presents A documentary series by
Andrey Loshak InterNYET: A History Of The Russian Internet
Episode #6 In the late 2000s, the government began to pay closer attention
to the Russian Internet’s leader, the Yandex company. It was particularly concerned by the Yandex News project,
which generated the top news of the day. I remember accompanying [Yandex CEO Arkady]
Volozh to the presidential administration. LEV GERSHENVON, YANDEX NEWS DIRECTOR, 2008-2012:
I asked him, ‘You have such a powerful business, why go there? If they need something, let them come to you.’ Volozh was a very successful businessman in the ‘90s;
he worked without [mafia protection] in the late ‘80s. Even a geek like me knew that if you kowtow to them,
they’ll never let you back on your feet again. Lev Gershenzon ran Yandex News for a few years. What made the service unique was that it generated
news automatically, based on an algorithm. In 2012, Yandex’s daily audience exceeded that of [state-run] Channel One. Everything that appeared in the top news became a matter of state importance. If we talk about the news, then, the year of 2011 was a landmark: [Vyacheslav] Volodin took over the position [first deputy chief of staff]
from [Vladislav] Surkov [in the presidential administration]. Volodin was much more effective.
There were no more letters or calls, like in Surkov’s time. The news aggregator is a secondary service.
They started purging the sources. Hello, welcome to Lenta.ru.
I feel like an idiot every time I say this b——-. There are some people on the left. I have no idea what they’re doing here. On the right, there’s nothing. By the late 2000s, Lenta.ru had become
the Russian Internet’s main news outlet. During breaking news events, like the 2011 protests
in Moscow or the 2013 revolution in Ukraine, its audience size was comparable
to those of federal TV channels. What’s that s— on the screen over there?
Oh, it’s Channel One. GALINA TIMCHENKO, LENTA.RU EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, 2004-2014:
We had 3 million [views] a day in January and February 2014. On March 12, they told me good-bye.
That was their way of saying thanks. I didn’t need gratitude. I was working for a salary.
That’s when I realized I was done. The Kremlin would never let an independent media outlet
become the most popular in the country. They would never let any independent player have an audience
comparable to Channel One – 25 million real viewers per month. A quarter of Moscow’s residents were Lenta readers.
Twenty percent of St. Petersburg’s residents, too. Our editor-in-chief sits here.
There’s everything you need here, in theory. It’s called the teachers’ lounge. Instead of working, they screw around here.
That’s basically our job, too. IVAN KOLPAKOV, LENTA.RU CHIEF OF SPECIAL CORRESPONDENTS, 2012-2014:
Imagine that there’s a certain spectrum. The most radical pro-Kremlin groups are here;
the most radical opposition is here; and Lenta is here. The government starts beating up on the opposition. Who did they start with? They shut down
and blocked Grani.ru, blocked Kasparov.ru, changed the editor-in-chief of Gazeta.ru,
changed the owner of Kommersant. But if you wipe out part of the spectrum, then it changes. And suddenly moderate, centrist Lenta.ru
became the most conspicuous opposition media outlet. Lenta was then part of [Afisha-Rambler] SUP,
owned by Aleksandr Mamut. With the start of [Ukraine’s 2013-2014]
Maidan [protests], the presidential administration urged him to get rid of Ilya Azar, who covered the events in Kyiv. Timchenko refused to fire one of her best reporters. Mr. Volodin called up Mr. Mamut and said to him,
‘You don’t quite understand, so get it straight now: Either you get rid of this problem
or you’ll become the enemy and not them.’ Mamut came into the room and said,
‘Petr, go outside.’ They sent Petr out into the corridor. The president of Rambler. And [Mamut] says to me,
‘Galya, you’re no longer the editor-in-chief of Lenta. As you know, I wasn’t looking for someone to replace you.
But I thought Aleksei Goreslavsky would be a good replacement. I don’t have the levers to play with the Kremlin.
I’m not [oligarch Vladimir] Potanin. I don’t have a Norilsk Nickel.’ I said, ‘I see.’
But for the moment, there was no Goreslavsky. He is, of course, a unique character in the Russian
Internet [industry]. Simply a man without a face. I set up an editorial meeting.
[Editor] Liza Surganova asked what we should do.
He is, of course, a unique character in the Russian
Internet [industry]. Simply a man without a face. I set up an editorial meeting.
[Editor] Liza Surganova asked what we should do. I said to write the news fast so that
no one will beat us to publication. The first meeting with the new
editor-in-chief was absolutely humiliating for him. Not for you?
