно ту пишеться.Наприклад ,що до монголо татарського іга,так його і не було,бо московія то і була Золота орда і таке інше

  • Є питання,а де білоруси??

  • Украина станет самой сильной и мужественной страной. Это обязательной будет.

  • Слава Украине !!! Слава народу Украины !!! Слава Свободе !!!

  • Московська версія історії України.
    Так звана "Шапка Мономаха" – це дорога тюбетейка золотординського царя Узбека, подарована підвасальному правителю Московського улуса Ивану Калиті.
    Дата заснування Москви 1147 сфальсифікована. "У цей час літописець записав тра-та-та, бла-бла-бла".
    Дата заснування Москви не була відома ще до Катерини другої, при якій придумували (фальсифікували) історію Московії, а заодно й історію України. А їм потрібна була дата заснування Москви до нашестя Батия 1238 року.
    І тоді в Мусіна-Пушкіна раптово з'являється, "куплене по дєшьовкє", а насправді сфальсифіковане "Слово о полку Ігоревім".
    А потім вони туди заднім числом вставили під 1147 рокам слова Юрія Долгорукого, але не ті, що в відео, а дослівно "прийди до мене брат в Москву". Оригінали старих літописів не зберігся ні один. Про це було написано в передмові до друку "Полного собрания русских летописей" в 1840-х роках. Всі літописи "згоріли при пожежі в Москві 1812 року". Самі літописи були в Санкт-Петербурзі, але згоріли в Москві.
    Просто загугліть "Москва 1272" і більш нічого. І ви дізнаєтесь коли і при якому хану , насправді, заснована Москва.

  • Перша згадка України 1187 рік,в києвському літописі. Коли помер князя то плакала за ним вся Україна.

  • скрепоносцы нам не братья, это 100%

  • Дякую за об'єктивний фільм, пазл історії потроху складається )))) раніше не вдавалось того досягнути .

  • Досить неоднозначна концепція викладу історії України! Опущені суттєві нюанси, які показують окремішність України-Русі від Московії-орди! Сучасний російський письменник і публіцист М.Веллер пише – Москва-не Русь! Москва – Улус!

  • Пиздеж не было никаких Рюриковичей а Москву построили татары в 1247 г.для сбора дани и переписи населения мордовской Московии.

  • фільм Ірландець МАЛЕНЬКА ІТАЛІЯ

  • Без Украины Россия не стала бы империей,золотые слова!!! Только Россия окончательно потеряет Украину,сразу превратится в московское царство))) СЛАВА УКРАИНЕ!!!!!!!!!!!

  • А я б дуже хотіла, щоб такі фільми були доступні і російськомовним.

  • А звідки прийшли слов,яни у ці землі?

  • Дякую за таку роботу

  • А як правда що була слов,янська мова ,то скажіть де була тоді теперішня і завжди існуюча українська?

  • Те відчуття, коли Україну хотіли захопити та знищити, але щось завжди йшло не так 😉

  • Вже в перші дні війни Вінниччина стала прифронтовою. З оголошенням військового стану та мобілізації до армії на Вінниччині спішно створювалися мобілізаційні збірні пункти. Для боротьби з ворожими диверсантами-парашутистами, а також охорони важливих господарських та військово-оборонних об’єктів у місті був сформований, переважно з цивільного населення, винищувальний батальйон з 300 бійців. На підприємствах утворювали групи сприяння винищувальному батальйону. Бійці допомагали розчищати руїни, транспортувати поранених у шпиталі та лікарні, ховали вбитих. Більшість бійців не мала бойового досвіду, не вистачало озброєння, однак вони загалом виконували своє завдання. З наближенням лінії фронту частина бійців винищувального батальйону влилася в ряди діючої армії, підпільних груп та партизанських загонів.

  • Це ще раз стверджує,що історію мож трактввати як хто хоче і як треба, але мені ця версія подобається , правді бути правдива історія Українського народу не така приємна , але хай і ця версія не цукор але самооцінку піднімає.

  • Цей матеріал потрібно ввести до шкільної програми

  • Спасибо, все доходчиво, единственное при разъяснениях в тех или иных исторических реалиях, нужно рисовать границы территории государства на тот момент.

  • 2:05:50 #романшухевич

    Ярослав Галан

    Убитий у робочому кабінеті. Смерть спричинили 11 ударів сокирою по голові, причому більшість з них була нанесена вже після смерті. Оголошувалося, що приводом для вбивства стали антиклерикальні памфлети письменника. Василь Кук, командувач УПА та сучасні дослідники припускають, що

    ❗❗❗ замах організували співробітники МДБ з метою дискредитації націоналістичного підпілля в очах громадськості. За офіційною радянською версією вбивство вчинили два бойовики ОУН-УПА, один із яких, Михайло Стахур, був особисто знайомий із письменником. Микита Хрущов особисто інформував про смерть Я. Галана Йосипа Сталіна, причому для «колориту» сказав, що вбивці користувалися гуцульською сокирою-барткою.

    Вбивство погіршило становище львівської інтелігенції та студентів і пришвидшило ліквідацію націоналістичного підпілля на Західній Україні, ❗❗❗ зокрема вбивство Романа Шухевича радянськими військами у березні 1950 року. Після смерті Галана були заарештовані десятки львівських студентів. Але загалом, за винятком арешту в грудні 1949 року Олени Степанів та Ярослава Дашкевича, яких заслали, ця хвиля репресій не мала дуже руйнівних наслідків для місцевої інтелігенції.

    Багато дослідників обставин загибелі Галана, зокрема заступник декана історичного факультету Львівського національного університету імені Івана Франка, кандидат історичних наук Роман Генега, стверджують, що переконливих доказів, які б свідчили про пряму причетність керівництва українського підпілля до знищення публіциста немає.

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