No. I wouldn’t like to be in his shoes. It was filmed and the recording given to Slon.ru. That’s when a new genre appeared:
a transcript of an editorial meeting with vampires. Just tell us plainly what the investor wants.
Why doesn’t Galya suit him? Spit it out! What didn’t he like about Lenta.ru?
Tell us point by point, without fudging things up. – They didn’t tell me that.
– You should have asked. – I’ll ask when I have the chance. – What didn’t they like about Lenta.ru?
Everyone’s already confirmed our traffic growth, even you. We were moving like [race-car driver Michael]
Schumacher in his fifth season. – Wait, Schumacher is in a coma. Out of Lenta’s 84 employees, 77 left after Timchenko. It was the largest editorial exodus
in the history of Russian media. Timchenko moved with part of the team to Riga, where she
launched Meduza, one of the top publications on today’s Russian Internet. Thanks to my own government. They tried
to destroy the media industry more than completely. After leaving Lenta.ru, its former special correspondent, Svetlana Reyter,
went to work for RBC, but a similar story happened there two years later. The news outlet’s owner was pressured after it published
an article about [Russian President Vladimir] Putin’s relatives. As a result, the publication’s executives
left the company, followed by many journalists. Svetlana Reyter is currently working for the BBC’s Russian Service. Nine months at Lenta.ru, then RBC,
then Reuters, The Bell, the BBC. It’s the usual path of a Russian journalist who tries to do her job. I didn’t listen to my mother [who urged me to become]
a businessperson or a manicurist for a steady income. I have a new job every year. We are going to build a great company,
We believe that there is a place in our world for [a] global technology company born in Russia.
Hi, guys! Everything will be found! In 2011, Yandex held a successful IPO. For the first time,
a Russian company had gone onto New York’s NASDAQ stock market. It’s understood that the Internet has a bright future. – Do you think so?
-Of course. After the IPO in 2011, Volozh shaved off
his mustache and was full of optimism. But the future turned out quite otherwise. Good afternoon. VIKTOR LEVANOV, BLOGGER: A question about Yandex.
Every day, it publishes Yandex’s top five news stories from other websites, and tens of millions of people see them. However,
Yandex itself does not have a mass media license. It can’t be held responsible under the law. I’m not proposing to shut it down or anything else,
but I wonder when our government will start to take
decisions to protect us from cyber-aggression. It’s not so simple about Yandex.
You should ask them what they can or cannot do. They were also under some pressure
when they had just started working. There should be so many Americans,
so many Europeans there. They had to agree to that. That’s the way life [on the Internet] is.
It was constructed by the Americans. They made this. All this came up at the first stage, at the dawn of the Internet
as a CIA project, and that’s how it’s still developing there. After these remarks by Putin, Yandex’s shares
on the New York stock exchange crashed by 10 percent. In a day, the company lost about a billion dollars in capital. The inventor of the World Wide Web refuted the idea that
the Internet was a CIA project at a conference to mark the web’s 30th anniversary. TIM BERNERS-LEE, WORLD WIDE WEB CREATOR:
I don’t think that people across the world believe that the Internet was a CIA creation.
The people who have spread the Internet, in fact, are … It was spread very much by the grassroots, so it’s the
academic community who wire up their universities. They established connections between different universities. So in the countries where there is the Internet,
it’s because it was put together by smart people, well-meaning people who did it
because they thought it would be really a good idea. A few weeks after Putin’s sensational statement,
lawmaker [Andrei] Lugovoi came up with another initiative: identifying search engines as mass media.
That would place a number of limitations on Yandex. In connection with this, a letter has been sent
to the Prosecutor General to request a check of Yandex and to verify relevant activities by mass media. And what was the point of checking mass media? Well, it’s simple. The concept [for classifying
Yandex as media] was that the search engine, essentially, is taking the place of mass media — and not only mass media. For the sake of fairness, they delayed this topic for a while. But I don’t know what things will be like later. Let’s see. That is, you think that they could still
also recognize [it as media]? Go that far? Well, it’s likely. The 2016 law on news aggregators passed
by parliament forced Yandex.News to index only media registered
by Roskomnadzor [media regulatory agency]. Information that didn’t suit the authorities almost
disappeared from Yandex’s top news stories. Pro-Kremlin media were now able to develop stories that were open propaganda. ALEKSANDR PLYUSHCHEV, JOURNALIST:
You can have 10, 20, 30 lapdog media, often called ‘junk media,’ and use them to make any kind of story. It’s enough to just give them a headline and write similar text. The Yandex robot can see if you’re publishing the same
text, you so need to tweak it a little bit to fool the robot. These propaganda stories are made
by the troll factory in St. Petersburg. If you look at their editorial offices’ addresses, they’re often the same. ‘Neurotic [Lyubov] Sobol
and her necrophile husband torture their little daughter.’ – Is that a real headline?
– Yes, here it is. Would I invent something like that? The address is St. Petersburg … Now that’s one, let’s find the second one.
Here it is: St. Petersburg, Helsingforsskaya Street. – This is the same address, right?
– Yes. Building number 4, office 27H. Let’s find another one. Just a second. Slovo I Delo [Word and Deed]. The address: Helsingforsskaya Street, of course.
Of course, Helsingforsskaya Street. Yandex News is now mostly a big online propaganda tool.
It’s not a pure news aggregator. It only includes sources that have been
identified as mass media. Its news picture of the day is generally
based on this agenda distorted by the state. Lev Gershenzon, the former head
of Yandex News, took part in the 2012 protests. He resigned from the company before the law on news aggregators
was passed and left for Berlin, where he works in a search startup. Some products, like Yandex News, are just a shame.
It doesn’t matter why, it’s just how it is. It may be a combination [of things], but it turned out as crap. If something’s turned out as crap,
you either need to fix it or get rid of it. – But they probably don’t allow getting rid of it, yeah?
– Well, I’d say that they don’t and they won’t. ANTON NOSIK, RUSSIAN INTERNET PIONEER:
Yes, they have no problem with bankrupting Yandex or destroying Yandex. They have no priority. They’ll be demanding
new things from Yandex every day: Clear illegally banned content from the cache,
for example. This has already been done. In 2009, Yandex removed its blog rating
just so that the authorities would stop calling. I don’t think it will ever amount to
a direct conflict where they’ll need to shut down Yandex. I think they’ll sooner need to shut the Internet down. Human relations are very important.
It’s very important to preserve relations with a person. ILYA SEGALOVICH, YANDEX CO-FOUNDER:
To preserve some kind of decent and kind atmosphere. Ilya Segalovich was loved by all Yandex staff. A brilliant programmer, leader, and visionary,
he embodied the company’s spirit. However busy, Segalovich took active part in the work
of Maria’s Children, a charitable project for orphans founded by his wife. Struggling with cancer in 2012, Segalovich,
the father of five adopted children, spoke out actively against the Dima Yakovlev law
[that banned U.S. adoptions of Russian children]. This is very personal to me. It deeply worries me.
I strongly disagree with this law. It’s a complete mess. We have to do something, fight.
I’m going to fight against it. The law was passed. Ilya Segalovich
died of brain cancer six months later. His passing became a grievous loss
for all the Russian Internet. ALEKSANDR BYKOV, YANDEX EMPLOYEE:
Over the past year, I’ve had the impression that Yandex lost its heart in many ways. VLADIMIR IVANOV, YANDEX EMPLOYEE:
What has disappeared? A source for the lightness of being.
It was Segalovich who created it. ARKADY VOLOZH, YANDEX FOUNDER:
It was good. It was very good. Good and right. And fun. And deep. With the introduction of the 2012 law on banning websites,
the media regulatory agency Roskomnadzor became the main source of censorship. Russian Internet users hated the agency. The prominent online encyclopedia of Internet subculture and memes, Lurkomorye,
became the first major website to be banned by the authorities. ‘Immolate improved’ means that its ability
to resist is extremely low. WTF is ‘fire resist’? The people of Kharkiv should live in a comfortable city.
The text is a bit idiotic. Misha, we’ll rewrite it. You’ve got a boring face.
No one will give you money. The borsht is good. There’s cabbage, but no beets.
Then, sausages, some good tea. It quenches the thirst so well I feel like a human being. An article about marijuana was Roskomnadzor’s
first reason to block Lurkomorye. Over 450 articles have been blocked since then. DAVID KHOMAK, LURKOMORYE FOUNDER:
For example, an article about donuts. An article telling how to ride on the subway for free. An article about the army because
it said you could dodge mandatory service for a bribe. At some point, I was getting 10 letters a week. Then, the courts pitched in. They found completely
random words in random articles and blocked them. They faked their reports because they had to block more
items in a given quarter than in the preceding one. Khomak blocked the articles as Roskomnadzor
demanded, but the bans never stopped. Eventually, the founder of Lurkomorye declared
the project would be archived. In memory of the encyclopedia, Dozhd TV
used its slang in a news broadcast. A sudden butthurt: crazy, hundreds [of barrels] of oil have
dropped in price to levels that only old fags remember. It seemed to have cost recently 150 bucks per barrel, but
today you can buy a barrel of decent oil for less than $90. At some point, the authorities changed their focus from
the encyclopedia to its founder. Khomak had to emigrate to Israel. I had no intention to leave, but I faced
several extremism charges. Now, the republic of Adygheya is after me. – Why?
– They didn’t like an article about Adygheya. In 2014, the counter-extremism police called me in
for questioning about an article on [Chechen strongman] Ramzan Kadyrov; then about Molotov cocktails, and they
weren’t going to stop with this. They were trying to find something to charge me with extremism. So I moved, leaving all my stuff behind; even a motorcycle. I consulted with some lawyers, and they said to me, ‘Dude …’
‘You’d better leave right now.’ ? It’s not that anyone particularly needs me here,
but I’m not needed even more there [in Israel]. I was deeply depressed for two years. Now I’m recovering. I didn’t go outside for two years. I was deeply
traumatized by the extremism accusations in Russia. I don’t know how to describe it.
We used to get along fine. Nizhny Tagil
Sverdlovskaya Oblast Most people who think like me live
a thousand kilometers away, or overseas, or some place else. There’s probably not someone on a nearby street I can go visit. LENA KLIMOVA, CHILDREN-404 COMMUNITY FOUNDER:
Many people don’t understand me and ask why I don’t want to emigrate. I like the local climate. I don’t know. I just don’t want to leave,
just don’t want to. In 2013, journalist Yelena Klimova started Children-404,
a community in VKontakte to help LGBT teenagers. Many people talk a lot about how children should be protected, but people forget that there are other children
who also need protection, but they effectively are Error 404. Like a [web]page that doesn’t, though it does. The community initially started as a photo protest
against passing a law against ‘gay propaganda,’ but it soon became a support group of LGBT teenagers. Over 9,000 minors have turned to it for help. After the anti-LGBT law was passed, Klimova
was fined 50,000 rubles [about $1,521]. Bastards, parasites, national traitors,
lesbians, perverts, child molesters, pedophiles. You are pedophiles, a crowd of pedophile bastards. Vitaly Milonov, a lawmaker from the United Russia party,
took a particular dislike to Children-404 and to Klimova personally. He repeatedly called for her arrest
and sentencing to death. He wrote numerous complaints
to the prosecutor’s office demanding the group’s closure. VITALY MILONOV, LAWMAKER:
Children-404, Yelena Klimova: Is she in prison? Is she eating prison food? No, she’s not. She receives grants and feeds off them. We are concerned by the cleanliness
of the information space. It’s high time we used our normal, homophobic spray. I’ve gotten used to it. It snows, it rains, haters write comments, Milonov says I should be executed by a firing squad.
It’s OK. My life is stable. There’s been so much hate talk that Klimova,
tired of reading what they’d do to her, started a project called Beautiful People
And What They Say. It combined the haters’ comments and photos from their
social media profiles. The contrast was impressive. The Beautiful People folder. There were 566 of them up until
I got tired of screening their comments. That’s a father and daughter. ‘You’re not hassled. You should be put
in a blue [homosexual] trailer and burned.’ ‘All the same, I’m not a homophobe.’
‘I’m not a homophobe, but you should be burned.’ My favorite category out of this album is,
of course, photos with children. ‘Die, b—-.’ ‘F—— scum.’ ‘B—-, scumbag.’ In 2015, our group was banned for the first time,
following a ruling by the Central Regional Court in [the Siberian city of] Barnaul. It turns out that, if an offended citizen complains about
some site, the case is heard in the court where he lives. There have already been four or five similar stories. We found out post factum that our group had been
blocked and we needed to start all over again. We give a new group the same name, use the same logo.
It’s only the URL that is different. – You can only block a URL, right?
– Yes, you can block a site’s address, but not everything you are doing. Hello. In fact, a person can be blocked just like online content. You just need to put them in prison. Five yeas ago, parliament
unanimously passed an amendment to [the Criminal Code’s] Article 282. From that moment, online posts could also be considered extremism. Seversk, Tomskaya Oblast Vadim Tyumentsev has many different interests. He studies the connection between trees and the universe,
goes on expeditions for meteorites, and writes about demographic cycles. At the same time, he is unemployed and lives
with his mother and 96-year old grandmother. – You have got to have a job.
– Grandma, you don’t need a job to be able to work. Sweetheart, horses drop dead without a job.
Because their brains [stop functioning]. In the early 2000s, Tyumentsev became an opposition-minded vlogger,
and was soon regarded as a nuisance by the authorities. One morning in early 2015, police special forces
burst into his apartment. VADIM TYUMENTSEV, BLOGGER:
They put me face down on a mattress, twisted my arms behind my back. There was no reason for being so tough
about detaining me. I was in my underwear, to put it bluntly.
I’d just opened my eyes. So they pressed me down. ‘You won’t resist there?’ Transportation Collapse, a day of public anger, will take place
on Lenin Square in Tomsk on January 15, 2015 at 4 p.m. at the New Year’s tree. I propose that you stand up against this abomination. The only way to get the federal authorities’
attention is to block roads. Tyumentsev was charged for two videos: In one, he called for
an unsanctioned rally against corruption in the public transportation system; in the other, he spoke critically about refugees from Donbas. The vlogger was sentenced to five years in prison. Why did the Memorial foundation recognize me a political prisoner? Because I didn’t call for violence or support it.
There was nothing of the kind. YEKATERINA GALYAUTDINOVA, JUDGE:
The court has concluded that, to rehabilitate Tyumentsev nd prevent further crimes, he must be
given the sentence of five years of imprisonment and deprived of access to data and telecommunication
networks, including the Internet, for three years. The sentence is to be served in a general penal colony. – What do you think about my blogging?
– It’s bad. It’s very bad. LYUDMILA MIKHAILOVNA, VADIM TYUMENTSEV’S MOTHER:
Because I know that to go into politics, you need power and money. We don’t have either. That’s it. We are ordinary people. We’re not even a full family.
Your grandmother is old. They have power and money. You’ll never be able to change things around.
Not in this life. Have you ever heard about
[Romanian communist leader Nicolae] Ceausescu? Tyumentsev spent almost four years in prison. While in detention, he finished a book on demographics
that he can’t publish online because of a ban. I’m not allowed to publish anything.
I can use the Internet, but I can’t post anything. While in jail, and before this, I studied science
and came close to some serious discoveries. I found what I call the fourth Kepler law [on planetary motion]. I calculated a regularity in planetary movement that wasn’t known before me. The scientific value of Tyumentsev’s work is unknown,
but he doesn’t look very much like an extremist. The former blogger didn’t understand why the state put him in jail. They have there some kind of their own, internal
indexes [on crime]. Their own indicators. They needed to make their reports.
So, they detained me, put me in prison. The country is fighting extremism. Later, when it was necessary, Putin partly
decriminalized [the Criminal Code’s] Article 282. They released me promptly. The system
just responds to what it’s asked to do. In 2018, the crackdowns in social media became absurd: People were fined and given prison sentences
for memes, likes, comments, and photos. A student from Stavropol was fined and sentenced to administrative arrest
for a picture taken at the World War II history museum. The first picture showed a hall with Soviet flags on one wall
and Nazi Germany’s flags with a swastika on the other. In the first nine months of 2018,
the number of people convicted was over 500. Putin decided to decriminalize Article 282.
There were no more prison terms for memes. Some convicts, like Tyumentsev, were granted amnesty. However, the authorities got what they wanted:
Internet users turned to self-censorship. I deleted everything from my VKontakte account.
There’s nothing left. No videos, no communities that can be seen
as suspicious. No music, no pictures. Yandex is the only company to compete with the American Google and win. – What about China?
– There’s no open competition there. There’s no Google in China. – Ah, well, yes. Just like private users, Internet companies
felt pressure from the authorities. Industry leaders tried to voice their concerns
during a meeting with Putin five years ago. The Internet has been evolving without constraints for the last 15 years. DMITRY GRISHIN, MAIL.RU GROUP BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHAIRMAN:
We’ve developed the mentality of competition and openness. We reject any interference from outside. We have this prejudice, we can say, that nothing good
will come out of any contact with the authorities. – Correct. – In theory, if we could go into hiding,
it’s better to try to do this. – First, it’s impossible to hide from us. Second, hiding from someone just isn’t worthy
of the representatives of such a promising company as yours. Why hide? You should crawl out and talk to us. In 2016, President Putin named online entrepreneur
German Klimenko his advisor on Internet issues. In this position, Klimenko made a series of statements that resonated. In particular, he said that Russia should be ready to disconnect
from the global Internet and that Telegram would, without fail, be blocked. On the right, there’s the Chinese model. Yes, they’ve simply built a border,
and, to cross it, you have to accept the rules. On the left, there’s America and Europe. GERMAN KLIMENKO, INTERNET ENTREPRENEUR, PRESIDENTIAL ADVISOR:
It’s unthinkable that a website there wouldn’t respond to a law enforcement agency’s inquiry.
Unimaginable. It’s called ‘post-moderation.’ There are two ways here: from the right, China with pre-moderation
and, from the left, America with post-moderation. We have to take a side, either on the right or the left. We choose between iPhone or Android. – Will we choose the Chinese model or … ?
– Everyone, everyone will choose the Chinese model. Leonid Boguslavsky, founder of the investment company
ru-Net Holdings, used to be a major Yandex stakeholder. Now, he mostly invests in Western and Asian startups. Last year, his company lost the word ru-Net as part of its name. LEONID BOGUSLAVSKY, VENTURE CAPITALIST, RTP GLOBAL CEO:
The main problem is not that the government tries to regulate things;
it’s what many governments normally do. The problem is how it’s done and communicated. There’s a negative information background that puts
pressure on businesspeople and investors. It feels like there’ll no longer be any good things.
There’ll be only bad things LEV LEVIYEV, VKONTAKTE CO-FOUNDER, VENTURE CAPITALIST:
There are western investors who earlier invested in Russia. Now, they’ve practically all left it. I don’t know many western funds that are
investing in Russian companies. Even if the products aren’t aimed at Russia, the very fact
of having a headquarters or an office in Russia is a red flag. They’ll think about it before they put in money. – Why?
– Because of the political situation. They are afraid. There’s no certainty. – When did it go wrong? It’s my understanding that everything was
growing rather fast in the 2000s and early 2010s. – I think it all started after the events
in Ukraine [in 2014]. Sanctions. – So, there’s a feeling that that was the tipping point, when everything started to fall off, right?
– Yes. There are many investment forums held in Russia,
but they don’t help very much. Last year, foreign investment in the Russian economy
dropped to the level of a decade ago. Investors look into the future with confidence. They understand
the policy carried out by the Russian Federation’s financial authorities. It is stable, reliable, and predictable. Just three months after these words, during an investment forum [in Sochi],
[American investor] Michael Calvey was arrested in Moscow. The businessman with a spotless record
was charged with fraud and put in detention. Three months later, this was changed to house arrest. His company, Baring Vostok, was the first investor in such flagships
of the Russian Internet as Yandex, Ozon, and Avito. It’s not just business. Life here is very interesting.
I love Russian cuisine. I love the anecdotes. Russian anecdotes
are probably the best in the world. – Well, and the women, of course.
We should mention them, too. – Yes, my wife is Russian.
So I voted with my heart in that regard. Last summer, participants at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum
talked more about Calvey’s arrest than about national projects. What investments are there to discuss if a generally respected businessman
is imprisoned on what looks like trumped-up charges? ALEKSEI KUDRIN, AUDIT CHAMBER CHAIRMAN:
Seventy percent of business people think it’s not safe to do business here. It’s tough work. It’s very dangerous and risky. The case of Michael Calvey is an illustration of that. On the one hand, it’s announced that he has an excellent reputation;
on the other, he’s kept under arrest for some reason. How is it possible to carry out an unbiased
investigation at the same time? I’ve called what happened with Michael Calvey
a shock for the economy. It is, indeed, a shock. The capital drain from the country
has doubled since the beginning of the year. ANTON NOSIK, RUSSIAN INTERNET PIONEER:
When Russia is part of the world, the Russian Internet becomes a little better than the global Internet
because it reflects some traits of the Russian character, like, for example, openness to or an inclination
to experiment or disrespect for stupidity. All of Yandex’s projects appeared earlier than those of Google. We’re more courageous, we’re ahead of the pack,
and, yes, in some areas, we’ve invented some things. But when the Russian Internet is wrapped up in barbed wire,
and ‘Russian’ becomes more important than the Internet, then it’s some kind of anticipation of the 1937 Great Purge. In China, they don’t live like that. [Official anthem of China’s Cyberspace Administration] Brightly shine the stars of our loyalty, Day and night, we monitor [Internet] domains, Brightly shine the stars of our loyalty, Our union of Network and Truth is indestructible, In our heart beats the power of the Internet, Innovation flows in our veins, Our mission is to lead the planet forward, Our work is to sow happiness everywhere, The brotherhood of the Network, China all around and nothing more, The brotherhood of the Network, On guard for its prosperity, The brotherhood of the Network, China all around and nothing more.